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An Etymological Dictionary of pre-13th Century Turkish

Sir Gerard Clauson (1891–1974)
Oxford аt the Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Ely House, Glasgow, New York, oronto, !"#$
he G% Clauson&s di'tionary re(ains a )ri(e referen'e sour'e for understanding of the lexi'al
)art of the *rki' languages, that for so(e unex)lained reasons he 'hose to 'all urkish, a ter(
fro( the long gone Otto(an ti(es% New )u+li'ations on the ety(ology of the *rki' languages
had ex)anded the ,eld and the s'o)e, leaving G% Clauson&s work a +asi' referen'e 'o()endiu(%
he intent of this )osting is to fa'ilitate sear'hes- no )roofreading nor editing has +een )erfor(ed,
+ut the OC. errors are (ostly syste(i', and on'e they +e'o(e 'lear u)on a ,rst en'ounter, they
are easily understood- the P/0 i(ages hel) resolve any dou+ts, they are ne'essary to understand
'ontent of the ta+les% Prefa'e and a++reviations are ne'essary to understand stru'ture of the
di'tionary and its 'ontents- the hel) )rovided in the a+le of Contents is of a (ost rudi(entary
nature, it was added for this )osting to dis)el the (ystery of the arrange(ent of words in the
1e are o+ligated to G% Clauson for a nu(+er of his o+servations that have not rea'hed or have
not sunk into nu(erous enter)rising linguists who )ursue their )et theses not ne'essarily driven
+y unalloyed s'ien'e% 2n that, G% Clauson stands in a line of other resear'hers who (ade linguisti'
dis'overies as a result of their detail studies, dis'overies in a sense that they 'ontravened the
a''e)ted wisdo(s and were un)redi'ta+le, i%e% dis'overy )er se% 3ost of the( are stated in the
Prefa'e, dire'tly or +y referen'e% wo +asi' li(itations severely handi'a))ed G% Clauson&s hori4on,
na(ely the Ursprache 0a(ily ree (odel and the eastern Urheimat theories% hese do'trines
hinder the sour'e +ase, li(iting it to ex)loration of the sour'es dis'overed in the !5th and !"th ''%
6n understanding that Euro)ean and 7% 6sian sour'es )rovide an ex)anded view on the ar'hai'
*rki' languages would have o)ened for resear'h vast unex)lored sour'es that extend way
+eyond Herodotus and 6ssyrians, and would dou+le or tri)le the G% Clauson&s self8i()osed ti(e
de)th% 6t ti(es, this +lindness is s'rea(ing, G% Clauson uses *rki' allo)hones to de,ne *rki'
ety(ology, ste))ing over s'rea(ing 'ognates without addressing the(% he exa()les of su'h
un+elieva+le +lindness are too nu(erous, yer and earth, bod and body, bag and bag, kiv- and
give, kut and God, i and !, to na(e 9ust a few% his kind of (yo)ia not only trun'ates the de)th of
the study, +ut also )re'ludes insights a:orded +y the ex)anded sour'es%
2n G% Clauson&s ter(inology, early or ar'hai' )eriod refers to the oldest written do'u(ents, it is
unrelated to the histori'al )eriods% he tra'es left in the Euro)ean and Oriental sour'es are not
any less telling, and it is a))arent that the ;re'onstru'ted< PG =Proto8Ger(ani'> for(s of urkis(s
are 'lose allo)hones of the real western *rki' for(s, with so(e 'orre'tion for reality? the PG
@ertho is a slight distortion of the real yer and earth, the PG Proto8Ger(ani' @geba" is a 'o()osite
of the root and suAx of the real kiv- and give, and so on% Nu(erous words, 'ited +y G% Clauson as
un'lear for(, or odd+all, or rare, are in fa't unre'ogni4ed reli'ts fro( the western verna'ulars% 6
nu(+er of the *rki' suAxes ter(ed ;rare< are also the suAxes en'ountered in the western
languages, a(ong the( the 6nglo87ax% 8#ic, Engl% 8#ike, 'o((on Ger(ani' 8e", Engl% 8i$%i"g, and
so(e (ore% hese for(s, do'u(ented fro( Bth '% 6/, )redate and ex)and the range of the G%
Clauson&s ;early< )eriod%
Ho(e 7our'es Geneti's
.oots Geogra)hy 6r'heology
1riting 6l)ha+et a(gas
Canguage .eligion Coins
Contents *rki' languages
Classi,'ation of *rki' languages
N% Disa(ov urki' su+strate in English
G% Ekhol( Ger(anani' Ethnology
C% 7tevens Gr(%8*rki' traits
6% oth Ger(an Cexi'on
6% oth *rki' and English
.% 3' Callister Non82E in G('% languages
*rki' +orrowings in English
*rki' in Greek
6lan /ateline Huns /ateline
6var /ateline Di)'hak /ateline
Eesenyo /ateline Dha4ar /ateline
Eulgar /ateline Dyrgy4 /ateline
Darluk /ateline
Di(ak /ateline
7a+ir /ateline
7eyanto /ateline
he 2E resear'hers in general, and G% Clauson in )arti'ular, are nota+le for the li+eral attri+ution of
the loan8words, 'o(ing fro( a +lend of )re'on'eived notions and the sour'es that ,rst re'orded su'h
words% 7in'e 2ranisti's develo)ed ahead of urkology, nu(erous re'ords of urkis(s ,rst a))eared in
the Persian, 7ogdian, et'% di'tionaries, and initially were taken as Persianis(s% 6lthough later histori'al
understanding and ex)anded hori4ons drasti'ally 'hanged the initial )i'ture, the reli'ts of the )ast still
hound (any resear'hers% he rules for the dire'tion of +orro8 wing are si()le and straightforward, and
erroneous attri+ution is easily Fagged out +y their )ru8 dent a))li'ation in every 'ase% he rules are,
,rst, a loan8word is a word that a))eared in less than half of the languages in the fa(ily, and se'ond, a
loan8word is a derivative fro( a root fro( another fa(ily% he se'ond 'riteria is (ore )o)ular, +ut it
(isses derivatives fro( a +orrowed root% 0or exa()le, the root koch =Engl% coach> ;'arriage, riding< in
*rki', has develo)ed a large follo8 wing in the 2E languages, +ut 'an&t +e attri+uted to the 2E origin% 6
false attri+ution distorts the )i'ture of the Fow of history%
he dating of (ost early ins'ri)tions is o)enly s)e'ulative, no instru(ental dating of the stone
ins'ri)tions or toreuti's had +een )erfor(ed )rior to the !"#$ )u+li'ation, nor to date afterward% he
datings are deter(ined following a ;she said, he said< s'ien'e, and are re'ited (e'hani'ally% 6 huge
nu(+er of instru(entally undated ins'ri)tions were found after !"#$ )u+li'ation%
&it#e 'tm# ()* pages ()* +#e
(,-*./- (p i - 000i v
1 1
.22,-3!.&!456, 6'4,& &!&7-6, -&/8 (p 000iii - 000viii 000ii
1 1
6U**!9-6 (p 0# - 0#viii 0#
1 1
1o"8 . : - ! 4 ; U <
(p 1-1==>
1=1-?==> ?=1-@==
7 1
!5!&!.7 7.2!.7 (746!3-6 2 ( 3 * A ?=1-@==> @=1-4== 1=1-?==
8 1
!5!&!.7 )-5&!(.7.&.7 .**,!/.&- / B C @=1-4==> 4=1-D== ?=1-@==
8 1
!5!&!.7 )-5&.7 (746!3-6 ) & 4=1-D==> D=1-E== @=1-4==
8 1
!5!&!.7 3-7., (746!3- F G 9 D=1-E==> E=1-7== 4=1-D==
8 1
!5!&!.7 3-7., (46&-(.7.&.7 (746!3-6
G G '
E=1-7==> 7=1-8== D=1-E==
8 1
7 7=1-8== E=1-7==
8 1
1 7=1-8== 7=1-8==
8 1
5 H I 7=1-8==
,, 6 7=1-8==> 8=1-9==
J K 8=1-9== 8=1-9==
8 1
L 8=1-9==> 9=1-988 9=1-988
7 1
M 9=1-988
Sir Gerard Clauson
An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish
A!CII te"t pages i - """i
!% 2n the ,rst two 'ha)ters of urkish and 3ongolian 7tudies, .oyal 6siati' 7o'iety Pri4e Pu+li8
'ation 0und, vol% GG, Condon, !"H$ =hereafter referred to as 7tudies>, 2 gave a +rief sket'h of the
history of the urkish )eo)les and of their languages fro( the earliest )eriod =the eighth 'entury
a%d%> at whi'h they +e'o(e dire'tly known to us down to the (edieval )eriod, and atte()ted to
identify and na(e the various diale'ts and languages whi'h evolved during that )eriod%
$% he +road thesis of this sket'h was that a unitary urkish language, whi'h was not geneti'ally
'onne'ted with any other language known to us, and s)e'i,'ally not 'onne'ted geneti'ally with
the 3ongolian and ungus languages, took sha)e, al(ost 'ertainly in the ste))e 'ountry to the
west and north of the Great 1all of China, at so(e date whi'h we 'annot now deter(ine, +ut
'ertainly long +efore the start of the Christian era- that this unitary language s)lit into two (ain
+ran'hes, Istandard urkishJ and &lKr urkishJ, not later than, and )erha)s +efore, the +eginning of
the Christian era- and that during the ,rst (illenniu( a%d% standard urkish slowly +roke u) into
two or three diale'ts, whi'h soon +e'a(e inde)endent languages% No su+stantial early texts of
any for( of !Kr urkish have survived, +ut there are in Chinese histori'al works a few words of
avLaM, the language of the urkish tri+e 'alled +y the Chinese Jo8)a, who were the ruling ele8
(ent in the Chinese Northern, or Yiian, 1ei dynasty =a%d% N5H8ONO>, and there are so(e urkish
loan8words in 3ongolian and Hungarian whi'h were al(ost 'ertainly +orrowed fro( an !Kr lan8
guage, +y the 3ongols )ro+a+ly in the ,fth or sixth 'enturies, and +v the Hungarians )ro+a+ly in
the ninth% he slight re(ains of Proto8Eulgar are in a si(ilar language and so too are a few fune8
rary ins'ri)tions of the Polga Eulgars of the thirteenth and fourteenth 'enturies% he (aterial is,
however, very s'anty and 2 have (ade only a few referen'es herein to words in !Kr urkish, and
those (ainly where the only surviving !Kr language, Chuvash =Quv%>, throws light on the )honeti'
stru'ture of individual standard urkish words% hese 'itations are fro( N% 2% 6sh(arin, hesaurus
linguae s'huvas'horu(, !# vols%, Da4an8Che+oksary, !"$58OR, 'ited as 6sh% followed +y the
volu(e and )age%
N% 6s 2 )ointed out in 7tudies, )% ON, an essential +asis for any s'ienti,' study of the 'o()arative
ety(ology of the urkish languages is a list of all ger(ine urkish words whi'h are known to have
existed +efore the various (edieval urkish languages were su+9e'ted to a (uss invasion of loan8
words fro( the langurs of the foreign )eo)les =(ainly 6ra+s, 2ranians, and later 3ongols> with
S rv(i the urkish )eo)les then 'a(e into 'onta't% he )resent work 'ontains 9ust su'h a list% 2
have endeavoured to in'lude in it all the words known t oyna v' existed in the earliest known
standard urkish languages, that is *rk*, Uygur, in'luding UyLTTr86, Old DTrLT4, Gakani, OLu4,
DT)Mak, and soni' (inor diale'ts, )rior to the 3ongolian invasion at the +eginning of the thirteenth
'entury, ex'luding, ex'e)t in a few s)e'ial eases, words +orrowed dire'tly or indire'tly fro( the
2ndian, 2ranian, and 7e(iti' languages% 6ll referen'es to Iearly urkish& and Ithe early )eriodJ relate
to the urkish languages as we know the( in the eighth to twelfth 'enturies in'lusive%
B% One of the s)e'ial 'hara'teristi's of the urkish languages is the (anner in whi'h derived
words are 'onstru'ted fro( the +asi' words of the language +y a )ro'ess of atta'hing suAxes to
the(% 2t is i()ortant, therefore, not (erely to 'o()ile a +are list of these early words and their
(eanings, +ut also to indi'ate what kind of words they are =nouns, ver+s, adver+s, et'%>, ver+s
+eing distinguished fro( the rest +y the atta'h(ent of a hy)hen, e%g% at =noun> Ia horseJ, at8
=ver+> Ito throwJ, and in addition, in the 'ase of derived words, to analyse their stru'ture and indi8
'ate fro( what +asi' words they were derived, sin'e this often ex)lains their se(anti' evolution%
his is all the (ore i()ortant sin'e, even at the earliest date at whi'h it +e'o(es known to us,
urkish had already had a long history, in the 'ourse of whi'h so(e +asi' words had already
+e'o(e o+solete, leaving the words derived fro( the(, so to s)eak, Iin the airJ, with no o+vious
origin- on this )oint see, for exa()le, 7tudies, ))% !BR :% 2n giving these (or)hologi'al ex)lana8
tions 2 have used the gra((ati'al ter(inology 'usto(ary a(ong English s'holars of urkish,
es'hewing the new ter(inologies whi'h are now taking sha)e in so(e a'ade(i' 'ir'les%
O% 3y se'ond )ur)ose has +een to esta+lish the original (eanings of all words in the list and
tra'e their su+seUuent se(anti' evolution +y illustrating ea'h word +y a Uuotation, or series of
Uuotations, of )assages in early texts in whi'h they o''ur% 0or this )ur)ose 2 have exa(ined all the
surviving texts in the languages enu(erated a+ove to whi'h 2 have +een a+le to o+tain a''ess%
hese texts are enu(erated in )aras% $R8H +elow%
H% J2&he only words whi'h have +een in'luded in the list without at least one su'h Uuotation are a
few whi'h 'an ,rst +e tra'ed in an a'tual urkish text only in the (edieval )eriod, that is during
the thirteenth to sixteenth 'enturies in'lusive, +ut whi'h de(onstra+ly existed at an earlier )eriod
for su'h reasons as that they exist +oth in standard urkish and in Chuvash =in a distin'tive for(
)e'uliar to that language> so that they (ust already have existed +efore the s)lit +etween
standard and 2Kr urkish, or that words derived fro( the( are attested in the early )eriod, or that
they o''ur as loan8words in foreign languages in for(s whi'h indi'ate that they (ust have +een
+orrowed in, or +efore, the early )eriod% J2Jhe texts whi'h have survived fro( the early )eriod are
of 'ourse only a fra'tion of those whi'h on'e existed and there are no dou+t other words whi'h
existed in the early )eriod +ut do not ha))en to o''ur in the texts whi'h have survived% 7o(e of
these words o''ur in (edieval texts or still exist in (odern urkish languages, +ut 2 have not
atte()ted to identify and in'lude the( in the list, sin'e the eviden'e that they were really early
words is la'king%
#% 6 sur)risingly large nu(+er of early words are ha)ax lego(ena =Ha)% leg%>, that is, o''ur only
on'e, and have not so far +een dis'overed elsewhere- they have, however, +een in'luded in the
list +e'ause they see( to +e genuine urkish words and (ay later +e dis'overed elsewhere- +ut
the fa't that they are Ha)% leg% (akes it i()ossi+le to deter(ine whether they are 'orre'tly
trans'ri+ed% Pro)erly s)eaking the ter( i()lies one single o''urren'e, +ut it has +een stret'hed to
in'lude ver+s listed in DaV% with an enu(eration of the Perf%, 6or%, and 2n,n% for(s, sin'e ex)e8
rien'e shows that if a word is (is8s)elt in the Perf% it (ay also +e (is8s)elt in the 6or% and 2n,n%
5% 1hen an early word has survived into the (edieval )eriod, 2 have also added a sele'tion of
Uuotations fro( the texts enu(erated in )aras% $#8O$, and when it still survives in one or (ore
(odern languages 2 have usually re'orded this fa't also% here are two reasons for doing this? the
,rst is that eviden'e of this kind is often reUuired to ,x the exa't (eaning and )ronun'iation of
the word in the early )eriod- the se'ond is that, as 2 understand it, the (ain )ur)ose of 'o()iling
a di'tionary of this kind is not only to hel) students to read and understand the (eaning of early
texts, +ut also to )rovide a solid +asis for the ety(ologi'al di'tionaries of (edieval and (odern
urkish languages whi'h are now +eing 'o()iled or will +e 'o()iled in future% 2 (ust, however,
(ake it 'lear that (y Uuotations fro( (edieval texts and enu(erations of (odern languages in
whi'h a word survives do not )rofess to +e as 'o()rehensive as the Uuotations fro( early texts%
T#E !$!TE% &' T(AN!C(IPTI&N
"% he )ro+le(s of trans'ri+ing early urkish texts are dis'ussed at length in 7tudies, Cha)% N
and elsewhere, and it is unne'essary to 'over the whole ground again% here is, of 'ourse, no
(eans of dis'overing exa'tly how urkish was )ronoun'ed +etween "RR and !$RR years ago- the
al)ha+ets e()loyed are all to a greater or less degree uns'ienti,'- the (ost that 'an +e a'hieved
is a +road syste( of trans'ri)tion whi'h will give an a))roxi(ate idea of the )ronun'iation of the
words 'on'erned in the languages enu(erated in )ara% N% he trans'ri)tion al)ha+et whi'h 2
suggested in 7tudies and whi'h is used here 'an +est +e des'ri+ed as the oA'ial al)ha+et of the
urkish .e)u+li' with one (inor (odi,'ation =regarding the use of L and g> and a few extra letters
to re)resent sounds whi'h either do not exist in .e)u+li'an urkish =.e)% urkish> or, if they exist,
are not re)resented +y a distin'tive letter% his al)ha+et was sele'ted on the +asis that the )ho8
neti' stru'ture of early urkish was )ro+a+ly (u'h the sa(e as that of .e)% urkish, a)art fro(
'ertain sounds for whi'h s)e'ial letters have +een )rovided% hese sounds 'an +e ta+ulated as
!R% Powels% here are four +a'k and ,ve front vowels, all of whi'h (ay +e either short or long%
he only additional letter is H for 'lose e, a sound whi'h 'ertainly existed in early urkish and still
survives at any rate in so(e diale'ts of .e)% urkish%
W , =short aiou lia'k X,
=long a? !? o? u?
%% =short e e i Y ii
!Iront % %%%%%%
=long e? '? !? o? u?
hese ar' arranged, when 'ir'u(stan'es de(and it, in the following order? a, a?, e, e?, e, e?, i, i?, i,
i?, o, o?, u, u?, Y, Y?, *, Z?- note that u, u? )re'ede Y, [?% he round vowels re)resent a range of
sounds whi'h (erge i()er'e)ti+ly into one another in the various languages%
2n (ost, +ut not all, (odern languages the vowels o and Y o''ur only in ,rst sylla+les of words, +ut
there is good eviden'e, whi'h 2 asse(+led in Ihree Notes on Early urkishJ, *rk /ili 6raVtTr(alarT
YTllTLT, !"HH, ))% ! f0%, that they were also used in the se'ond and later sylla+les of (any words in
early urkish% his eviden'e is, however, too frag(entary and i()erfe't, and in so(e 'ases too
in'onsistent, to 9ustify restoring su'h s)ellings at the +eginning of all the entries 'on'erned% 2 have
therefore entered all these words in the 'onventional s)elling with uK* in the se'ond and later
sylla+les% 1here there is good eviden'e in regard to individual words that these vowels were
originally oKY 2 have entered these s)ellings in +ra'kets, e%g% tYr*? =tYrY?>, +ut 2 (ust e()hasi4e
that these sounds o''urred in far (ore words than are singled out for this treat(ent, for exa()le,
in all words with the 7uAx 8ukK8*k =8okK8Yk>%
!!% Consonants% he 'on'lusion rea'hed in 7tudies was that the sounds whi'h existed in early
urkish 'an +e ta+ulated as follows, v% re)resenting voi'ed and u% unvoi'ed sounds?

Plosive 0ri'ative Nasal 6:ri'ate 7i+ilant 7e(i8vowel
v% u% v% u% v% v% u% v% u% v%
Ca+ial + ) v =f> ( =w>
/ental d t d n 4 s
/enti8)alatal ' M
Palatal \ =9> V y
Post8)alatal g k ] ^
Pelar ] k L x ^
CiUuids =v%> ! r =6s)irate =u%> h>
he )ost8)alatal sounds o''ur only in asso'iation with front vowels and the velar sounds only in
asso8 'iation with +a'k vowels, so only one letter, k, is reUuired to re)resent +oth unvoi'ed )losives%
he unvoi'ed la+ial fri'ative f )ro+a+ly did not exist in early urkish as an inde)endent sound, +ut
see(s to have arisen as a se'ondary for( of v in asso'iation with so(e unvoi'ed sounds% he voi'ed
)alatal si+ilant )ro+a+ly did not exist as an inde)endent sound in early urkish, +ut is noted as a
se'ondary sound in one or two words 'ontaining M, e%g% MY98 )ro+a+ly for MY48% 2t also o''urred in a few
7ogdian loan8words, e%g% a?9u?n, and a few other words, e%g% *9(e?, whi'h are )ro+a+ly, +ut not
de(onstra+ly, 7ogdian loan8words% he la+ial se(i8vowel w was not a native urkish sound, +ut
evolved as a se'on8 dary for( of v in one or two languages like early OLu4 and also o''urred in so(e
loan8words% he voi'ed )ost8)alatal g was nor(ally a )losive, +ut (ay in 'ertain )ositions have +een a
fri'ative- 'onversely the voi'ed velar L was nor(ally a fri'ative +ut (ay in 'ertain )ositions have +een
a )losive% he unvoi'ed velar fri'ative x )ro+a+ly did not exist as an inde)endent sound in early
urkish, +ut see(s to have arisen as a se'ondary for( of k in asso'iation with so(e sounds, and also
o''urred in a few loanwords, so(e of the( very old like xaLan and xan% D_VLar` says that the si()le
as)irate h was not a native urkish sound +ut o''urred in so(e Ii()ureJ diale'ts and in one or two
words like *hi? in whi'h it see(s to +e a se'ondary for( of g%
he 'onsonants are arranged, when the 'ir'u(stan'es de(and it, in the following order? +, ), v, =f>,
=w>- ', M, 9- d, d, t- L, =velar> k, G- g, =)ost)alatal> k, =h> - !- ( - n, r>, n - r - s - V - y - 4% Note that the
letters are arranged in 'lasses, and not in the nor(al 'onventional order, +ut that the ,rst letters of the
'lasses are arranged in the 'onventional order%
!$% here are so(e )arti'ular diA'ulties in trans'ri+ing so(e early languages, of whi'h the following
are the (ost i()ortant?
=!> 2n *rk* there was a tenden'y towards dissi(ilation, so that when a suAx +eginning alternatively
with a voi'ed or unvoi'ed 'onsonant like the Perf% suAx 8di?K8ti?K8di?K8ti? was atta'hed to a ver+ ending in
a 'onsonant, the unvoi'ed for( was atta'hed to a voi'ed 'onsonant and vi'e versa, e%g% erti?, ta)di?% 2n
Gak% the )osition tended to +e exa'tly the o))osite, at any rate to the extent that suAxes with voi'ed
initials were atta'hed to ver+s ending with voi'ed 'onsonants, e%g% erdi?, although 'ases of suAxes with
voi'ed initials +eing atta'hed to ver+s ending in unvoi'ed 'onsonants are very 'o((on, at any rate in
our (anus'ri)t of DaV% Chronologi'ally s)eaking UyL% lay sUuarely +etween *rk* and Gak% +ut nearly
all the al)ha+ets in whi'h it is written are so a(+iguous that it is Uuite un'ertain whether it was a dissi8
(ilating language like the for(er or an assi(ilating language like the latter, or whether the 'hange
took )la'e at so(e date +etween the eighth and eleventh 'enturies% 2 'annot therefore 'lai( to have
+een in the least 'onsistent in trans'ri+ing UyL% texts, usually following the s'ri)tions in the )u+lished
=$> he .uni' al)ha+et =see 7tudies, ))% O! :%> in whi'h nearly all the *rk* texts have survived, the
3ani'haean 7yria' al)ha+et, and the Er_h(` al)ha+et had di:erent letters for + and ) and for g and
)ost8)alatal k, the other early al)ha+ets did not, and the Er_h(` s)ellings are very errati'- there is
indeed so(e dou+t regarding the )honeti' value of so(e of the letters of this al)ha+et in its Central
6siati' for(% 2t is therefore al(ost i()ossi+le to de'ide how so(e words should +e trans'ri+ed% 2n so(e
'ases assistan'e 'an +e got fro( the (odern languages, +ut so(e of these have undergone Uuite
'onsidera+le )honeti' 'hanges%
=N> Only one of the al)ha+ets 'on'erned, Er_h(`, had se)arate letters for o, u, Y and *, and the
s)ellings of the texts in this al)ha+et are often in'onsistent% 2n this 'ase, however, the 'orre't for( 'an
often +e esta+lished if the word was a loan8word in 3ongolian, or survives in (odern languages- +ut
the s)ellings in (odern languages are often in'onsistent, )arti'ularly as +etween languages in the
OLu4 grou) and the rest%
!N% he al)ha+et set out a+ove has also +een used for trans'ri+ing =or )erha)s it would +e (ore
a''urate to say transliterating, sin'e the syste( ado)ted is )urely (e'hani'al> Uuotations fro( 6ra+i'
and Persian texts, with the addition of the following letters? t, d, t, h, V, and 4, ha(sa&ayn and U for the
unvoi'ed velar )losive, whi'h (ust +e distinguished fro( the unvoi'ed )ost8)alatal )losive in these
languages% 2n these languages, too, vowel length is indi'ated in the usual (anner +y a su)ers'ri+ed
line, e%g% a% he sa(e letters are also used to trans'ri+e 3ongolian, +ut 7anskrit is trans'ri+ed in the
'onventional way%
T#E A((AN)E%ENT &' *&(D! IN T#E DICTI&NA($
!B% 6s )ointed out a+ove, the urkish texts Uuoted in this +ook are written in a variety of al)ha+ets,
all (ore or less a(+iguous, and it is often i()ossi+le to deter(ine the 'orre't trans'ri)tion of a
nu(+er of words- (oreover, so(e words were )ronoun'ed slightly di:erently in di:erent languages% 2t
would, therefore, not +e sensi+le to arrange the words in the stri't al)ha+eti'al order to whi'h we are
a''usto(ed in the di'tionaries of Euro)ean languages, sin'e this would involve a great (any dou+le or
(ulti)le entries and greatly add to the diA'ulty of ,nding individual words% his )ro+le( and the
(eans of solving it are dis'ussed in detail in 7tudies, Cha)% B% he arrange(ent whi'h e(erged fro(
this dis'ussion 'an +e su((ari4ed as follows?
=i> he words are +roken down into fourteen grou)s, 'ontaining res)e'tively words +eginning with the
following sounds?
=a> vowels =6> (
=+> la+ial )losives =+, =)>> =R n
='> denti8)alatal a:ri'ate =M> O&> r
=d> dental )losives =t, =d>> w s
=e> velar )losives =k, =x>> =R b
=f> )ost8)alatal )losives =k, =g>> 3 y
=g> l =c> 4
=$> Ea'h of these fourteen grou)s is divided into su+8grou)s- in ea'h 'ase the ,rst su+8grou) 'ontains
(onosylla+les ending in an o)en vowel- the order of the re(ainder is deter(ined in the 'ase of the
,rst grou) =words +eginning with vowels> +y the ,rst 'onsonant, and, if there is one, the se'ond
'onsonant or failing that the ,nal vowel, if any, and in the 'ase of other grou)s +y the se'ond
'onsonant, and the third 'onsonant, if any, or failing that the ,nal vowel, if any% 0or )ur)oses of
'lassi,'ation these are the only signi,'ant sounds- vowels other than initial and ,nal vowels are
disregarded ex'e)t for )ur)oses of arranging the order of the words in a su+8grou)%
!O% Ea'h su+8grou) is identi,ed +y fro( one to three 'ode letters re)resenting the signi,'ant sounds
enu(erated a+ove, the 'ode letters +eing as follows?
6, or if one of the signi,'ant sounds is )ost8)alatal g or k, E, re)resenting vowels%
E re)resenting la+ials, +, ), v, =f>, =w> +ut not (%
C re)resenting denti8)alatal a:ri'ates ', M, =9>%
/ re)resenting dentals d, d, t +ut not n%
d re)resenting velars L, k, x +ut not ^%
G re)resenting )ost8)alatals g, k, =h> +ut not 2>%
C re)resenting !%
3 re)resenting (%
N re)resenting n, ^, ñ%
. re)resenting r%
7 re)resenting s%
b re)resenting V%
Y re)resenting y%
e re)resenting 4% &
Ea'h su+8grou) is divided into the following )arts?
=!> (onosylla+les, if any, 'oded as 3on%
=$> (onosylla+i' ver+s, if any, 'oded as 3on% P%
=N> disylla+les, 'oded as /is%
=B> disylla+i' ver+s, 'oded as /is% P%
=O> longer words, 'oded as ris%
=H> longer ver+s, 'oded as ris% P%
!H% 2n order to lo'ate a word in the di'tionary?
=!> de'lensional and 'on9ugational suAxes (ust +e re(oved-
=$> the )art in whi'h it a))ears in the di'tionary (ust +e deter(ined +y 'onverting the signi,'ant
sounds in it into the a))ro)riate 'ode letters, a''ount +eing taken of the fa't whether it is either a ver+
or not a ver+, e%g%?
u? 3on% 6
u?8 3on% P% 68
ak, oL, u?L, ok 3on% 6d
eg8, ek8, Yg8, *k8 3on% P% EG8
+u? 3on% E6
Mars 3on% C.7
t*)i?, tY)*? /is% /E6
ta)Tn8, tevin8 /is% P% /EN8
t*g*?n*k ris% /GN
tTltaLlTL ris% /C/
yarlTka?8 ris% P% Y.C
!#% 1ithin ea'h )art of a su+8grou) the words are arranged in the following order, whi'h is designed
to (ake it as easy as )ossi+le to lo'ate a word written in any of the various s'ri)ts?
=!> in 3on% and 3on% P% in the al)ha+eti'al order of the vowel, and when two or (ore words have the
sa(e vowel =o and u, and Y and *, res)e'tively +eing regarded as identi'al sin'e they are not
distinguished in these s'ri)ts> in the order of the ,nal 'onsonants- thus in 3on% P% 6/8 the order is ad8,
at8, et8, T?d8, it8, u?d8, ut8, *d8, Yt8, *t8%
=$> in /is% and /is% P%,
=a> all words ending in a 'losed sylla+le )re'ede those ending in an o)en vowel, thus in /is% P% 6/C8
*t*l8 )re'edes atla?8-
=+> if two words 'ontain, in addition to the letters re)resented in the heading, further 'onsonants
+elonging to di:erent 'lasses, these deter(ine their order- thus in /is% P% 7C/8 sTMtur8 )re'edes saMtaV8-
='> in other 'ases, su+9e't to =a> a+ove, the order is deter(ined +y the ,rst vowel- thus under /is% P%
7C/8 the order is saMTt8, sTMTt8, suMTt8, s*Mlt8, and under /is% P% 6/C8 atla?8, edle?8, or, if the vowels are
identi'al, +y the order of the 'onsonants following, thus under /is% P% 6/C8 odul, udul8, otul8%
=N> in ris% and ris% P% the sa(e )rin'i)les are o+served, mutatis muta"dis%
!5% 3ost words in the di'tionary are )re'eded +y 'ode letters in 'a)itals, only +asi' words of whi'h
the )ronun'iation is reasona+ly 'ertain not +eing )re'eded +y one% hese letters have the following
=!> C 'o()ound- used when a word is 'o()osed of two shorter words, e%g% C iMkur I+elt&, 'o()osed of
iM and kur% 7u'h words are rare,
=$> / /erived- )la'ed +efore every word other than a 'o()ound whi'h is not a +asi' word, e%g% /
evdil8, the Passive for( of evdi?8%
=N> 0 0oreign? )la'ed +efore words whi'h are known to +e loan8words, e%g% 0 a?9u?n +orrowed fro(
7ogdian% 1ords whi'h are +elieved to +e loan8words are )re'eded +y ]0 if de,nite )roof is la'king%
=B> PU Pronun'iation un'ertain- see =H>%
=O> 7 7e'ondary- )la'ed +efore words whi'h are se'ondary for(s of other words in the list- su'h
words are followed +y a referen'e to the words of whi'h they are the se'ondary for(s%
=H> PU Po'ali4ation un'ertain% his )re,x is used when the vo'ali4ation of a word is un'ertain +ut
there is no dou+t a+out its 'onsonantal stru'ture, e%g% PU eteM indi'ates that this is the (ost )ro+a+le
)ronun'iation of the word +ut that it (ight +e ataM, atTM, atuM, et'% 1ords are )re'eded +y PU when
there is so(e dou+t a+out the )ronun'iation of one or (ore 'onsonants in the( whether or not the
vo'ali4ation is 'ertain%
=#> 1hen a word is known to have existed at an earlier date +ut was already o+solete +y the eighth
'entury so that it is known only fro( its derivatives the +asi' word is entered with a )re'eding asterisk
and followed +y 'ross8referen'es to so(e of the words derived fro( it, e%g% ! @ad8, see adTn, ad9r8%
=5> E Erroneous- unfortunately a few 'o()letely non8existent words have found their way into so(e
(edieval and (odern di'tionaries and word8lists owing to (isreadings of an'ient texts% 6 s(all
sele'tion of these is in'luded in the list, )re'eded +y E and followed +y an ex)lanation, in order to
indi'ate that su'h words really did not exist and have not (erely +een overlooked, e%g% E a(uM whi'h
arises fro( an erroneous s'ri)tion of the 6ra+i' word asahh in the (anus'ri)t of DaV%
A+T#&(ITIE! ,+&TED- *IT# !#&(T TIT.E!
I / EA(.$ TET!
!"% 6ll Uuotations in the )aragra)hs a+out individual words are )re'eded +y the na(e of the
language in whi'h they were written and the date of 'o()osition ex)ressed in 'enturies denoted +y
ro(an nu(erals- viii f eighth 'entury a%d% and so on% 1hen two or (ore Uuotations are taken fro( the
sa(e language they are grou)ed under a single head, )ossi+ly with di:erent 'hronologi'al indi'ations%
A. Türkü
$R% wo )eriods are distinguished?
=!> viii% 7everal (a9or ins'ri)tions in the .uni' al)ha+et fall under this heading- there is a +rief note on
the +est editions of the( in 7tudies, )% H5, +ut (y own Uuotations are derived, wherever )ossi+le, fro(
a )ersonal exa(ination of the )hotogra)hs and sUuee4es of the ins'ri)tions% 6s a result in one or two
'ases 2 have, 2 think, found +etter readings of so(e diA'ult )assages than those in any of the editions-
exa()les will +e found under olLurt8, +er*ki, sTn8% 2n addition to the (a9or ins'ri)tions listed se)arately
+elow there are so(e shorter ins'ri)tions, +ut as they are undated and (ay +e later than viii they are
in'luded under the next heading% he (a9or ins'ri)tions are the following?
=a> the funerary ins'ri)tion of onukuk =this is the 'usto(ary trans'ri)tion of the na(e +ut it is PU>
'o()osed )ro+a+ly in the se'ond, +ut )ossi+ly the third de'ade of viii- 'ited as followed +y the
nu(+er of the line-
=+> the funerary ins'ri)tion of D*l egin, 'o()osed in 6%/% #N$, 'ited as 2 followed +y the side =E, 1,
N, 7> of the stone and the line on the side-
='> the funerary ins'ri)tion of Eilge? Gagan, 'o()osed in a%d% #NO, 'ited as 22 si(ilarly followed-
=d> the funerary ins'ri)tion of the D*li Qors at 2xe8Gu Votu in 'entral 3ongolia, roughly 'onte()orary
with the )re'eding, 'ited as 2x% followed +y the line-
=e> the relatively +rief ins'ri)tion at Ongin, 'ited as Origin followed +y the line%
=$> viii :% Under this heading are in'luded texts whi'h (ay have +een 'o()osed in viii, +ut were
)ossi+ly, in so(e eases )ro+a+ly, 'o()osed in 2G, or )erha)s in one or two 'ases even later% hese fall
under the following heads?
=a> a few (inor ins'ri)tions fro( 3ongolia, of whi'h the (ost 'onvenient editions are those in the
se'ond volu(e of H% N% Orkun, Eski *rk Ya4TtlarT, N volu(es and index, 2stan+ul, !"NH8B!, ='ited as EY
followed +y the volu(e in ro(an and the )age in ara+i' ,gures>% hese are o''asionally 'ited Under
the na(es given in that volu(e followed +y a referen'e to EY ##-
=+> those of the so8'alled Yeniseian =Yen%> ins'ri)tions whi'h were found in Dhakassia and were
)ro+a+ly ere'ted +y (inor 1estern *rk* 'hieftains who es'a)ed to Dhakassia after the fall of the *rk*
e()ire in the (iddle of viii, see 7tudies, )% H"% he (ost 'onvenient edition is that in 7% Ye% 3alov,
Yeniseiskaya )isJniennost& iyurkov, 3os'ow, !QO$- they are 'ited as 3al followed +y the nu(+er of the
ins'ri)tion and the line, +ut (y readings so(eti(es di:er fro( 3alovJs-
='> a few ins'ri)tions found at 6yrtarri Oy near the town +f alas ori the river of the sa(e na(e and
)ro+a+ly data+le to ix or x =see 7tudies, ))% #$ and $OH>% he texts are al(ost illiterate and in a
de)lora+le state, and 2 have Uuoted the( only o''asionally, 'iting the( as alas followed +y the
nu(+er Yf the ins'ri)tion and the line-
=d> )a)er (anus'ri)ts in the .uni' al)ha+et% he only su+stantial one is a +ook of divination 'alled
2rk Eitig, whi'h 2 'ite as 2rk E followed +y the nu(+er of the )aragra)h and not, as has usually +een
done, +y the )age, sin'e the )age nu(+ers used do not 'orres)ond to those of the a'tual (anus'ri)t%
he (ost 'onvenient edition of the rest, whi'h are rather (is'ellaneous in 'hara'ter, is in EY 22, +ut as
OrkunJs syste( of referen'es is rather 'haoti' ! have su+stituted (y own, followed +y a referen'e to
the )age in EY 22% 2t is 'o((only +elieved that these do'u(ents 'an +e dated to a+out ix-
=e> 3ani'haean =3an%> texts in the 3ani'haean 7yria' or Uygur al)ha+ets and what Prof% 6% von
Ga+ain in her 6lttiirkis'he Gra((atik, Cei)4ig, !"B!, )% O ='ited as v% G% 6G> 'alled Ithe N8diale'tJ, +ut
whi'h see(s in fa't, see 7tudies, )%, !!5, to +e *rk* written iri a non8.uni' al)ha+et% he longest and
(ost i()ortant of these texts is the IConfession of 7insJ known as the Chuas8tuanift =(ore 'orre'tly
Gwastwaneft>% he +est (anus'ri)t, al(ost 'o()lete, is in the Eritish 3useu(, and there are other
frag(ents, so(e of the +eginning of the text (issing in that (anus'ri)t, in Ger(any% he (ost
'onvenient edition, with a fa'si(ile of the E%3% (anus'ri)t, is still that +y 6% von Ce CoU in g.67 !"!!,
))% $#" :%, although the translation is not entirely a''urate% 2 'ite it as Chuas% followed +y the line of
the E%3% (anus'ri)t or, in the 'ase of the ,rst )art, as Chuas% 2 followed +y the line in von Ce CoUJs
nu(eration% he other 3ani'haean *rk* texts whi'h 2 Uuote have all +een )u+lished in the
6+hand8lungen or 7it4ungs+eri'hte of the 6'ade(y of 7'ien'es in Eerlin =originally the DYnigli'he
)reussis'he, later Preussis'he, and later still /'uts'he, 6kade(ie der 1issens'haften>% 6s these
)u+li'ations also 'ontain 3ani'haean texts in UyLur and UyLur86 it is (ore 'onvenient to list all the
)u+li'ations of 3ani'haean texts here to avoid additional referen'es in su+seUuent )aragra)hs% he
(ain +ulk of the( is in 6% von Ce CoUJs iirkis'he 3ani'hai'a aus Chots'ho 2 =6DP61, !"!$>- 22 =6P61,
!"!">- 222 =6P61, !"$$>, 'ited as 32, 22, and 222 followed +y the )age and line, the last followed, +y =i>, =ii>,
et'% if the sa(e line nu(+er a))ears (ore than on'e on the sa(e )age% Others were )u+lished in a
series 'alled iirkis'he urfantexte ='ited as >, edited at one ti(e or another +y 1% Eang, 6% von
Ga+ain, and G% .% .a'h(ati =later .% .% 6rat>, whi'h also 'ontains UyLur Euddhist and Civil texts% hose
)arts whi'h 'ontain 3ani'haean texts =(ostly not in 3ani'haean *rk*> are ## =7P61, !"$"> 'ited
+y )age and line, and ### =7P61, !"NR> and 2G =6/61, !"O5> +oth in UyLur and 'ited +y line%
Other short 3ani'haean texts are in 6% von Ce CoU, Eirt (ani'h_is'h8uiguris'hes 0rag(ent aus
2diUut87'ha'hri =7DP61, !"R5> 'it'd as 3an%8uig, 0rag, followed +y )age and line, and 1% Eang and 6%
von Ga+ain, Eirt uiguris'hes 0rag(ent ii+er den (ani'hau'hen 1indgott =Ungaris'he 9ahr+*'her P222,
))% $B# :%>, 'ited as 1ind, followed +y the line%
0/ +y1ur and +y1ur-A 2+y1/ and +y1/-A3
$!% he reasons for su))osing that two se)arate, +ut 'losely related, UyL% diale'ts existed are stated in
7tudies, )% B$% here are o+vious tra'es of UyL%86 in so(e Euddhist texts, e%g% those in P2 and 3
2P=althoiight it is stated in the introdu'tion to the latter that the UyL%86 for(s had +een I'orre'ted&in the
trans'ri)tion so that they are no longer a))arent>- +ut su'h texts do not see( to +e entirely
ho(ogeneous, so that it is only in the, 3ani'heaean% texts that it see(s )ossi+le (ore or less to isolate
the two diale'ts% hree )eriods 'an +e distinguished?
=!> viii% he earliest and (ost su+stantial UyL% ins'ri)tion in the .uni' al)ha+et is that situated at
bine8usu in Outer 3ongolia, whi'h is the funerary (onu(ent of an UyLur Gagan who ruled fro( a%d%
#BH to #O"% 2t is S'ited as bu% followed +y the side and line on the side%
! ?
=$> 2G% he se'ond su'h ins'ri)tion, only frag(ents of the UyL% text of 8whi'h still survive, is the
funerary (e(orial at Dara Ealgasuh of an UyLur Gagan who )ro+a+ly ruled fro( a%d% 5R5 to 5$!% 2t is
'ited as 222 followed +y a letter and line and a referen'e to EY 22% he third is the short funerary
ins'ri)tion at 7u'i in Outer 3ongolia, )ro+a+ly data+le to the ,rst Uuarter of ix, and 'ited as 7u'i
followed +y the line% %%%%%%%%%%% i-
=N> viii :%, that is, in this 'ase, texts the earliest of whi'h (ay go +a'k as far as vui, although the
a'tual (anus'ri)ts are )ro+a+ly later, while the latest, a)art fro( the xviii (anus'ri)t of the
7uvarna)ra+h_sa 7utra, the 'o()osition
of whi'h was (u'h earlier, is )ro+a+ly a Civil do'u(ent
dated ,r(ly to the %se'ond lines i to N$B, the se'ond lines !#HN to $!HR, the rest +eing un)u+lished>-
and the urkish translation of the 7uvarna)ra+h_sas*tra, )u+lished +y P% P% .adlov and 7% Ye% 3alov, 7t%
Peters+urg, !"!N :%- 'ited as 7uv% followed +y the )age and line%
=d> Civil =Civ%> texts, that is not religious% hese fall into four 'lasses?
=i> 3edi'al texts, )ro+a+ly (ere translations of texts in other languages% he (ain 'olle'tion is in G%
.% .a'h(ati, #%ur Heilkunde der Uiguren 2 =7P61, !"NR> 'ited as H2 followed +y the line, and 22 =7P61,
!"N$> 'ited as H 22 followed +y the )age and line% here are also one or two su'h texts in P22 and P222%
=ii> 6strono(i', astrologi'al, (agi', and o(en texts, )u+lished in 2 =7P61, !"$">, 'ited +y the line,
P22 and P222 and U7)% exts of the ,rst two kinds are (ainly translated fro( the Chinese, generally
with an 2ndian +a'kground, and are (ostly late in the )eriod- the line +etween unorthodox Euddhist
and )urely (agi'al texts is inde,nite and 2 (ay have )ut so(e texts the wrong side of it%
=iii> Co((er'ial and legal do'u(ents and =iv> (is'ellaneous texts% he (ain 'olle'tion of these is in
U7),- there is one in P22, No% B$, a very late text a))arently trans'ri+ed fro( an original in the 6ra+i'
al)ha+et, and there are one or two )u+lished elsewhere% 1hen Uuoting the last 2 have indi'ated where
they (ay +e found%
6 good (any of the UyL% texts listed a+ove have +een 'o()letely or )artially indexed- +ut no index is
availa+le for others, in'luding 7uv% whi'h is (u'h the longest, and 2 'annot guarantee that 2 have listed
every word whi'h o''urs in these unindexed texts%
C/ &ld 45r156 2&/ 4ir/3
$$% 2t is 'o((only +elieved that those of the Yeniseian ins'ri)tions whi'h were found not in Dhakassia
+ut in uva were set u) +y DTrLT4 'hieftains in that area and are in the Old DTrLT4 language% 2t has +een
suggested that they are the oldest (onu(ents in the .uni' al)ha+et and (ay date +a'k as far as vi,
+ut C% .% Dy4lasov has re'ently )roved +y ar'haeologi'al (ethods =see 7tudies, )% #R> that (ost of
the( date fro( ix and x and that so(e (ay +e even later% 2 have 'lassi,ed the( as ix :% he (ost
'onvenient edition is that of 3alov (entioned in )ara% $R =$> =+>, +ut 6% 3% 7h'her+ak has )u+lished
revised texts of so(e of the(, and so(e )hotogra)hs and sUuee4es are availa+le% 2 have therefore not
always followed 3alovJs readings%
D/ akani 2ak/3
$N% Gak% is a language 'losely related +oth to *rk* and to UyL%, +ut suA'iently distin't fro( +oth to
+e regarded as a se)arate language% 2t was 'ertainly not dire'tly des'ended fro( the latter, indeed it
existed side +y side with UyL% for two or three 'enturies, and was )erha)s not Uuite dire'tly des'ended
fro( the fof8(Mr, 2t is ,rst identi,ed in xi, and there are two Gak% xi texts of (a9or Uuarter of xiv% he
a'tual date of 'o()osition of the re(ainder is Uuite un'ertain- so(e of the legal and 'o((er'ial
do'u(ents are 'ertainly not older than xiii and 'ontain 3ongolian, 6ra+i', and Persian loan8words, +ut 2
have taken the( into a''ount with suita+le )re'autions, sin'e it is Uuite i()ossi+le to divide these
do'u(ents neatly into two 'ategories, those anterior and those su+seUuent to a%d% !$RR% hese texts
'an +e divided into the following 'lasses?
=a> Christian texts =Chr%>% hese are likely to +e Uuite early in the )eriod% Only two see( to have
survived, the well8known a)o'ry)hon a+out the 3agi )u+lished in 0% 1% D% 3*ller, Piguri'a =6DP61,
!"R5> ))% O :%, 'ited as U ! followed +y the )age and line, and a frag(ent )u+lished in 3 222 'ited +y
)age and line%
=+> 3ani'haean =3an%> texts in UyL% and UyL%86 )u+lished in the various works listed in )ara% $R =$>
=e> a+ove% 6ll are frag(entary and vary greatly in length, though none are very long- in the 'ase of the
longer texts it is usually )ossi+le to deter(ine whether they are in 3an% iirk*, UyL% or UyL%86- when
this is i()ossi+le they are 'ited as UyL% he earliest of these texts )ro+a+ly go +a'k to viii and the
latest are unlikely to +e (u'h later than ix%
='> Euddhist =Eud%> texts% hese have +een )uhlished in su+stantial Uuantities- the following is a list of
those whi'h 2 have Uuoted% here are four volu(es of Uiguri'a, the ,rst three edited +y 0% 1% D% 3*ller,
the last +y 6% von Ga+ain% U ! has already +een (entioned under =c>- U 22 =6DP61, !"!!>, U 222 =6P61,
!"$$>, and U2P=6P61, !"N!> are 'ited +y )age and line% he following volu(es of the series
(entioned in )ara% $R =$> =c> 'ontain Euddhist texts? !P=7P61, !"NR>- 0=7P61, !"N!>-
0#=7P61, !"NB>- PU =6P61, !"N#>- P222 =6/61, !"OB, the volu(e 'ontaining the texts in the
Er_h(` al)ha+et>, and G =6/61, !"O">% Of these P2 and G are 'ited +y the line, 2P and P +y )age and
line, and P22 and P2!! +y do'u(ent and line% here is a useful and 'o()lete 6nalytis'her 2ndex 4u den
9*nf ersten 7tikhen der =7P61, !"N!> and P2 'ontains a )artial and Pll, P222, and G a 'o()lete index of
words% 6nother 6DP61 volu(e 'ontaining Euddhist texts is 0% 1% D% 3*ller, etvei Pfahlins'hriften aus
de( urfan9unden, !"!O, 'ited as Pfahl% followed +y the )age and line% 1% .adloif, Uiguris'he
7)ra'hdenk(aler, Ceningrad, !"$5, 'ited as U7)% followed +y do'u(ent nu(+er and line, 'ontains
inter alia a nu(+er of Euddhist texts% Other )u+li'ations whi'h 2 have Uuoted are the following? Paul
Pelliot, Ca Persion ouigoure de 2Jhistoire des )rin'es Daly_na(kara et P_)a(kara, Joung Pao GP% $,
!"!B, 'ited as PP followed +y the )age and line- 1% Eang and G% .% .a'h(ati, *rl* Cehenne(ler
*4erine Uygur'a ParMalar, *rkiyat 3e'(uasi 2P, jstan+ul, !"NB, 'ited as 3 2P followed +y the line-
binasi ekin, DuanVi j( Pusar, Er4uru(, i"HR =su)erseding .adlof0Js )artial edition, 7t% Peters+urg,
!"!!> 'ited as Duan% followed +y the line- 1% .adlo:, isastvustik, ein in tiirkis'hrr 7)ra'he+ear+eiletes
+uddhistis'hes 7utra, 7t% Peters+urg, !"!R, 'ited as #Y9%, followed +y the (anus'ri)t )age and line- 6%
von Ga+ain, /ie uiguris'he Z+erset4ung der Eiogra)hie Hiien8tsangs =7P61, !"NO> and ErieKe der
Tdguris'hen 2l*en8tsang8Eiogra)hie =7P61, !"N5>! +oth 'ited as Hiien8ts% followed +y the line =the ,rst
'ontaining i()ortan'e% he ,rst is the earliest, and +y far the (ost i()ortant, urkish86ra+i'
di'tionary, the /ivinn CTtL_ti&!8urk of 3ah(ud al8D_VLari, dating fro( the third Uuarter of xi and 'ited
as DaV% he Uuotations in the for( DaV% followed +y a ro(an nu(+er and an ara+i' nu(+er and
so(eti(es a se'ond ara+i' nu(+er are fro( the urkish translation +y E% 6talay, /ivatt* Cvgat8it8t*rk
er'*(esi, N volu(es and index, 6nkara, !"BR8N, sin'e this edition is reasona+ly a''essi+le, and the
index is ex'ellent and 'o()rehensive% he )rin'i)le whi'h
2 have followed is to 'ite the volu(e and )age for (ain entries and the line as well for Uuotations fro(
other )arts of the +ook% 2 have, 2 ho)e, in'luded every word whi'h it 'ontains% 6talayJs translation is not
wholly satisfa'tory and 2 have in every 'ase 'onsulted the fa'si(ile Xthe )rinted text 'ontains (any
rriinor ina''ura'ies> and nor(ally Uuote the original 6ra+i' in (y 'itations, so that the a''ura'y of the
translation 'an +e 'he'ked% 2n a nu(+er of 'ases 2 have altered 6talayJs readings and s)ellings% he
se'ond (a9or text is the DutadLtT? Eilig of Yksuf GaVV H_'i+ of Ealasagun, the earliest surviving )urely
literary text in any urkish language, also dating fro( the third Uuarter of xi% 3y Uuotations are taken
fro( .% .% 6ratJs 'riti'al edition, 2stan+ul, !"B#, 'ited as DE followed +y the line in that edition% 2n 'ases
of dou+t 2 have also 'onsulted the fa'si(iles of the three (anus'ri)ts- in so(e 'ases tny s)ellings are
slightly di:erent fro( 6rat&s% 6s his index has not yet +een )u+lished, 2 'annot guarantee that ! have
listed every word whi'h o''urs in this text, +ut 2 have sear'hed it fairly thoroughly% 2 have 'lassi,ed all
the words fro( these two sour'es as xi sin'e this date is 'ertain% he Perse Prefa'e of DE is not )art of
the original text and its language is o+viously a little later- Uuotations fro( it have therefore +een
entered under the heading of xii =]> DE PP followed +y the line% he Pr)se Prefa'e is later still and
)erha)s not really Gak% +ut a few Uuotations fro( it have +een entered as x(=]> DEPP followed +y the
E/ &1u6
$B% DiVLar` lists a 'ertain nu(+er of words in a language whi'h he 'alls Ithe language of al8Gti44iya&
and says that owing to long 'onta't +etween the )eo)le who s)oke it and Persian8s)eakers it had
a'Uuired a nu(+er of Persian loanwords, often in a rather 'orru)t for( =see Yren and tur(a?>% 2t was no
dou+t the language s)oken +y the OLu4 tri+es, who were then living in the neigh+ourhood of the 6ral
7ea and had to so(e extent lost 'onta't with the other urkish tri+es% hey were des'endants of the
OLu4 =okku4 OLu4 et'%> who had )layed Uuite an i()ortant )art in history during vii and viii and
)ro+a+ly even earlier% here is no reason to su))ose that during that )eriod they s)oke a language
(arkedly di:erent fro( that of the *rk*- +ut although even +y xi the OLu4 language had undergone
so(e )honeti' de'ay and a''e)ted a nu(+er of loanwords, it retained, and its (odern des'endants
still retain, so(e 'hara'teristi's (ore )ri(itive even than those of *rk*, e%g% initial d8 in 'ertain words
=see )ara% !B =!>>% Only a few s)e'i,'ally OLu4 words are listed in DaV% +ut they are the earliest
surviving s)e'i(ens of the language%
'/ 45p7ak 845p/3
$O% D_VLar` also 'ites a nu(+er of words in a language whi'h he 'alls Ithe language of lif'_UJ, a
language whi'h he des'ri+es as si(ilar to OLu4% 7everal words are (entioned as +eing 'o((on to Di)%
and OLu4 +ut not known in Gak% 2n xi the DT)Mak were west of the OLu4 in southern .ussia and DaV% is
the earliest authority for their language%
)/ %inor ele9enth-century dialects
$H% D_VLar` des'ri+es a few words as +elonging to other 'onte()orary diale'ts with whi'h he was
a'Uuainted- those (entioned (ost often are the diale'ts of 6rLu?, Qigil, and Gan'ak =the last )ro+a+ly
not really urkish, see 7tudies, )% !N$ and the re(arks on kend*k +elow>% 2 have in'luded these words
with D_VLariJs des'ri)tions of the(% %
$#% he UyL% language lingered on for so(e 'enturies in Chinese *rkistan =7inkiang>- indeed the
latest surviving Eud% UyL% (anus'ri)t, that of the 7uvarna)ra+hYsas*tra already (entioned, was
'o)ied in xviii, +ut the only a''essi+le authority for UyL% in this latest state is the Chinese UyL%
di'tionary =Chin%8UyL% /i't%> )re)ared +y a 'o((ittee of Chinese s'holars towards the end of xiv% 7o(e
words fro( this work are in'luded in .adlo:&s 1orter+u'h and a 'o()lete list fro( another edition was
re'ently )u+lished +y Prof% C% Cigeti in Un Po'a+ulaire sino8ouigoure des 3ing, le Dao8t'Dang8kouan
Yi8'hou du Eureau des radu'teurs, /issertationes 7odaliu( 2nstituti 6siae 2nterioris 22, Euda)est, !"HH%
2 have in'luded referen'es to this work as Cigeti, followed +y the )age%
$5% he diA'ulty a+out 'lassifying (ost of the re(aining (edieval texts, whi'h were, with only one
or two ex'e)tions, written +y or for 3osle( urks, is that in xi the only literary language in whi'h texts
have survived, and )ro+a+ly the only literary language then in use, was Gak%, +ut that towards the end
of that 'entury or very soon afterwards literary languages e(erged whi'h were written in di:erent
areas where the s)oken languages were rather di:erent fro( one another, and so very soon +egan to
)ursue di:erent 'ourses% here are interesting dis'ussions of the )ro+le( of 'lassifying the texts
'on'erned in Philologiae ur'iMae 0unda(enta 2, 1ies+aden, !"O" ='ited as 0unda(enta> and (ore
)arti'ularly in g% E'k(annJs arti'le I/as Chware4(tiirkis'heJ in that volu(e, and also in the introdu'tion
to 6% D% Eorovkov, Ceksika srednea4iatskogo efsira G222mGP w%, 3os'ow, !"HN ='ited as ef%>% - % 8
$"% 1hat 'an )erha)s +e 'alled the dire't line of des'ent, or southern strea(, evolved in the area
'alled in the early (edieval )eriod Dhorasan and the southern )art of 3_ waraJuJl8nahr =ransoxiana>%
Ey xv the literary language used in that area was what is 'o((only, if ina''urately, 'alled QaLatay
=QaL%>, +ut at any rate three, and )ro+a+ly four, texts have survived whi'h were written +etween xi and
xv =+oth ex'luded> in languages inter(ediate +etween Gak% and QaL% he s)oken language in this area
during this )eriod see(s to have +een fairly ho(ogeneous with the literary language, ex'e)t that there
was )ro+a+ly a greater 'on'entration of 6ra+i' and Persian, and )erha)s fro( xiii onwards also
3ongolian, loan8words in the literary than in the s)oken language%
NR% Possi+ly the earliest of these inter(ediate texts whi'h, sin'e it 'ontains so(e 3ongolian words,
'annot +e earlier than xiii, is the dida'ti' )oe( edited +y .% .% 6rat under the title 6te+etii&l8hakayik,
2stan+ul, !"O!, 'ited as 6t% followed +y the lines%
N!% 6n even earlier date has +een suggested for a few urkish tafsirs, that is interlinear translations of
the Doran =(ostly +ilingual, so(e trilingual with a Persian translation of the 6ra+i' and a urkish
translation of the Persian> with 'o((entaries and other additional (atter% he diA'ulty in deter(ining
the date of these texts and the exa't language in whi'h they were 'o()osed lies in the fa't that the
surviving (anus'ri)ts of the( were all written later, )erha)s a good deal later, than the date at whi'h
they were 'o()osed and have +een su+9e'ted to a good deal of (oderni4ing +y the 'o)yists, later
)honeti' for(s, and even a'tual words, +eing su+stituted for the authorJs own )honeti' for(s and
words% 2t is not at all 'lear whether all, or at any rate all the earlier, +ilingual (anus'ri)ts go +a'k to a
single ar'hety)e or whether so(e are inde)endent translations and 'o()ilations, +ut the latter is the
(ore )ro+a+le% Eorovkov in ef% has indexed the urkish vo'a+ulary of one su'h work, the (anus'ri)t of
whi'h was found in the town of Darshi% he na(e of the author, the date of 'o()osition, the na(e of
the 'o)yist, and the date of 'o)ying are all eUually unknown, +ut the (anus'ri)t see(s to +e later
than that of a si(ilar tafnr found in urkey dated a%d% !NNN =see ef%, )% B> whi'h is said to have a text
'lose to that of the Darshi (anus'ri)t% 6n exa(ination of the vo'a+ulary shows that it is very
heterogeneous% 2t in'ludes a nu(+er of words of great antiUuity for so(e of whi'h, e%g% $ a), it is the
latest authority% On the other hand, it also in'ludes 6ra+i', Persian, and even so(e 3ongolian,
loan8words, whi'h )roves that in its )resent for( it 'annot +e earlier than x(, and it even 'ontains
di:erent for(s of the sa(e word, e%g% adrTl8, ayrTl8, ayrul8, whi'h +elong to di:erent )eriods in the
history of the language% 2t has +een suggested that the%se are eviden'e that the language used, even if
+asi'ally Gak%, has +een heavily inFuen'ed +y OLu4 and Di)% and that it (ust therefore have +een
'o()osed in so(e northern area and ought to +e 'lassi,ed as Gwara4(ian =see )ara% N#>% here is not,
however, any 'on'lusive eviden'e that this is so, and there are other )ossi+le ex)lanations of the
non8Gak% ele(ents in the text% 2n the 'ir'u(stan'es it see(s +etter to regard the language as
inter(ediate +etween Gak% and QaL,, to date ef% as x(=]> and 'ite it i((ediately after 6t%
N$% Next in ti(e, and in (u'h the sa(e language, 'o(es the lisasuJl8an+iy_ of N_ViruJl8d`n
al8.a+Lk4` 'o()osed in a%d% !N!R% 2n this 'ase, too, all the surviving (anus'ri)ts are later than the
work itself and have +een su+9e'ted to a good deal of (oderni4ation% No index of the vo'a+ulary has
+een 'o()iled, +ut a nu(+er of words fro( a G2G )rinted edition are 'ited in .adgo:Js 1orter+u'h and
so(e of these 'itations have +een in'luded here as xiv .+L%, followed +y a referen'e to .adlo:%
NN% One 6ra+i'8urkish vo'a+ulary, the Hilyatu 8inV_n wa hal+atu l8lis_n of Ca(_luJl8din
i+nuJl83uhann_ =see 7tudies, )% !"N> is )ro+a+ly of a+out the sa(e date as .+L% 2t 'ontains an
extensive list of 6ra+i' words with the urkish eUuivalents% he authon in his )refa'e says that they are
in two languages Ithose of our 'ountry and of *rkistanJ, and enu(erates the )honeti' di:eren'es
+etween the two% he fa'ts given suggest that the ,rst is an early for( of 64er8+ay9ani and the se'ond
a late for( of Gak%, +ut, ex'e)t in a (ini(u( nu(+er of 'ases, it is i()ossi+le to de'ide whether any
given word +elongs to one of these languages or +oth% Pery )ro+a+ly the great +ulk of the( are early
64er+ay89ani, +ut as a (atter of 'onvenien'e it is easier to 'ite this work as Giv 3uh% i((ediately after
.+L% followed +y the )age and line of 3elioranskiJs edition =3el%> and the )age of Dilisli .if&atJs edition
=.if%>&, the two editions are not identi'al and it is likely that the latter, whi'h is +ased on a single
(anus'ri)t, 'ontains a good (any words added to the authorJs text +y later 'o)yists%
NB% 0inally there are (any texts in QaLatay, the earliest )erha)s late xiv, the great +ulk xv or even a
little later% he language still survives in a later for( as (odern U4+ek, and no atte()t has ever +een
(ade to de,ne the latest date at whi'h QaL% )ro)er was still in use% 6)art fro( a very extensive
literature, three (a9or QaL%8Persian and QaL%8Old Os(anli di'tionaries have +een )u+lished whi'h,
although they all )rofess to +e )ri(arily di'tionaries of the language used +y 3Tr &6li bTr Nawa&2,
)ro+a+ly give a fairly exhaustive list of the QaL% vo'a+ulary, ex'luding the 6ra+i' and Persian, +ut not
the 3ongolian, words whi'h it in'ludes% hese are, in order of age?
=!> Eada i&llJl8luLat written in Herat +y ali&8i Harawi during the reign of the i(urid 7ultan
Husayn=6%/% !BN58!ORH>, a QaL%8Persian di'tionary of whi'h the only=]> surviving (anus'ri)t, dated
a%h% !!!# =a%d% !#RO8H> was )u+lished in fa'si(ile with a 'o()rehensive index +y 6% D% Eorovkov,
3os'ow, !"H!%
=$> he anony(ous QaL%8Old Os(anli di'tionary 'o((only known =after the ,rst entry in it> as the
6+uVka, 'o()iled during the ,rst half of xvi and )u+lished +y P% de Pelia(inof8eernof as /i'tionnaire
d9agatai8tur', 7t% Peters+urg, !5H"%
=N> he 7anglax, a QaL%8Persian di'tionary written +y 3uha((ad 3ahdi Gan and ,nished in 6%H% !!#$
or !!#N =roughly a%d% !#O">% 6 fa'si(ile of one of the +est (anus'ri)ts was )u+lished with an
introdu'tion and 'o()rehensive indi'es +y (yself as E% g% 1% Gi++ 3e(orial, New 7eries GG, Condon,
Of these the 7anglax, although the latest, is (u'h the (ost extensive and +est, the author 'orre'ting a
good (any (istakes (ade in )revious di'tionaries, in'luding the two (entioned a+ove and others
whi'h have not survived, 2 have 'ited the ,rst o''asionally as Eati, followed +y the )age, the se'ond
(ore freUuently as Pel% followed +y the )age and the last, al(ost 'o()rehensively, as 7an% followed +y
the )age and line of the fa'si(ile%
NO% Exaggerated i()ortan'e has +een atta'hed +y so(e s'holars to bayx 7ulay(aTT 2iuxari, CuLat8i
QaLatay via urki &Ot(_ni, 2stan+ul, a%h% !$"5 =a%d% !55!>- it 'ontains very little original (atter, a)art
fro( the (istakes whi'h a+ound in it =see 7an%, )% N!> +ut 2 have o''asionally 'ited it as b7% followed +y
the )age%
NH% here is in Eokhara an i()ortant (anus'ri)t of the 3uUaddi(atu&286da+ of
3ah(*duJl8ea(axVar`, a 'lassi,ed 6ra+i' glossary 'o()iled early in G22 with an interlinear translation
in urkish =as well as in Persian and 3ongolian>% he (anus'ri)t is dated a%d% !B"O and there is no
)ri(a fa'ie reason for su))osing that the urkish translation is (u'h older% he language is therefore
likely to +e QaL% and this is 'on,r(ed +y an exa(ination of the urkish eUuivalents in N% Po))eJs index
to the 3ongolian translation in 3ongol&skii slovar& 3ukaddi8(at al86da+, 3os'ow, !"N5% Prof% Eorovkov,
when he died in !"HN, had al(ost 'o()leted an index of the urkish words in this (anus'ri)t, +ut it is
un'ertain whether it will now +e 'o()leted and )u+lished% he urkish entries in Prof% Po))eJs work are
not in a 'onvenient for( for use in )re)aring a urkish di'tionary, and are not, a''ording to Prof%
Eorovkov, wholly a''urate% 2 have not, therefore, Uuoted this work ex'e)t o''asionally =as eattT%>%
N#% he history of the northern strea( of literary languages is a great deal (ore 'o()li'ated% here
was undou+tedly in xn a se'ond literary fo'us further north than the area des'ri+ed in )ara% $5,
'entred )erha)s in the 'ourt of the Gwa8ra4(V_hs who ,rst +e'a(e i()ortant early in xn% he (ost
'onvenient na(e for texts +elonging to this strea( is that re'ently ado)ted in su'h works as the
0unda(enta, Gwara4(ian =Gwar%>, although the literary language whi'h evolved there (ust also have
+een in use over a (u'h wider area extending into southern .ussia% he s)oken languages in this area
at this )eriod were (arkedly di:erent fro( Gak%- the urks in Gwara4( and the 6ral 7ea area were
OLu4 and those in southern .ussia DT)Mak and already in xi D_VLar` regarded OLu4 and Di)% as se)arate
languages fairly 'lose to one another +ut di:erent fro( Gak% hus- so far as literary works are
'on'erned, it is safe to assu(e that Gak% was very Uui'kly (odi,ed to +ring it 'loser to the lo'al
N5% he oldest text fro( this area, if its 'olo)hon is to +e relied on, was in fa't 'o()osed not in
Gwara4( +ut in the Cri(ea% 2t is the liVVa8i Yksuf written +y a 'ertain &6l`, of who( nothing further is
known, in 6%H% HNR =a%d% !$NN>% 6s usual the (anus'ri)ts are a good deal later and have +een (ore or
less (oderni4ed% /% Ero'kel(ann listed a nu(+er of words fro( this work in 6ltJs lissa8i Yusuf, der
alteste Porl_ufer der os(anis'hen Citerat*r =6DP61, !"!#>% 2t has long +een re'ogni4ed that the
language is not Os(anli and 2 have 'ited the words Uuoted in this )a)er as Gwar% xiii &6li followed +y
the )age, +ut it (ay well 'ontain (ore OLu4 ele(ents than (ost other Gwar% texts%
N"% 6nother text whi'h 'an +e tentatively identi,ed as 'o(ing fro( the 6ral 7ea area is the
enig(ati' text so(eti(es 'alled OLu4 N_(e =see 7tudies, ))% B5, et'%> written in the 3ongolian OA'ial
6l)ha+et and edited +y 1% Eang and G% .% .a'h(ati, /ie CeLende von Oghu4 laghan =7P61, !"N$>% 2t
'ontains several 3ongolian loan8words and so 'annot +e earlier than x(, +ut 'an hardly Ee (u'h later%
Considering its su+9e't8(atter, the language is likely to +e (u'h (ore s)e'i,'ally OLu4 than (ost
other 'onte()orary texts, +ut the a(+iguity of the al)ha+et used (akes it i()ossi+le to deter(ine
whether it has su'h a s)e'i,'ally OLu4 trait as initial d8% 2t is 'ited as x(=]> OL%, followed +y the line in
the edition (entioned%
BR% Next in order of ti(e 'o(e ,ve texts whi'h are all (ore or less solidly dated% he oldest is the
3u&(u& l8(urid written in Gwara4( in a%d% !N!N =see E'k(ann, o)% 'it%, )% !!O>, +ut 2 have not +een in a
)osition to 'ite any words fro( it%
B!% he next is the Gusraw u b`r`n, written +y a 'ertain lut+ at the 'ourt of ini Eeg Gan of the
Golden Horde in a%d% !NB!8$% 2t has +een ad(ira+ly edited +y 6% ea9U'4kowski, Na9stars4a wers9a
ture'ka husr_v u 7irin, N vols%, 1arsaw, !"O58H!, with a fa'si(ile of the only (anus'ri)t, a
trans'ri)tion, and a full index ex'luding the 6ra+i' and Persian loan8words% 2t is 'ited as xiv lut+
followed +y the )age in ea9U'4kowskiJs index%
B$% he third is the 3uha++at N_(a of Gwara4(i% wo (anus'ri)ts of this )oe( have survived, the
se'ond 'ontaining a nu(+er of verses whi'h did not for( )art of the original text- see (y )a)er on this
)oe( in C6g P22% B, !"H$% Unfortunately verses BN# and BBR whi'h state that the )oe( was 'o()osed
Ion the +anks of the 7ir /arya in a%h% #OB =a%d% !NON>J, are a(ong the inter)olated verses +ut the date
(ust +e a))roxi(ately 'orre't, sin'e it falls within the reign of Cani Eeg Gan of the Golden Horde,
during whose reign the )oe( was 'o()osed% 2t is 'ited fro( the re'ent editions =see 7tudies, )% B5> as
xiv 3N followed +y the nu(+er of the verse%
BN% Next there is the NafT'u&l80ar_dis written +y 3ah(ud i+n &6li in Gwara4(, or )erha)s 7aray on the
Polga, so(eti(e +efore a%d% !NO5, the date of the earliest (anus'ri)t, +ut not ne'essarily (u'h
+efore, sin'e there is fairly good eviden'e that the author did not die until a%d% !NHR% 6 re)rodu'tion of
one of the +est (anus'ri)ts was )u+lished in g% E'k(ann, Neh'iiJl80eradis 2, 6nkara, !"OH, +ut
unfortunately his index is not yet )u+lished%
BB% 0inally there is the free translation into urkish of 7a&diJs G*listan% Only Yne (anus'ri)t of this
work has survived, and a fa'si(ile of it, with a )refa'e +y Prof% 0% N% U4luk, was )u+lished +y the *rk /il
Duru(u in !"OB under the title 7ey, 7er_y` G*listan er'*(esi, he translator was a native of 7arai on
the Polga, +ut (ade his translation at the 3a(luk 'ourt in Egy)t in a%d% iN"!%
BO% luite re'ently there has a))eared the ,rst half of an ad(ira+le di'tionary +y E% 0a4ylov of lut+,
3N, the Nah'uJl80ar*dis, and the G*listan, with extensive Uuotations and referen'es, under the title
7tarou4+ekskii ya4ik% Dhore4(iiskie )a(yatniki G2P veka, ashkent, !"HH% 2 have used this work
extensively to )rovide referen'es to the Nah'ul80aradis, under the title Nah'% followed +y the )age and
line in E'k(annJs fa'si(ile for those words 'ontained in this )art of the di'tionary- for the rest of the
vo'a+ulary 2 have had to rely on a very inadeUuate list of words )u+lished +y Div_(ettiTT in 2&3 2P% 2
have not thought it ne'essary to add referen'es to the G*listan =Gul%> ex'e)t very o''asionally, sin'e
its vo'a+ulary is )ra'ti'ally identi'al with that of the other works (entioned%
BH% 6)art fro( the texts (entioned a+ove a few other Gwar% texts have survived and one or two short
ones have +een )u+lished, at any rate in fa'si(ile, +ut are not 'ited herein%
B#% 7even vo'a+ularies of (edieval Di)% have +een )u+lished, so(e of the( 'ontaining so(e
*rk(en =k(%> words% he (ost i()ortant, and the only one whi'h is )urely Di)%, is the Codex
Cu(ani'us, a hand+ook of the Do(an =Dorn%> language, a Di)% diale't, in Catin, 'o()iled early in xiv
=see 7tudies, )% B5 and 0unda(enta>% he text is not entirely ho(ogeneous- the earlier )art was
'o()iled for 2talian (er'hants, +ut it also 'ontains later additions +y Ger(an (issionaries% 6n index to
it was )u+lished in D% Gren+e'h, Do(anis'hes 2PYrter+u'h, Co)enhagen, !"B$, and is 'ited as xiv Dont%
CC2 =for the 2talian> and CCG =for the Ger(an )art>- Gr% so(eti(es followed +y the )age%
B5% he re(aining six are all in 6ra+i', one a list of urkish words in al)ha+eti'al order with 6ra+i'
eUuivalents, the others 6ra+i' hand+ooks with urkish eUuivalents% 6ll these vo'a+ularies have a
s)e'i,ed or infera+le Egy)tian 3a(luk +a'kground, and it see(s 'lear that +asi'ally they are
hand+ooks of the languages s)oken +y urkish slaves +rought to Egy)t fro( southern .ussia, so(e of
the( s)oke Di)% and others k(%, an OLu4 diale't% 0or exa()le, Hou% =see )ara% B"> see(s fro(
internal eviden'e to have +een 'o()iled fro( oral infor(ation 'olle'ted in the 3a(luk )ossessions in
7yria% 2n so(e 'ases an 6ra+i' word is translated +y di:erent Di)% and k(% words, in others individual
words are des'ri+ed as Di)% or k(%, +ut in the great (a9ority of 'ases no su'h indi'ation is given% he
)resu()tion in nearly all 'ases is that the word is Di)%, +ut there are one or two )assages in 2d% =see
)ara% OR> whi'h see( to i()ly the 'ontrary%
B"% Until al(ost today it was generally a''e)ted that the oldest of these vo'a+ularies was the
anony(ous 6ra+i'8urkish vo'a+ulary in Ceiden (anus'ri)t O!#, 1arner, )u+lished in 3% % Houts(a,
Ein t*rkis'h8ara+is'hes Glossar, 2Seiden, !5"B, 'ited herein as xiii Hou% followed +y the )age and line
of the 6ra+i' text% Eut as this +ook was a'tually going to )ress an arti'le +y Ear+ara 0le((ing
=Ha(+urg> was )u+lished in ier 2sla(, Eand BB, Eerlin, gune !"H5, ))% $$H :%, in whi'h she announ'ed
that Houts(a, who )ur)orted to )u+lish the exa't text of this uniUue (anus'ri)t had 'onverted the
date in the 'olo)hon into the ,gures HBN, whereas the fa'si(ile )u+lished in her arti'le shows Uuite
'learly the words tal_ta vSa ar+a&in wa sa+&u(i&ya that is =ba&+_n> a%h% #BN eUuivalent to =ganuary> 6%/%
!NBN% 2nstead, therefore, of dating +a'k to xiii and +eing the oldest of these vo'a+ularies, it goes +nek
only to the (iddle of xiv and 'o(es 'hronologi'ally +etween the two vo'a+ularies (entioned in the
following )aragra)hs% his announ'e(ent unfortunately a))eared too late for it to +e )ossi+le to
'orre't the nu(erous referen'es to Hou% in the di'tionary%
OR% here are two other xiv vo'a+ularies% he Dit_+u&!8idr_k li8lis_ni&!8atr_k, the only list of urkish
words with 6ra+i' eUuivalents, was written in Egy)t, )ro+a+ly in a%d% !N!N, +y 6tiruJl8din 6+* Hayy_n
3uha((ad i+n Yusuf, originally a native of Granada% 6 'riti'al edition was )u+lished +y 6% CaferoLlu,
6+u Hayy_n, Dit_+ al8ldrdk li8lisdn al86tr_k, 2stan+ul, !"N!% 2t is 'ited as xiv 2d% followed +y the )age in
the 6ra+i' text%
O!% he Dit_+ EulLatT l8(uVtYU , luLatiJl8turk wa&l8UifM_U was written +y Ca(_luJl8din 6+* 3uha((ad
&6+dullah al8urki )ro+a+ly in the (iddle of xiv and )erha)s also in the 3a(luk do(inions in 7yria% he
only (anus'ri)t, whi'h is not Uuite 'o()lete, was )u+lished with a 'o()rehensive index +y 6%
ea9U'4kowski, 3anuel ara+e de la langue des urks et des Di)t'haks, 1arsaw, 2, !"N5- 22 =title in Polish>,
!"OB% 2t is 'ited as xiv Eui% followed +y the )age and line of the )rinted text in 2 and the )age of the
(anus'ri)t in 22 =ver+s>%
O$% here are two GP vo'a+ularies, +oth surviving in uniUue (anus'ri)ts and dating fro( early in the
'entury, +ut it is un'ertain whi'h is the older% 6l88tuhfatul8sdkiya,luLati&l8turhiya, an 6ra+i'8urkish
vo'a+ulary in al)ha+eti'al order, (ainly Di)% with a nu(+er of k(% words, was written al(ost 'ertainly
in Egy)t and +efore a%d% !B$H =the date of a note on the ,rst )age>% 2t was edited with a fa'si(ile,
translation, and index in E% 6talay, Ettuhfet8ii484ekiyye ,l88lkgat8it8t*rkiyye, 2stan+ul, !"BO% 2t is 'ited
as tih% followed +y the )age and line of the fa'si(ile%
ON% 6l8Uawaninti&l8kulliya ,8d%a+ti&!8luLati&l8turhiya was 'o()iled +y an unknown author in Cairo +y
'ross8Uuestioning urks living there% he +ook is undated, +ut a referen'e in it to a(erlane (akes it
'ertain that it was written in xv, and )ro+a+ly early in the 'entury% he text was )u+lished +y
DY)r*l*4ade 3eh(ed 0uad =Prof% 0% DY)r*l*>, 2stan+ul, !"$5% 2t is 'ited as Dav% followed +y the )age and
OB% luite re'ently Prof% ea9U'4kowski )u+lished an a''ount of a short 6ra+i'8Di)% vo'a+ulary entitled
al8/urratu l8(udiJa , luLati&l8turkiya dis'overed in 0loren'e, with an extra't fro( the text and an index
to the extra't, in .o'4nik Orientalisty'4ny GG2G, Pt% i, ))% N" :% he work is anony(ous and undated +ut
'learly +elongs to the ,rst half of xv% 2t adds little to our knowledge of Di)% +ut 2 have Uuoted a few
words fro( it as xv /ur% followed +y the )age%
OO% he OLu4 language whi'h is 'onveniently, +ut not Uuite a''urately, 'alled IOld Os(anliJ =Os(%>,
sin'e the earliest texts in it date fro( +efore the foundation of the Otto(an E()ire, is re'orded fro(
(id x(, +ut the xiii (aterial is s'anty% he earliest is a few verses in the works of 3awlana CalaluJl8din
al8.u(i =a%d% !$R#K58!$#NKB> and a few verses in those of his son 'o((only 'alled 7ultan P'led% hese
verses (ight (ore )ro)erly +e 'lassi,ed as 7al'uk, +ut as they are the ,rst stage of a 'ontinuous
literary tradition it see(s (ore 'onvenient to 'lassify these very early texts and other slightly later
texts whi'h are not stri'tly Os(%, like the Dit_+ /ede Dorkut, whi'h see(s to +e in a k(% language,
)ro+a+ly xv%, as Os(% so as to avoid an ex'essively 'o()li'ated ter(inology% 6 good (any early works
of this kind have +een )u+lished with )artial or 'o()lete indi'es, +ut it did not see( to (e ne'essary
for the )ur)oses of this di'tionary to do (ore than 'ite under the heading xiv :% Os(% =sin'e the xiii
(aterial is so in'onsidera+le> those of the words 'ontained in this di'tionary whi'h rea))ear in the *rk
/il Duru(u )u+li'ation a(klariyle ara(a 7Y4l*L*, B vols%, 2stan+ul, !"BN8O- 6nkara, !"ON8# =7 282P>
or as I.u(iJ words in 7an% 6 new edition of 7 is now +eing )u+lished, +ut is not yet suA'iently far
advan'ed to (ake 'itation fro( it very 'onvenient%,
T#E %&DE(N .AN)+A)E!
OH% 2t would not +e )ossi+le to in'lude in this +ook all the eviden'e whi'h 'ould +e asse(+led
regarding the survival in (odern languages of the early words listed herein without a (u'h greater
delay in its )u+li'ation and a (u'h greater in'rease in its +ulk than would +e regarded as
advantageous% 2n any event it is suA'iently o+vious to all students of the urkish languages that
'o((on words like at Ia horseJ and al8 Ito takeJ still survive al(ost everywhere to (ake a detailed
)roof of the )oint unne'essary% Nor is it very i()ortant, when a +asi' word is known to survive in so(e
or all (odern languages, to know whether its various derivatives survive also% On the other hand, for
the reasons stated in )ara% 5, the su+9e't 'annot +e entirely negle'ted, and it is i()ortant to in'lude at
any rate so(e referen'es to (odern languages% his i((ediately raises the Uuestion how (odern
languages should +e 'lassi,ed and grou)ed% 6 good (any syste(s of 'lassi,'ation have already +een
suggested- there are two Uuite di:erent ones in 0unda(enta- +ut for )resent )ur)oses it is hardly
ne'essary to use anything (ore ela+orate than a si()le geogra)hi'al syste(% Even this is o)en to
so(e o+9e'tions, sin'e there are no 'lear8'ut geogra)hi'al lines +etween the (odern des'endants of
the early languages, and so(e (odern languages des'ended fro( di:erent an'ient languages have in
the 'ourse of ti(e develo)ed 'hara'teristi's whi'h +ring the( 'loser to one another than to languages
with whi'h they are geneti'ally related% 6fter a good deal of reFe'tion 2 ,nally de'ided u)on a sixfold
division? north8eastern =NE>, south8eastern =7E>, north8'entral =NC>, south8'entral =7C>, north8western
=N1>, and south8western =71>% Of these the N1 languages are, geneti'ally s)eaking, Di)% and the 71
OLu4- the 7C and )ro+a+ly 7E are, +roadly s)eaking, des'ended fro( Gak% +ut +y di:erent lines of
O#% 2n the NE grou) ane in'luded the languages s)oken, +ut until re'ently not written, in eastern
7i+eria and ad9a'ent areas% Yakut, however, whi'h has +een isolated fro( the rest so long that it has
a'Uuired very s)e'ial 'hara'teristi's of its own, is seldo( 'ited, the authority used +eing E% D%
Pekarsky, 7lovar& yakutskogo ya4yka, 7t% Peters+urg, !"R#8NR, 'ited as Pek% he (ost i()ortant
authority for the vo'a+ulary of these languages is 1% .adgo:, Persu'h eines 1orter+u'hes der
tiirk8/iale'te =O)yt slovarya tyurkskikh nare'hii>, B vols%, 7t% Peters+urg, !5558!"!!, 'ited as . followed
+y the volu(e in ro(an, and the 'olu(n in ara+i' nu(erals, individual languages +eing (entioned in
the a++reviated for(s used in that work with the (inor alterations of s)elling shown in the Cist of
6++reviations% 2 have also used the Dhakassko8russkii slovarJ, edited +y N% 6% Easkakov, 3os'ow, !"ON,
'ited as Dgiak% so(eti(es followed +y the )age, the uvinsko8russkii slovar&, edited +y 6% 6% Pal&(+akh,
3os'ow, !"OO, 'ited as uv% so(eti(es followed +y the )age, and o''asionally the (odern
.ussian8Dhakas, .ussian8uvan, and .ussian86ltay di'tionaries%
O5% 2n the 7E grou) are in'luded the urkish languages and diale'ts of Chinese *rkistan and ad9a'ent
areas, whi'h have traditionally +een 'alled Eastern *rki and are now 'alled Neo8UyLur +y 7oviet and
Chinese s'holars% hese fall into two (ain grou)s, the literary language written in 6ra+i' s'ri)t and the
s)oken diale'ts% 2 have 'alled +oth iirki% 0or the ,rst, 'itations are fro( .% E% 7haw, 6 7ket'h of the
urki Canguage, Cal'utta, !5#5, 'ited as 7haw followed +y the )age, and Eurhan behidi, UyLurMa8Ge8
nuMa8.usMa CuLat =Uigursko8kitaisko8russkii slovarJ>, Pekin, !"ON, 'ited as Eb followed +y the )age% 6
good (any words in one diale't, aranMT, s)oken in southern 7i+eria are in'luded in .%, and are 'ited as
ar% followed +y a referen'e to .% 0or the rest, (ainly diale'ts s)oken in southern 7inkiang, 2 have used
G% garring, 6n Eastern urki8English /iale't /i'tionary, Cund, !"HB, 'ited as garring followed +y the )age%
One language in this area is in a 'lass +y itself, that of the 7arTL YuLur in Dansu, the only language
whi'h 'an reasona+ly +e regarded as dire'tly des'ended fro( early UyL% 2t is re'orded in 7% Ye% 3alov,
Ya4yk 4heltykh uigurov, 6l(a 6ta, !"O#, 'ited o''asionally as 7arTL YuL% followed +y the )age%
O"% 2n the NC grou) are in'luded DTrLT4 =Dir%> and Da4ax =D4x%>, 'alled in . Dara DTrLT4 and DTrLT4
res)e'tively% Histori'ally Dir% +elongs to the sa(e fa(ily as the NE languages and D4x% see(s to +e a
Di)% diale't, +ut the )eo)les talking the( have lived in 'lose )ro)inUuity to one another for so long that
they now have (any 'o((on 'hara'teristi's% he authorities whi'h 2 have used )rin'i)ally ar', for DTr%,
D% D% YudakhinJs Dirgi4sko8russkii slovar&, 3os'ow, !"HO, 'ited as Yud% followed +y the )age, and for D4x%
Dh% 3akh(udov and G% 3usa8+aev, Da4akhsko8russkii slovar&, 6l(a 6ta, !"OB, and 2o% N%
7hnitnikovJs Da4akh8English /i'tionary, he Hague !"HH, 'ited as 33 and 7hnit% res)e'tively followed
+y the )age% 2 have also o''asionally used the eUuivalent .ussian8Dir% and .ussian8D4x% di'tionaries,
and only o''asionally Uuoted . sin'e the (odern authorities see( to +e rather fuller and (ore relia+le%
HR% here are several (odern 7C s)oken diale'ts, +ut the only literary language is U4+ek =U4+%> for
whi'h 2 have used 6% D% Eorovkov, U4+eksko8russkii slovar&, 3os'ow, !"O", 'ited as Eor% followed +y the
)age, and less often the .ussian8U4+% di'tionary of !"OB% he vo'a+ulary in H% Pa(+eryJs dagatais'he
7)ra'hstudien, Cei)4ig, !5H#, is very heterogeneous jn 'hara'ter% he +ulk of the words in it are
'lassi'al QaL% taken, often with so(e errors, fro( various oriental authors- the re(ainder see( to +e
'olloUuial xix U4+% words 'olle'ted +y the author hi(self, and o''asionally 'ited as Pa(% followed +y
the )age%
H!% he N1 grou) 'o()rises a rather wide range of languages% hose Uuoted in . in'lude Da4an atar
=Da4%> and three Darai( diale'ts, those of the Cri(ea, Cutsk, and roki =Dar%, Dr(%, C%, and %> +ut he also
uses Dr(% for the non8Darai( language s)oken in the Cri(ea whi'h is indistinguisha+le fro( Os(%, so
that the only safe indi'ation that a word is Darai( is that it is given in the He+rew al)ha+et% he words
Uuoted fro( these languages are re)rodu'ed with the sa(e a++reviations and the referen'e in .% 0or
Dar% % 2 have o''asionally used % Dowalski, Darai(is'he exte i( /ialekt von roki, Cra'ow, !"$", 'ited
as D('% followed +y the )age% 0or =Da4an> atar 2 have used the atarsko8russkii slovar&, 3os'ow, !"HH,
'ited as Da4% or at%, and for Darakal)ak =Dk%> and Nogay =Nog%> 2 have used the Darakal)aksko8russkii
slovar&, 3os'ow, !"O5 and the Nogaisko8rttsskii slovar&, 3os'ow, !"HN, +oth edited +y N% 6% Easkakov
and 'ited +y the )age, and o''asionally the .ussian8Dk% and 8Nog% di'tionaries% 0or Du(yk =Durn%> there
is at )resent availa+le only the .ussko8ku(ykskii slovar&, 3os'ow, i"HR, edited +y e% e% Ea((atov-
Eashkir has diverged so far fro( the rest of the grou) that 2 have not taken it into a''ount% No
'onvenient authorities for (inor languages like DaraMay and Ealkar are at )resent availa+le% 6s regards
Chuvash =Quv%> see )ara% $%
H$% 2n the 71 grou) are in'luded only three languages, 64er+av9ani =64%>, Os(% i =in'luding .e)%
urkish>, and k(% 0or 64% 2 have used various authorities )u+lished in the 7oviet Union, not 'iting the(
individually% here are (any authorities for Os(%, +ut those whi'h 2 have generally used are 7ir ga(es
.edhouse, 6 urkish and English Cexi'on, in the Constantino)le, !"$!, re)rint, 'ited as .ed% followed +y
the )age- bayx 7a(i, l_(*s8i !&urkt, $ vols%, 2stan+ul, 6%h% !N!5 =a%d% !"RR8!> 'ited as 7a(i followed
+y the )age- and o''asionally the a%h% !NRH =a%d% !555> edition of the Ceh'e8i Os(aniya, 'ited as Ceh%
followed +y the )age% 2n noting the survival of words in (odern languages 2 have not in'luded those
words whi'h have re'ently +een re8introdu'ed into .e)% urkish to re)la'e 6ra+i' and Persian
loan8words% 7o(e of these are genuine old words whi'h had +e'o(e o+solete in Os(%, others are old
loan8words like a'un =for a?9u?n, a word +orrowed fro( 7ogdian> and MaL I)eriodJ =a (edieval loan8word
fro( 3ong%>, +ut they have not had a 'ontinuous history in Os(%
HN% 6s )ointed out in )aras% $ and !$ it is often i()ortant in tra'ing the history of a urkish word to
krpHw whether it +e'a(e a loan8word in 3ongolian and, if so, when, sin'e this often throws light not
only on the age of a word +ut also on its original )ronun'iation and (eaning% he Uuestion of su'h
loan8words is dis'ussed at length in 7tudies, Cha)% !!, and it is there suggested that these words were
+orrowed in three (ain )eriods, the ,rst, )ro+a+ly v and vi, during whi'h words were +orrowed +y a
3ongolian8s)eaking )eo)le, )ossi+ly the Ditan, fro( an 2Kr urkish8s)eaking tri+e, )ossi+ly the avLaM-
the se'ond, )ro+a+ly +etween viii and xn- and the third during and after the reign of Chinggis% he
earliest su+stantial re(ains of 3ongolian are not, however, earlier than x(% 2n 'iting 3ongolian words
+orrowed fro( urkish 2 have nor(ally used three authorities?
=!> E% Haenis'h, 1orter+u'h 4u 3anghol un Ni&u'a o+'aJan, Cei)4ig, !"N", whi'h 'ontains a list of the
words in the well8known 3ong% xiii 7e'ret History =7H>, 'ited as Haenis'h followed +y the )age%
=$> he standard, though now so(ewhat antiUuated, di'tionary of Classi'al 3ongolian, g% E%
Dowalewski, /i'tionnaire (ongol8russe8franMais, Da4an, !5B! :%, 'ited as Dow% followed +y the )age%
=N> 6 good di'tionary of (odern written 3ongolian, he 3ongol8English Pra'ti'al /i'tionary, 'o()iled
+y 3% Haltod and others and )u+lished +y the Evangeli'an 6llian'e 3ission =in the U%7%6%> !"B"8ON,
'ited as Haltod followed +y the )age%
&T#E( %&DE(N A+T#&(ITIE!
HB% 2n addition to the (odern authorities Uuoted a+ove use has +een (ade of the following other
(odern authorities?
=!> 6% CaferoLlu, Uygur 7Y4l*L*, N )arts, 2stan+ul, !"NB85, a useful list of the words 'ontained in the
indi'es to the texts enu(erated in )aras% $R =$> =e> and $! a+ove and one or two others, 'ited as Caf%
=$> v% G%, 6G, see )ara% $R =$> =e>%
=N> G% /oerfer, *rkis'he und (ongolis'he Ele(ente i( Neu)ersis'hen- 2 3ongolis'he Ele(ente,
1ies+aden, !"HN- 22 iirkis'he Ele(ente, alif +is t_, !"HO- 222 ditto 9i( +is k_f !"H#, 'ited as /oerfer,
followed +y the volu(e and the nu(+er of the word%
=B> C% Ero'kel(ann, Osttiirkis'he Gra((atik der isla(is'hen Citteratwr8s)ra'hen 3ittelasiens,
Ceiden, !"OB, 'ited as Ero'kel(ann followed +y the nu(+er of the )aragra)h%
=O> 6% 3% 7h'her+ak, INa4vaniya do(ashnikh i dikikh 4hivotnykh v tyurk8skikh ya4ykakhJ =Ihe na(es
of do(esti'ated and wild ani(als in the urkish languagesJ>, one of several arti'les in 2stori'heskoe
ra4vitie leksiki tyurkskikh ya4ykov, 3os'ow, !"H!, 'ited as 7h'her+ak, followed +y the )age%
=H> he re)rodu'tions of 37% No% 7% g% Dr% BHN5, Pa'ket 5 in the (anus'ri)t 'olle'tion of the Ceningrad
+ran'h of the 2nstitute of the Peo)les of 6sia, re'ently )u+lished in /% 2% ikhonov, Dho4yaistvo i o+sh'8
hestvennyi stroi uigurskogogosudarstva GmG!P vv%, Ceningrad, !"HH, and again with trans'ri)tion and
translation +y E% .% enishev in an arti'le 'alled IDho4yaistvennye 4a)isi na drevneuigursko( ya4ykeJ in
2ssledovartiya )o gra((atike i leksike tyurkskikh ya4ykov, ashkent, !"HH% he (anus'ri)t is a late
UyL% fa(ily ar'hive, and is 'ited as 0a(% 6r'h, followed +y the line%
HO% 2n )aragra)hs B, O, and 5 so(e a''ount has +een given of the kind of infor(ation whi'h is
su))lied a+out individual words% here is not a single word regarding whi'h the full range of infor(a8
tion is availa+le, and it (ay therefore +e useful to set out here what the full range is and how the
various ite(s are arranged% he word (ay +e )re'eded +y a 'ode letter =see )aragra)h !5>% 2f it is a
hapa0 #egome"o" =see )aragra)h #> it is i((ediately followed +y IHa)% leg%J% 0ro( this )oint the order
varies slightly% 2t is so(eti(es 'onvenient to enter next the original (eaning )ossi+ly with so(e
re(arks on later develo)(ents, +ut this is su)erFuous if the word is Ha)% leg%, sin'e the Uuotation will
su))ly it, and if the word is derived it is (ore logi'al to re'ord the derivation +efore the (eaning% 6fter
this it (ay +e desira+le to add so(e other re(arks% 2f the fa't that the word is a loan8word in 3ongo8
lian is relevant, this is (entioned next% 2nfor(ation regarding the survival of the word then follows% 2t
'annot +e given earlier sin'e there are (any instan'es of words surviving in (odern languages, usually
NE, not +e'ause they have existed 'ontinuously in those languages +ut +e'ause they have +een re+or8
rowed fro( 3ongolian, )erha)s Uuite re'ently% 0inally, 'ross8referen'es (ay +e given to other words
ety(ologi'ally related or other words with the sa(e or a si(ilar (eaning% he Uuotations then follow in
the following order? *rk* viii- viii :%- viii :% 3an%- viii :% Yen%? UyL% viii- ix- viii :% Chr%- 3an%86- 3an%- Eud%-
Civ%- Giv Chin%8UyL% /iet%? O% Dir% ix :%? Gak% xi =in'luding DE>- xn=]> DEPP- x(=]> DEPP- 6t%- ef%- xiv .+L%,
3uh%? 6rLu, Qigll, Gan'ak xi? QaL% xv:%? OLu4 xi? Gwar% xiii 6li- xiii=]> OL%- xiv lut+, 3N, Nah'%? DT)% xi?
Do(% xiv CC2, CCG- Gr%? Di)%Kk(% xiii Hou%- xiv 2d%, Eui%- xv uh%, Dav%, /ur%? Os(% xiv :%
HH% 2n 'on'lusion (ay 2 Pery hu(+ly su+(it that this +ook 'ontains a vast nn(D)r nf nnotations%
translations, and referen'es, and that it is hard to +elieve that in su'h a large Fo'k there are no +la'k
shee)] 3ay 2 )lead, as the father of urkish lexi'ogra)hy did nine 'enturies ago, that ya4(a?s atT(
yaL(ur yai>il(a?s +ilge? yai>ku? Ithe only shot that never (isses is the rain, the only s'holar who never
(akes a (istake is the e'hoJ DaV% 2ll N#", $R, and )resent in advan'e (y a)ologies for these and other
2t would not +e )ro)er for (e to end this )refa'e without ex)ressing (y sin'ere gratitude to the Eritish
6'ade(y for their generous 'ontri+ution towards the 'ost of )rodu'ing this volu(e%
6ugust !"H5
Gerard Clauson