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En el vecindario – Capítulo 2

!Exprésate!
Vocabulario 1:
Conocer to know a person, place, art un vecindario neighborhood
Saber to know a fact/how to do something un barrio neighborhood
Un vecino/a neighbor trabajar to work
Secretaria secretary mecánico mechanic
Una oficina office el taller Workshops
El cartero mail man el abogado Sawyer
El salón de belleza beauty shop la peluquera hair dresser
Cuidar to take care of los niños children
Los enfermos sick people el médico doctor
La enfermera nurse el cocinero Cook/chef
El comerciante businessman el dentista dentista
La mujer cartero mail lady el periodista journalist
El trabajador social social Yorker construir to Guild
El ingeniero engineer el carpintero Carpenter
Ayudar to help la gente people
Un incendio fire el conductor driver
Conducir to drive el camión truck
Un bombero fireman apagar to put out
Juntos together el policía policeman
La mujer policía female cop arreglar to fix
Contar to count/to tell dar to give
Decir to say enseñar to teach/show
Prestar to lend programar to program
Dedicarse to dedicate oneself el programador programmer
Diseñar to design una página Web Web page
mejor better nadie nobody/no one
el banquero banker un idioma language
unos consejos advine encantado delighted
igualmente likewise mucho gusto please to meet you
el gusto es mío the pleasure is mine
Gramática 1:

1. Dar = to give decir = to say/tell


Doy damos digo decimos
Das dais dices decis
Da dan dice dicen

2. Indirect objects and indirect object pronouns:


Taken directly from: http://www.studyspanish.com/lessons/iopro1.htm

To identify the indirect object use our two guidelines:

1. The IO tells us where the DO is going.


2. The IO answers the question "to whom?" or "for whom" the action of the verb is performed.

When a pronoun takes the place of the name of the indirect object, use the following pronouns:

me (me) nos (us)


te (you-familiar) os (you-all-familiar)
le (him, her, you-formal) les (them, you-all-formal)

In an affirmative statement with one verb, the indirect object pronoun comes immediately before the
conjugated verb.

Juan me compra un regalo. Juan te compra un regalo.


John buys me a gift. John buys you a gift.
John buys a gift for me. John buys a gift for you.

Juan le compra un regalo. Juan nos compra un regalo.


John buys her a gift. John buys us a gift.
John buys a gift for her. John buys a gift for us.

Juan os compra un regalo. Juan les compra un regalo.


John buys you-all (familiar) a gift. John buys them a gift.
John buys a gift for you-all. John buys a gift for them.

The key to learning to use the indirect object pronouns is the same as the key for direct object
pronouns. You must learn to think in phrases, not words. The phrases consist of a pronoun and a
conjugated verb. In the following examples, note that the IO remains the same, while the subject of the
phrase changes.

me compra me compran me compras


he buys me they buy me you buy me

The IO pronouns le and les present a special problem because they are ambiguous. That is, they can
stand for different things.
Le les
to (for) him to (for) them
to (for) her to (for) you-all-formal
to (for) you-formal

The following sentences, while grammatically correct, are ambiguous:

Ella le escribe una carta.


Ella les escribe una carta.

Ella le escribe una carta.


She writes him a letter.
She writes her a letter.
She writes you (formal) a letter.

Ella les escribe una carta.


She writes them a letter.
She writes you-all (formal) a letter.

Since le and les can mean more than one thing, a prepositional phrase is often added to remove the
ambiguity.

Ella le escribe a Juan una carta.


Ella le escribe a su hermana una carta.
Ella le escribe a usted una carta.

Ella les escribe a sus padres una carta.


Ella les escribe a ustedes una carta.

Sometimes a prepositional phrase is added not for clarity, but rather for emphasis.

Juan me da a mí el dinero.
John gives me the money.
(emphasizing that the money is given to me and not to someone else)

Juan te da a ti el dinero.
John gives you the money. (emphasis on you)

There is no ambiguity in the following sentence. It can only mean one thing.

Juan me da el dinero.
John gives me the money.
The addition of a prepositional phrase merely adds emphasis.

Juan me da a mí el dinero.
John gives me the money.
3. Saber = to know a fact; how to do something
Sé sabemos
Sabes sabéis
Sabe saben

Conocer: to know about a person, place, or thing (art, for example)

Conozco conocemos
Conoces conocéis
Conoce conocen

4. Uses of ser:

1. To tell time Es la una.


2. To say what belongs to whom Es el perro de Julio.
3. To say what someone/thing is Es enfermero.
4. To say what someone/thing is like Es muy guapo.
5. To say where someone is from Soy de Freehold.
6. To say someone’s nationality Es peruano.

5. Nationalidades:

argentino/a Argentine hondureño/a Honduran


canadiense Canadian mexicano/a Mexican
childno/a Chilean nicaragűense Nicaraguan
comolbiano/a Colombian paraguayo/a Paraguayan
costarricense Costa Rican peruano/a Peruvian
español/a Spanish salvadoreño Salvadoran
estadounidense from the U.S.A. uruguayo/a Uruguayan
guatemalteco/a Guatemalan venezolano/a Venezuelan

Vocabulario 2:

La sala living room el techo ceiling


El cuadro painting un apartamento apartment
La planta plant regar to water
El sillón chair la habitación bedroom
Sacudir los muebles to dust organizar to organize
La pared wall la lámpara lamp
La cama bed la mesita de noche night table
El piso floor el estante bookcase
A la derecha to the right a la izquierda to the left
Entre between el lavaplatos dishwasher
El baño bathroom el lavabo sink
Barrer to sweep el inodoro toalet
El grifo faucet la bañera bathtub
La ducha shower la cocina kitchen
El fregadero refrigerador la estufa stove
El horno oven darle de comer to feed
La secadora dryer la lavadora washing machine
Describir to describe enfrente facing; in front of
Un escritorio desk una cómoda Chest of drawers
La alfombra rug los vasos glasses
Cerca near hay que it is necessary
Mil veces 1000 times estar harto de to be fed up with
Haz el favor please do me the favor no es justo it’s not fair
Aquí here adentro inside
Al lado de on the side of delante de in front of
Detrás de venid debajo de Veneta

Gramática 2:

1. Ser vs. Estar:


Ser….. ---say where something takes place
---Describe someone/thing’s characteristics

Estar… ---say what’s going on right now (present progressive)


---Say where someone/thing is
---How someone feels or how food tastes

2. Some expressions followed by infinitives:

Deber: Debes estudiar.


Tener que: Tengo que hacer mi tarea.
Me/te/le/nos/les toca: Nos toca ir al cine.
Hay que: Hay que pasar la aspiradora.
Hacer el favor de: Haz el favor de llamar a tu tío.
Favor de: Favor de escribirles.

3. Preterit of ir preterit of hacer These are both irregular!


Fui fuimos hice hicimos
Fuiste fuisteis hiciste hicisteis
Fue fueron hizo hicieron
4. Preterit of regular –ar, -ir, and –er verbs

AR ER IR
Hablar comer vivir

Hablé hablamos comí comimos viví vivimos


Hablaste hablasteis comiste comisteis viviste vivisteis
Habló hablaron comió comieron vivió vivieron