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ORNL/TM-2004/144

GuidetoCombinedHeatandPower
SystemsforBoilerOwners
andOperators
C.B.Oland
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ORNL/TM-2004/144
GUIDETOCOMBINEDHEATANDPOWERSYSTEMS
FORBOILEROWNERSANDOPERATORS
C.B.Oland
July30,2004
Preparedforthe
U.S.DepartmentofEnergy
IndustrialTechnologiesProgram
Preparedby
OAKRIDGENATIONALLABORATORY
OakRidge,Tennessee37831
managedby
UT-BATTELLE,LLC
forthe
U.S.DEPARTMENTOFENERGY
undercontractDE-AC05-00OR22725
ii
CONTENTS
Page
LISTOFFIGURES................................................................................................................................ vii
LISTOFTABLES.................................................................................................................................. ix
ACRONYMS.......................................................................................................................................... xi
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...................................................................................................................... xiii
EXECUTIVESUMMARY.................................................................................................................... xv
1. INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 SCOPEANDOBJECTIVES................................................................................................... 2
1.2 APPROACH............................................................................................................................ 3
1.3 COGENERATIONOPPORTUNITIES.................................................................................. 4
1.4 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................ 5
2. COGENERATIONTECHNOLOGYISSUES................................................................................ 7
2.1 TECHNOLOGYDESCRIPTION........................................................................................... 7
2.2 NATIONALENERGYACTS................................................................................................. 9
2.3 ENVIRONMENTALREGULATIONS.................................................................................. 11
2.3.1 CleanAirAct................................................................................................................ 11
2.3.1.1 NationalAmbientAirQualityStandards..................................................... 14
2.3.1.2 NewSourcePerformanceStandards............................................................ 14
2.3.1.3 NationalEmissionStandardsforHAPs....................................................... 16
2.3.1.4 Permittingrequirements............................................................................... 19
2.3.1.5 Statepermittingprograms............................................................................ 23
2.3.2 CleanWaterAct........................................................................................................... 24
2.4 BENEFITSANDBARRIERS................................................................................................. 25
2.4.1 BenefitsandPotentialApplications............................................................................. 25
2.4.2 BarrierstoImplementation........................................................................................... 27
2.5 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................ 29
3. PRIMEMOVERS............................................................................................................................ 33
3.1 STEAMTURBINES............................................................................................................... 33
3.1.1 Description................................................................................................................... 33
3.1.2 DesignandPerformanceCharacteristics...................................................................... 36
3.1.2.1 Efficiency..................................................................................................... 39
3.1.2.2 Capitalcost................................................................................................... 40
3.1.2.3 Availability................................................................................................... 40
3.1.2.4 Maintenance................................................................................................. 41
3.1.2.5 Heatrecovery............................................................................................... 41
3.1.2.6 Fuelsandemissions...................................................................................... 41
3.1.3 PotentialApplications................................................................................................... 41
3.2 GASTURBINES..................................................................................................................... 42
3.2.1 Description................................................................................................................... 43
3.2.2 DesignandPerformanceCharacteristics...................................................................... 44
3.2.2.1 Efficiency..................................................................................................... 46
3.2.2.2 Capitalcost................................................................................................... 49
3.2.2.3 Availability................................................................................................... 49
3.2.2.4 Maintenance................................................................................................. 49
3.2.2.5 Heatrecovery............................................................................................... 50
3.2.2.6 Fuelsandemissions...................................................................................... 50
iii
3.2.3 PotentialApplications................................................................................................... 51
3.3 MICROTURBINES................................................................................................................. 52
3.3.1 Description................................................................................................................... 52
3.3.2 DesignandPerformanceCharacteristics...................................................................... 52
3.3.2.1 Efficiency..................................................................................................... 54
3.3.2.2 Capitalcost................................................................................................... 54
3.3.2.3 Availability................................................................................................... 54
3.3.2.4 Maintenance................................................................................................. 55
3.3.2.5 Heatrecovery............................................................................................... 55
3.3.2.6 Fuelsandemissions...................................................................................... 55
3.3.3 PotentialApplications................................................................................................... 55
3.4 RECIPROCATINGINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINES............................................... 56
3.4.1 Description................................................................................................................... 56
3.4.2 DesignandPerformanceCharacteristics...................................................................... 56
3.4.2.1 Efficiency..................................................................................................... 57
3.4.2.2 Capitalcost................................................................................................... 60
3.4.2.3 Availability................................................................................................... 60
3.4.2.4 Maintenance................................................................................................. 60
3.4.2.5 Heatrecovery............................................................................................... 60
3.4.2.6 Fuelsandemissions...................................................................................... 61
3.4.3 PotentialApplications................................................................................................... 61
3.5 FUELCELLS.......................................................................................................................... 61
3.5.1 Description................................................................................................................... 62
3.5.2 DesignandPerformanceCharacteristics...................................................................... 62
3.5.2.1 Efficiency..................................................................................................... 63
3.5.2.2 Capitalcost................................................................................................... 64
3.5.2.3 Availability................................................................................................... 65
3.5.2.4 Maintenance................................................................................................. 65
3.5.2.5 Heatrecovery............................................................................................... 65
3.5.2.6 Fuelsandemissions...................................................................................... 65
3.5.3 PotentialApplications................................................................................................... 65
3.6 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................ 66
4. HEAT-RECOVERYEQUIPMENT................................................................................................ 71
4.1 UNFIREDUNITS................................................................................................................... 71
4.1.1 UnfiredHeat-RecoverySteamGenerators ................................................................... 74
4.1.2 Heat-RecoveryMufflers............................................................................................... 75
4.1.3 Recuperators................................................................................................................. 76
4.1.4 Regenerators................................................................................................................. 77
4.1.5 EbullientCoolingSystems........................................................................................... 77
4.1.6 ForcedCirculationCoolingSystems............................................................................ 77
4.1.7 Aftercoolers.................................................................................................................. 77
4.1.8 HeatExchangers........................................................................................................... 78
4.2 FIREDUNITS......................................................................................................................... 78
4.2.1 SupplementaryFiredHeat-RecoverySteamGenerators.............................................. 78
4.2.2 Industrial,Commercial,andInstitutionalBoilers......................................................... 84
4.3 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................ 87
5. ELECTRICPOWERGENERATION............................................................................................. 91
5.1 ELECTRICALGENERATORS.............................................................................................. 91
5.1.1 SynchronousGenerators............................................................................................... 92
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5.1.2 InductionGenerators.................................................................................................... 93
5.2 INVERTERS............................................................................................................................ 93
5.3 CONTROLSYSTEMS............................................................................................................ 94
5.4 SAFETY.................................................................................................................................. 94
5.5 LIABILITY.............................................................................................................................. 95
5.6 INTERCONNECTIONISSUES.............................................................................................. 95
5.7 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................ 96
6. COOLINGEQUIPMENTANDROTATINGMACHINERY....................................................... 97
6.1 ABSORPTIONCHILLERS.................................................................................................... 97
6.2 DESICCANTDEHUMIDIFIERS........................................................................................... 97
6.3 ROTATINGMACHINERY.................................................................................................... 98
6.3.1 AirCompressors........................................................................................................... 98
6.3.2 Pumps........................................................................................................................... 99
6.3.3 Fans............................................................................................................................... 99
6.3.4 RefrigerationCompressors........................................................................................... 100
6.4 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................ 100
7. COMBINEDHEATANDPOWERSYSTEMS............................................................................. 103
7.1 TOPPING-CYCLESYSTEMS............................................................................................... 103
7.1.1 SteamTurbineToppingSystems.................................................................................. 103
7.1.2 GasTurbineToppingSystems..................................................................................... 107
7.1.2.1 Open-cyclegasturbinetoppingsystems ...................................................... 108
7.1.2.2 Closed-cyclegasturbinetoppingsystems.................................................... 110
7.1.3 ReciprocatingEngineToppingSystems....................................................................... 112
7.1.4 FuelCellToppingSystems........................................................................................... 113
7.1.5 MicroturbineToppingSystems.................................................................................... 114
7.2 BOTTOMING-CYCLESYSTEMS........................................................................................ 116
7.3 COMBINED-CYCLESYSTEMS........................................................................................... 117
7.4 TRIGENERATION................................................................................................................. 121
7.5 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................ 123
8. PRELIMINARYDESIGNCONSIDERATIONS........................................................................... 125
8.1 THERMODYNAMICCYCLES............................................................................................. 125
8.2 PRIMEMOVERSELECTION............................................................................................... 125
8.3 FUELANDEMISSIONCONTROLISSUES........................................................................ 127
8.4 HEAT-RECOVERYSCHEMES............................................................................................. 133
8.5 COMBINEDHEATANDPOWEROPTIONS...................................................................... 133
8.6 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................ 146
9. FEASIBILITYEVALUATION....................................................................................................... 147
9.1 EVALUATINGCOGENERATIONPOTENTIAL................................................................ 149
9.1.1 Walk-ThroughandDataCollection............................................................................. 149
9.1.1.1 Energysavingsopportunities....................................................................... 151
9.1.1.2 Preliminaryscreening................................................................................... 151
9.1.2 PreliminaryDesign....................................................................................................... 156
9.1.3 EconomicScreeningAnalysis...................................................................................... 156
9.1.4 Health,Safety,andEnvironmentalIssues.................................................................... 158
9.1.4.1 Noiseandvibration...................................................................................... 158
9.1.4.2 Engineeredandadministrativecontrols....................................................... 158
9.1.4.3 Electricalhazards......................................................................................... 158
9.1.4.4 Emissionscontrol......................................................................................... 159
9.1.4.5 Permits.......................................................................................................... 159
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9.1.5 ElectricalGridConsiderations...................................................................................... 160
9.2 INFORMATIONSOURCES................................................................................................... 160
9.3 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................ 162
BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................................................. B-1
GLOSSARY........................................................................................................................................... G-1
vi
LISTOFFIGURES
Figure Page
ES.1 FormatforpresentingCHPsystemsoptions........................................................................ xx
ES.2 FrameworkforevaluatingCHPviability.............................................................................. xxi
2.1 Topping-cycleschematic...................................................................................................... 8
2.2 Bottoming-cycleschematic.................................................................................................. 8
2.3 Criteriaforassessingeconomicviabilitypotentialofcogenerationtechnology.................. 9
3.1 Noncondensingorback-pressuresteamturbineconfigurationsforCHPapplications........ 37
3.2 Extraction-condensingsteamturbineconfigurationforCHPapplications.......................... 37
3.3 Back-pressuresteamturbineusedasapressure-reducingvalve.......................................... 42
3.4 Open-cyclegasturbineconfigurationsforCHPapplications............................................... 44
3.5 Closed-cyclegasturbineconfigurationsforCHPapplications............................................ 45
3.6 Single-shaftmicroturbinewithhigh-speedgeneratorforCHPapplications ........................ 53
3.7 Two-shaftmicroturbinewithconventionalgeneratorforCHPapplications........................ 53
3.8 RICEforCHPapplications.................................................................................................. 57
3.9 PAFCforCHPapplications.................................................................................................. 64
4.1 Heat-recoverysteamgenerator............................................................................................. 75
4.2 ConfigurationofHRTfiretubeboiler................................................................................... 85
4.3 ConfigurationofScotchpackagefiretubeboiler .................................................................. 85
4.4 Configurationoffireboxfiretubeboiler............................................................................... 86
4.5 Configurationofpackagewatertubeboiler.......................................................................... 86
4.6 Configurationoffield-erectedwatertubeboiler................................................................... 86
5.1 Powertriangle....................................................................................................................... 91
5.2 Phasedifferencebetweencurrentandvoltagecausedbyreactiveload............................... 92
6.1 Hybridfansystem................................................................................................................. 99
6.2 Dual-servicereciprocatingengineapplications.................................................................... 100
7.1 Configurationofasteamturbinetopping-cyclesystemusedinaconventionalpower
plantforelectricpowerproduction....................................................................................... 105
7.2 Generalconfigurationofasteamturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem.................................. 106
7.3 Configurationofaback-pressuresteamturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystemforICI
boilerapplications................................................................................................................. 106
7.4 Configurationofanextraction-condensingsteamturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem
forICIboilerapplications..................................................................................................... 107
7.5 Configurationofanopen-cyclegasturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(without
recuperator)forICIboilerapplications................................................................................ 108
7.6 Configurationofanopen-cyclegasturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(withrecuperator)
forICIboilerapplications..................................................................................................... 109
7.7 Configurationofaclosed-cyclegasturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(without
regenerator)forICIboilerapplications................................................................................ 110
7.8 Configurationofaclosed-cycleregenerativegasturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem
(withregenerator)forICIboilerapplications....................................................................... 111
7.9 Configurationofareciprocatingenginetopping-cycleCHPsystemforICIboiler
applications........................................................................................................................... 113
7.10 Configurationofafuelcelltopping-cycleCHPsystemforICIboilerapplications............. 114
7.11 Configurationofamicroturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(withconventional
generator)forICIboilerapplications................................................................................... 115
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7.12 Configurationofamicroturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(withhigh-speedgenerator)
forICIboilerapplications..................................................................................................... 116
7.13 Configurationofabottoming-cycleCHPsystemforICIboilerapplications...................... 117
7.14 Configurationofacombined-cycleCHPsystem(withfeedwaterpreheat)forICI
boilerapplications................................................................................................................. 118
7.15 Configurationofacombined-cycleCHPsystem(withexhaustgasheatrecovery)
forICIboilerapplications..................................................................................................... 119
7.16 Configurationofacombined-cycleCHPsystem(withrecuperator)forICIboiler
applications........................................................................................................................... 120
7.17 ConfigurationofatrigenerationsystemforICIboilerapplications..................................... 122
7.18 AlternativeconfigurationofatrigenerationsystemforICIboilerapplications................... 123
8.1 Back-pressuresteamturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystemoptions........................................ 134
8.2 Extraction-condensingsteamturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystemoptions ........................... 135
8.3 Open-cyclegasturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(withoutrecuperator)options.............. 136
8.4 Open-cyclegasturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(withrecuperator)options................... 137
8.5 Microturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(withconventionalgenerator)options................ 138
8.6 Microturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(withhigh-speedgenerator)options................... 139
8.7 Reciprocatingenginetopping-cycleCHPsystemoptions.................................................... 140
8.8 Fuelcelltopping-cycleCHPsystemoptions........................................................................ 141
8.9 Bottoming-cycleCHPsystemoptions.................................................................................. 142
8.10 Combined-cycleCHPsystemoptions.................................................................................. 143
8.11 Combined-cycleCHPsystem(withfeedwaterheating)options.......................................... 144
8.12 TrigenerationCHPsystemoptions....................................................................................... 145
9.1 FrameworkforevaluatingtheviabilityofaCHPproject..................................................... 148
9.2 Exampledatacollectionsheet.............................................................................................. 150
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LISTOFTABLES
Table Page
2.1 SummaryofNAAQSunderTitleIoftheCAA................................................................... 15
2.2 Standardsofperformancefornewstationarysteamgeneratingsources.............................. 16
2.3 MACTstandardsforsteamgeneratingsourcecategories.................................................... 17
2.4 BACTandLAERapplicabilityandrequirements................................................................ 21
3.1 CharacteristicsofprimemoversforCHPapplications........................................................ 34
3.2 Codesandstandardsforsteamturbines................................................................................ 38
3.3 Codesandstandardsforgasturbines.................................................................................... 47
3.4 CodesandstandardsforRICEs............................................................................................ 58
3.5 Codesandstandardsforfuelcells........................................................................................ 64
4.1 Codesandstandardsforheat-recoveryequipment............................................................... 72
4.2 OptionsforusingHRSGsandICIboilerstorecoverwasteheat......................................... 79
4.3 Fuelscommonlyburnedtogeneratehotwaterorsteam...................................................... 80
4.4 Techniquesforcontrollingemissionsbeforecombustion.................................................... 81
4.5 Techniquesforcontrollingemissionsduringcombustion.................................................... 81
4.6 Techniquesforcontrollingemissionsaftercombustion....................................................... 83
7.1 TypicalCHPsystemperformancecharacteristics................................................................ 104
8.1 Factorstoconsiderinchoosinganappropriatethermodynamiccycle................................. 126
8.2 Simplepaybackinyearsfornatural-gas-poweredCHPsystemwithinstallation
costsof$500/kW.................................................................................................................. 129
8.3 Simplepaybackinyearsfornatural-gas-poweredCHPsystemwithinstallation
costsof$2,000/kW............................................................................................................... 130
8.4 Simplepaybackinyearsforoil-poweredCHPsystemwithinstallationcosts
of$500/kW........................................................................................................................... 131
8.5 Simplepaybackinyearsforoil-poweredCHPsystemwithinstallationcosts
of$2,000/kW........................................................................................................................ 132
9.1 Softwareforidentifyingenergysavingsopportunities......................................................... 152
9.2 Tipsforidentifyingenergysavingsopportunities................................................................ 153
9.3 CHPsoftware........................................................................................................................ 155
9.4 Websiteswithinformationaboutcogenerationtechnology................................................. 161
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x
ACRONYMS
ABMA AmericanBoilerManufacturersAssociation
ac alternatingcurrent
AFC alkalinefuelcell
ANSI AmericanNationalStandardsInstitute
API AmericanPetroleumInstitute
AQRV AirQualityRelatedValues
ASHRAE AmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-ConditioningEngineers
ASME AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers
ASTM AmericanSocietyforTestingandMaterials
BACT BestAvailableControlTechnology
BCHP buildingcooling,heating,andpower
BF biasfiring
BOOS burnersoutofservice
BT burnertuning
Btu Britishthermalunit
CAA CleanAirAct
CAAA CleanAirActAmendments
CaCl
2
calciumchloride
CCHP combinedcooling,heating,andpower
CFR CodeofFederalRegulations
CHP combinedheatandpower
CHPB cooling,heating,andpowerforbuildings
CI compressionignitionengine
CIBO CouncilofIndustrialBoilerOwners
CO carbonmonoxide
CO
2
carbondioxide
CWA CleanWaterAct
dc directcurrent
DE distributetdenergy
DEER DistributedEnergyandElectricReliability
DER distributedenergyresources
DOE U.S.DepartmentofEnergy
E/S electricity-to-steamratio(kWh/MMBtu)
EPA U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency
EPACT EnergyPolicyAct
ESFF electrostaticallystimulatedfabricfilter
ESP electrostaticprecipitator
EWG ExemptWholesaleGenerator
FBC fluidized-bedcombustion
FEMP FederalEnergyManagementProgram
FERC FederalEnergyRegulatoryCommission
FGD flue-gasdesulfurization
FGR fluegasrecirculation
FIR fuel-inducedrecirculationandforced-internalrecirculation
FR FederalRegister
GW gigawatt
HAP hazardousairpollutant
xi
HHV higherheatingvalue
HRSG heat-recoverysteamgenerator
HRT horizontalreturntubular
HVAC heating,ventilating,andairconditioning
Hz Hertz
ICI industrial/commercial/institutional
IEEE InstituteofElectricalandElectronicEngineers
IES integratedenergysystems
IRR internalrateofreturn
ISO InternationalOrganizationforStandardization
ITP IndustrialTechnologiesProgram
kVA kilovolt-amps
kVAR reactivekilovolt-amps
kW kilowatt
kWh kilowatthour
LAER LowestAchievableEmissionRate
LEA lowexcessair
LHV lowerheatingvalue
LiBr lithiumbromide
LiCl lithiumchloride
LNB low-NO
x
burner
LP liquefiedpetroleum
MACT MaximumAchievableControlTechnology
MCA MidwestCogenerationAssociation
MCFC moltencarbonatefuelcell
MMBtu millionBtu
MSW municipalsolidwaste
MW megawatt
N
2
nitrogen
NAA nonattainmentarea
NAAQS NationalAmbientAirQualityStandards
NB NationalBoardofBoilerandPressureVesselInspectors
NEMA NationalElectricalManufacturersAssociation
NESHAP NationalEmissionsStandardsforHazardousAirPollutant
NFPA NationalFireProtectionAssociation
NGR naturalgasreburning
NO
2
nitrogendioxide
NO
x
nitrogenoxides
NPDES NationalPollutantDischargeEliminationSystem
NPV netpresentvalue
NSPS NewSourcePerformanceStandardsorStandardsofPerformance
forNewStationarySources
NSR NewSourceReview
NYSERDA NewYorkStateEnergyResearchandDevelopmentAuthority
O
3
ozone
OFA overfireair
ORNL OakRidgeNationalLaboratory
OSHA OccupationalSafetyandHealthAdministration
OT oxygentrim
xii
OTR OzoneTransportRegion
PAFC phosphoricacidfuelcell
PAL plantwideapplicabilitylimitation
Pb lead
PCP pollutioncontrolproject
PEMFC protonexchangemembranefuelcell
PHAST ProcessHeatingAssessmentandSurveyTool
PM particulatematter
ppmV partspermillionbyvolume
PSAT PumpingSystemAssessmentTool
PSD preventionofsignificantdeterioration
PTE potentialtoemit
PUHCA PublicUtilityHoldingCompanyAct
PURPA PublicUtilityRegulatoryPoliciesAct
QF qualifiedfacility
RAP reducingairpreheat
RDF refuse-derivedfuel
RICE reciprocatinginternalcombustionengine
rpm revolutionsperminute
SCA stagedcombustionair
scf standardcubicfoot
SCR selectivecatalyticreduction
SI sparkignitionengineorsteaminjection
SIC StandardIndustrialClassification
SIP StateImplementationPlan
SNCR selectivenoncatalyticreduction
SO
2
sulfurdioxide
SOFC solidoxidefuelcell
SO
x
sulfuroxides
SPP smallpowerproducer
SSAT SteamSystemAssessmentTool
TDF tire-derivedfuel
TWC three-waycatalyst
UL UnderwritersLaboratories
USCHPA U.S.CombinedHeatandPowerAssociation
VOC volatileorganiccompound
WHRB wasteheat-recoveryboiler
WI waterinjection
2SLB 2-strokeleanburnengine
4SLB 4-strokeleanburnengine
4SRB 4-strokerichburnengine
xiii
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
TheauthorgratefullyacknowledgestheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy(DOE),IndustrialTechnologies
Program,BestPracticesSteameffortforsponsoringthedevelopmentofthisguideandtheOfficeof
DistributedEnergyforbackingthiseffort.SpecialthanksareextendedtoFredHart,BobGemmer,and
MerrillSmithofDOEfortheirsupportandguidance.EffortsbyBobBessetteoftheCouncilofIndustrial
BoilerOwnersandRandyRawsonoftheAmericanBoilerManufacturersAssociationtoarrange
meetings,identifytechnicalreviewers,andforwardreviewercommentshelpedtoensurethatthebroad
interestsoftheboilerindustryarereflectedintheguide.Comprehensivereviewcommentsofferedby
CarlBozzutoofAlstomprovidedvaluableassistancetotheauthorinidentifyinganddescribingtechnical
issuesthatareimportanttoboilerownersandoperators.ConsultationwithGregHarrelloftheUniversity
ofTennesseeandRandyHudsonandSteveFischeroftheOakRidgeNationalLaboratory(ORNL)about
thescopeandcontentoftheguidearealsoverymuchappreciated.Theauthoralsogratefully
acknowledgesTonyWrightandMitchOlszewskioftheOakRidgeNationalLaboratoryformanaging
thisproject,establishinggovernmentandindustrycontacts,andprovidinghelpfulcommentsand
suggestions.Inaddition,muchcreditisgiventoCynthiaSouthmayd,BrendaSmith,CindyJohnson,and
DonSharpofORNLforeditingandpreparinghigh-qualityversionsoftheguideforreviewand
publication.
xv
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EXECUTIVESUMMARY
Competitivepressurestocutcostsarerequiringmanyownersandoperatorsofindustrial,commercial,
andinstitutional(ICI)boilersystemstouseenergymoreefficiently.Asanalternativetoproducingsteam
orhotwateronsiteandpurchasingelectricityfromalocalpowerprovider,combinedheatandpower
(CHP),orcogeneration,providesboilerownersandoperatorsanopportunitytoreducepowerpurchases
bygeneratingsomeoralloftheelectricityusedbythefacilitywhilesatisfyingthermalenergydemand.
Throughimprovedefficiency,cogenerationtechnologyhasthepotentialtoreduceoverallenergy
expendituresandproducelessemissionsperdeliveredunitofoutput.Wheneffectivelyapplied,aCHP
systemcanmakeafacilitylessdependentontheelectricalgridor,morecommonly,provideincreased
reliabilityforastrategicportionoftheelectricloadatthesite.
RecognizingthatmanyissuesareinvolvedinmakinginformeddecisionsaboutCHPsystems,the
U.S.DepartmentofEnergy(DOE)sponsoredeffortsattheOakRidgeNationalLaboratory(ORNL)to
developaguidethatpresentsusefulinformationforevaluatingtheviabilityofcogenerationfornewor
existingICIboilerinstallations.Informationaboutcooling,heating,power,andsteamtechnologies
developedbytheDOEIndustrialTechnologiesProgramandtheDOEDistributedEnergyProgramserved
asvaluableresourcesinpreparingthisguide.Toensurethattheguidecoversabroadrangeoftechnical
andregulatoryissuesofparticularinteresttothecommercialboilerindustry,theguidewasdevelopedin
cooperationwiththeAmericanBoilerManufacturersAssociation(ABMA)andtheCouncilofIndustrial
BoilerOwners(CIBO).
Theguideisorganizedintotopicsthataddressmanyofthefundamentalissuesencounteredin
planningaCHPprojectandfocusesontechnicalsubjectsassociatedwiththeintegrationofcogeneration
technologyintonewandexistingICIboilerinstallations.AsdiscussedinChap.1,successfulintegration
ofcogenerationtechnologyintoneworexistingICIboilerinstallationsinvolvestechnicalandeconomic
screeningfollowedbydetailedengineeringdesign.Toassistboilerownersandoperatorsavoidexcessive
outlayswhileevaluatingtheviabilityofcogenerationtechnology,theguidediscussestechnical,
economic,andregulatoryissuesthatshouldbeconsideredduringtheplanningphaseofanyCHPproject.
Inaddition,theguideidentifiesmanyofthepotentialbenefitsandpossiblebarrierstosuccessful
implementation.Useofthisinformationwillhelpanswerthefollowingimportantquestions.
1. Iscogenerationtechnicallyfeasible?
2. Iscogenerationeconomicallyfeasible?
3. Canstrategiesbedevelopedforovercomingbarrierstoimplementation?
InformationpresentedinChap.2addressesavarietyofcogenerationtechnologyissuestoserveasa
foundationforsubsequentdiscussions.Descriptionsandschematicsoftopping- andbottoming-cycle
thermodynamicprocessesarepresentedbecausetheyrepresentthetwofundamentalheat-recovery
schemescommonlyusedinindustrialCHPapplications.DiscussionsinChap.2alsofocusonexisting
energyandenvironmentalregulationsthatinfluencethewayCHPsystemsaredesignedandoperated.
Requirementsintheseregulationscanaffecttheeconomicviabilityofaprojectbecauseemissionscontrol
equipmentneededforenvironmentalcompliancegenerallyaddstothecostofaCHPsystem.Other
importantissuescoveredinChap.2includebenefitsofcogenerationtechnology,thevariousoperating
modesthatcanbeemployedtoachieveaparticularstrategicobjective,andasummaryofthemajor
barrierstoimplementation.Understandingthefundamentalsofcogenerationtechnology,beingawareof
federallawsandregulationsthataffectCHPconstructionandoperation,andknowingthebarriersto
implementationareessentialtoevaluatingCHPviability.
ToensurethatboilerownersandoperatorshaveaccesstotheinformationtheyneedtoevaluateCHP
potentialattheirsite,theguidealsoincludesinformationaboutvariousprimemovers,wasteheat-
xvii

recoveryunits,electricalgenerators,andcoolingequipmentcommonlyusedinindustrialCHP
applications.
CharacteristicfeaturesofprimemoversusedinCHPsystemsarepresentedinChap.3.Aprime
moverisamachineormechanismthatconvertsenergyintowork.Primemoverscommonlyusedin
industrialCHPapplicationsincludesteamturbines,gasturbines,microturbines,andreciprocating
engines.Theirprimaryfunctionistoconverttheenergyreleasedfromfuelintomechanicalenergyor
shaftpower.Thispoweristypicallyusedtoturnanelectricalgenerator,butitcanalsobeusedtopower
othertypesofrotatingmachinery.Fuelcellsrepresentanothertypeofenergyconversiondevicethatis
sometimesusedasaprimemoverinCHPapplications.Althoughfuelcellsdonotproduceshaftpower,
theyarecapableofconvertingenergytoelectricitythroughanelectrochemicalprocessthatdoesnot
involvefuelcombustion.Descriptionsofturbine-basedandnon-turbine-basedprimemoversare
presented,andschematicsoftypicalprimemoverconfigurationsusedinCHPapplicationsareshownto
promoteanunderstandingoftheirfunctionalcapabilitiesandoperationalrequirements.
Heat-recoveryequipmentthatcapturesthermalenergyrejectedfromprimemoversandotherheating
sourcesandmakesitavailableforusefulpurposesisdiscussedinChap.4.Thisequipmentisimportantto
thesuccessofaCHPsystembecauseitextractsthermalenergyfromexhaustgasstreamsandliquid
coolantcircuits,therebyincreasingoverallenergyefficiency.Simpleheat-recoveryunitsfunctionasheat
exchangersbytransferringthermalenergyfromonesystemtoanother.Theseunitsarecharacterizedas
unfiredheat-recoveryunitsbecausetheyreceivethermalenergyfromanindependentheatingsourceand
havenoabilitytogenerateadditionalheat.Morecomplexunitsarecharacterizedassupplementaryfired
heat-recoveryunitsbecausetheyincludebothheattransfersurfacesandfuel-firingequipment.These
unitsaredesignedtosupplementtheheatprovidedbytheprimaryheatingsourcewiththermalenergy
generatedbycombustionofadditionalfuel.Dependingontheprocessheatingandpowerrequirementsof
theinstallation,itmaybenecessarytousebothfiredandunfiredheat-recoveryunitsinthesameCHP
system.Thevarioustypesofheat-recoveryequipmentdiscussedinChap.4include
unfiredandsupplementaryfiredheat-recoverysteamgenerators,
heat-recoverymufflers,
regenerators,
recuperators,
ebullientcoolingsystems,
forcedcirculationsystems,
aftercoolers,
heatexchangers,and
ICIboilers.
ElectricalenergyproducedbyaCHPsystemmaybeusedonsitetoreducepowerpurchasesor
exportedtotheelectricalgridforresale.EvenforCHPsystemsthatproducemorepowerthanthey
consume,connectiontotheelectricalgridisgenerallynecessaryforeithersupplementaryoremergency
power.AlthoughCHPsystemscanbedevelopedandoperatedwithoutrelyingonpurchasedpower,
connectionoftheCHPsystemtotheelectricalgridisgenerallypreferredbecauseitprovidesincreased
reliabilityandoperatingflexibility.TextinChap.5discusseselectricalgeneratorsandinverters
commonlyusedinCHPsystemstoproduceelectricityaswellasotherimportantissues,suchascontrol
systems,safety,liability,andinterconnectionconsiderationsassociatedwithconnectingtheelectricalgrid
tothesiteelectricaldistributionsystem.
xviii

AlthoughheatandelectricityarethetwotypesofenergymostoftenproducedbyaCHPsystem,
otherdevicessuchascoolingequipmentandrotatingmachineryaresometimespartofcogeneration
projectsbecausetheyprovideanalternativetoconventionalelectricmotordrivesystemsandoffer
flexibilityinmeetingoperationalrequirements.Discussionsaboutabsorptionchillersanddesiccant
dehumidifiersthatusethermalenergytoproduceacoolingeffectandrotatingmachinery,suchasair
compressors,pumps,fans,andrefrigerationcompressors,thatusesmechanicalenergytoproduceuseful
workarepresentedinChap.6.
Achievingoptimumenergyefficiencyinvolvesmaximizingtheworkoutputforagivenamountof
fuelusedandminimizingheatrejectionfromtheCHPsystem.Thisisaccomplishedbyselectively
arrangingaseriesofthermodynamicprocessesintoacyclewhereheatiscontinuouslyconvertedtowork.
ForCHPprojects,heat-recoveryschemesareclassifiedaseithertopping-cycleorbottoming-cycle
systemsdependingonthesequencethefuelenergyisused.BecauseallCHPsystemsaredesignedto
convertheattoworkonacontinuousbasisbyselectivelyarrangingaseriesofthermodynamicprocesses
intooneormorecycles,attentioninChap.7focusesondescribingheat-recoveryschemesthatare
compatiblewithnewandexistingICIboilerinstallations.TheseschemesincludeICIboilerscapableof
generatinghotwaterorsteamandaprimemovercapableofgeneratingelectricityorproducinguseful
mechanicalenergy.Configurationsofeachschemeareprovidedtohelpboilerownersandoperators
quicklyidentifyalternativeCHPequipmentarrangementsforfurtherstudyandevaluation.
Boilerownersandoperatorsinterestedinincorporatingcogenerationtechnologyintoneworexisting
ICIboilerinstallationsmustfirstdeveloppreliminarydesignsforcandidateCHPsystems.Eachdesign
shouldincludeCHPequipmentthatiscompatiblewiththephysicalcharacteristicsandoperating
objectivesofthefacility.DevelopingpreliminarydesignsforCHPsystemsthatsatisfythesecriteria
requiresconsiderationofthermodynamiccycles,primemovers,fuels,andheat-recoveryequipment
options.Tohelpfocusthiseffort,equipmentoptionsforthefollowing12CHPsystemconfigurationsare
presentedinChap.8.
Back-pressuresteamturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem
Extraction-condensingsteamturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem
Open-cyclegasturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem
Open-cyclegasturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(withrecuperator)
Microturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(withconventionalgenerator)
Microturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(withhigh-speedgenerator)
Reciprocatingenginetopping-cycleCHPsystem
Fuelcelltopping-cycleCHPsystem
Bottoming-cycleCHPsystem
Combined-cycleCHPsystem
Combined-cycleCHPsystem(withfeedwaterheating)
TrigenerationCHPsystem
Eachconfigurationliststheheat-recoveryequipmentoptions,fueloptions,optionsforusingmechanical
andthermalenergy,potentialairemissions,andemissioncontroloptionsthatmayapply.This
informationispresentedusingtheformatshowninFig.ES.1andisusefulinestablishingpreliminary
CHPsystemdesignsforfurtherconsideration.
Becausemanydecisionsarerequiredtoevaluatethefeasibilityofcogenerationtechnologyata
particularICIboilerinstallation,itisimportanttokeepinmindthediversenatureofthetechnicaland
xix
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Mechanical
Energy
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
Heat-
Recovery
Device
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Thermal
Energy
High-,Medium-,orLow-
PressureSteam
HotWater
Heat- GasTurbine Optionsfor Optionsfor Potential Emission
Recovery Fuel UsingMechanical UsingThermal Air Control
Options Options Energy Energy Emissions Options
ICIBoiler LiquidFuel Electrical ProcessHeating NOx Combustion
FiredHRSG DistillateOil Generator SpaceHeating SO
2
Post-
UnfiredHRSG ResidualOil Fan* DirectHeating
PM
Combustion
Recuperator Pump* FeedwaterHeating
CO
(SeeTables
(notshown) GaseousFuel Compressor* SteamProduction
CO
2
4.4and4.5)
Gas-to-Liquid NaturalGas ir A HotWater
HeatExchanger RefineryGas Refrigeration Production
HAP
(feedwater Biogas AbsorptionChilling
VOC
heating,not PG L Desiccant
shown) *Limitedapplications
(SeeSect.6.3)
Dehumidification
Fig.ES.1. FormatforpresentingCHPsystemoptions.
economicissuesthatneedtobeconsideredinthedecision-makingprocess.Evaluatingcogeneration
potentialisamultistageprocessthatbeginswithanunderstandingoftheinfrastructureandoperating
requirementsoftheICIboilerinstallation.Anotherstrategicelementistheidentificationoffacilitygoals
andobjectivesthatcanbeusedasscreeningcriteriathroughouttheevaluationprocess.Forsome
installations,theprimarygoalistoreducetheamountofpurchasedelectricityandreplaceitwithlower
costelectricitygeneratedonsite.Toolsandresourcesthatareavailableforobtainingsite-specificdata;
identifyingenergysavingopportunities;performingpreliminaryscreeningassessments;preparing
preliminarydesigns;conductingdetailedscreeninganalyses;addressinghealth,safety,andenvironmental
issues;andunderstandingelectricalgridinterconnectionissuesarediscussedinChap.9.FigureES.2
illustratesasuggestedframeworkforevaluatingtheviabilityofaCHPproject.Onlywhenanalysis
suggeststhataCHPsystemisbothtechnicallyandeconomicallyfeasibleandthatapplicablebarriersto
implementationcanbeovercomeistherereasontocontinuewiththeplanningprocess,includingdetailed
engineeringdesign.
AlthoughimplementingaCHPprojectisnottechnicallyfeasibleateveryICIboilerinstallationand
thepaybackmaybesomewhatlongerthanothersteamsystemimprovementoptions,manyboilerowners
andoperatorsfindcogenerationtechnologytobeacost-effectivesavingsopportunity.Thefollowing
xx
CollectSite-SpecificData
andAssessTechnical
Feasibility
IsCHP
No
Technically
Feasible?
Yes
IdentifyCHPOptions
andDevelopPreliminary
CHPSystemDesigns
ConductEconomic
ScreeningAnalysisof
EachCHPSystem
IsCHP
No
Economically
Feasible?
Yes
EstablishStrategiesfor
Overcoming
ImplementationBarriers
No
IsCHPViable?
Yes
ImplementCHP
Terminate
CHP
Planning
Fig.ES.2. FrameworkforevaluatingCHPviability.
factorsenhancethepotentialofsuccessfullyapplyingcogenerationtechnologyatneworexistingICI
boilerinstallations.
1. TheCHPsystemissizedtosatisfythethermalneedsoftheprocess.Insome,butnotallcases,
oversizedsystemsaregenerallymorecostlyandlessefficient.
2. Unlessinexpensivesolid,liquid,orgaseousfuelsareavailable,naturalgasisthepreferredfuelfor
mostnewCHPapplicationsbecauseofitslowemissionsandgenerallywideavailability.
3. Toenableefficientelectricpowergeneration,itmaybenecessarytogeneratethermalenergyat
substantiallyhigherpressuresandtemperaturesthanthatneededforprocessapplications.
xxi
4. Heatloadandpowerdemandoccursimultaneously.
5. Ingeneral,simultaneousdemandsforheatandpowermustbepresentforatleast4,500h/year,
althoughthereareapplicationswhereCHPsystemsmaybecost-effectivewithfewerhours.For
example,whenelectricityratesarehighorwhenthelocalpowerprovideroffersincentives,this
operatingperiodcouldbeaslowas2,200h/year.Themostcost-effectiveapplicationsarethosethat
operatecontinuously(8,760h/year).
6. Power-to-heatratiofortheplantshouldnotfluctuatemorethan10%.
7. Appropriatecogenerationtechnologyiscommensuratewiththerequiredpower-to-heatratioofthe
installation.
8. Theviabilityofcogenerationtechnologydependsonenergyprices.ThehighestpotentialforCHP
occurswhenthepriceforpurchasedelectricityishighwhilethepriceforCHPfuelislow.
9. TheeconomicfeasibilityofaCHPsystemisinverselyrelatedtocapitalandmaintenancecosts.In
otherwords,thehigherthecapitalcostsorthehigherthemaintenancecosts,thelesslikelyCHPwill
beeconomicallyviable.
10. TheCHPsystemneedstohavehighavailability.
StudiessponsoredbyDOEsuggestthatthereareupto140GWofon-sitepowergenerating
opportunitiesintheindustrialsectorandupto75GWofadditionalon-sitepowergenerating
opportunitiesinthecommercialandinstitutionalsectors.Becauseboilersarewidelyusedwithinthese
sectors,thereissignificantpotentialforintegratingcogenerationtechnologyintonewandexistingICI
boilerinstallationsandtherebyreducingoverallenergyconsumption.
xxii
1. INTRODUCTION
Combinedheatandpower(CHP)orcogenerationisthesequentialproductionoftwoformsofuseful
energyfromasinglefuelsource.InmostCHPapplications,chemicalenergyinfuelisconvertedtoboth
mechanicalandthermalenergy.Themechanicalenergyisgenerallyusedtogenerateelectricity,whilethe
thermalenergyorheatisusedtoproducesteam,hotwater,orhotair.Dependingontheapplication,CHP
isreferredtobyvariousnamesincludingBuildingCooling,Heating,andPower(BCHP);Cooling,
Heating,andPowerforBuildings(CHPB);CombinedCooling,Heating,andPower(CCHP);Integrated
EnergySystems(IES),orDistributedEnergyResources(DER).
TheprincipaltechnicaladvantageofaCHPsystemisitsabilitytoextractmoreusefulenergyfrom
fuelcomparedtotraditionalenergysystemssuchasconventionalpowerplantsthatonlygenerate
electricityandindustrialboilersystemsthatonlyproducesteamorhotwaterforprocessapplications.
1
By
usingfuelenergyforbothpowerandheatproduction,CHPsystemscanbeveryenergyefficientandhave
thepotentialtoproduceelectricitybelowthepricechargedbythelocalpowerprovider.Another
importantincentiveforapplyingcogenerationtechnologyistoreduceoreliminatedependencyonthe
electricalgrid.Forsomeindustrialprocesses,theconsequencesoflosingpowerforevenashortperiodof
timeareunacceptable.
Amajoreconomicincentiveforapplyingcogenerationtechnologyistoreduceoperatingexpenses
bygeneratingelectricityatalowercostthanitcanbepurchasedfromthelocalpowerprovider.
2
Optimumconditionsforimplementingcogenerationoccurwhenthepriceofelectricityishighandrising
andthepriceoffuelislow.Economicviabilityofcogenerationissharplyinfluencedbythemarginalcost
ofgeneratingelectricity.Thiscostisafunctionofcapitalinvestmentsandproductionexpenses,including
fixedcharges,fuelpayments,andoperationalandmaintenancecosts.Inassessingeconomicviability,itis
importanttocalculatetheproductioncostsofelectricityasanexcessabovethegeneratingcostsof
thermalenergyaloneandthentocomparethecostofproductionwiththecostofpurchasedelectricity.
2
Basedonresultsofthiscomparison,adecisioncanbemadeaboutproceedingwiththeCHPprojector
terminatingallplanningefforts.Forsituationswherethecostoffuelneededtogenerateaunitof
electricityexceedstheunitcostofpurchasedelectricity,thedecisiontoproceedmustbebasedonother
criteriasuchasimprovedelectricreliabilitybecausecogenerationisnotaviableeconomicoption.The
sensitivityofnatural-gas-poweredcogenerationseconomicviabilitytofuelcostwasrecentlystudied.
3
Resultsindicatethatthetotalmarketpotentialvariesfrom18to53gigawatts(GW)whenthewellhead
priceofnaturalgasvariesfrom$5.00to$2.50permillioncubicfeet.
Competitivepressurestocutcostsbyconservingenergyarerequiringmanyownersandoperatorsof
industrial,commercial,andinstitutional(ICI)boilersystemstolookforwaystouseenergymore
efficiently.Asanalternativetoproducingsteamorhotwateronsiteandpurchasingelectricityfroma
localpowerprovider,cogenerationprovidesboilerownersandoperatorsanopportunitytoindependently
generateelectricityandthermalenergyandtherebyloweroperatingcostsbyreducingoverallenergy
expenditures.Effectiveapplicationofcogenerationtechnologygenerallyresultsinincreasedfuelcosts
andreducedelectricitycosts.
Informationpresentedintheguideisprimarilyintendedforboilerowners,boileroperators,energy
managers,andprojectplannersinterestedinimprovingenergyefficiencyandloweringoperatingcostsat
ICIboilerinstallationsthroughtheapplicationofcogenerationtechnology.Boilersattheseinstallations
usethechemicalenergyinfueltoraisetheenergycontentofwatersothatitcanbeusedforprocess
heatingapplications.Industrialboilersareusedextensivelyinthechemical,foodprocessing,forest
products,andpetroleumindustries.Commercialandinstitutionalboilersareusedinmanyother
applications,includingcommercialbusinesses,officebuildings,apartments,hotels,restaurants,hospitals,
schools,museums,governmentbuildings,andairports.
ThisguidewaspreparedattheOakRidgeNationalLaboratory(ORNL)fortheU.S.Departmentof
Energy(DOE)withsupportandcooperationfromtheIndustrialTechnologiesProgram(ITP)andthe
1

DistributedEnergy(DE)Program.Toensurethattheguidecoversabroadrangeoftechnicaland
regulatoryissuesofparticularinteresttothecommercialboilerindustry,theguidewasdevelopedin
cooperationwiththeAmericanBoilerManufacturersAssociation(ABMA)andtheCouncilofIndustrial
BoilerOwners(CIBO).
1.1 SCOPEANDOBJECTIVES
Theprimaryobjectiveoftheguideistopresentinformationneededtoevaluatetheviabilityof
cogenerationforneworexistingICIboilerinstallationsandtomakeinformedCHPequipmentselection
decisions.Informationpresentedismeanttohelpboilerownersandoperatorsunderstandthepotential
benefitsderivedfromimplementingaCHPprojectandrecognizeopportunitiesforsuccessfulapplication
ofcogenerationtechnology.Topicscoveredintheguidefollow:
anoverviewofcogenerationtechnologywithdiscussionsabout
9 benefitsofapplyingcogenerationtechnology
9 barrierstoimplementingcogenerationtechnology
applicablefederalregulationsandpermittingissues
descriptionsofprimemoverscommonlyusedinCHPapplications,includingdiscussionsabout
9 designcharacteristics
9 heat-recoveryoptionsandequipment
9 fuelsandemissions
9 efficiency
9 maintenance
9 availability
9 capitalcost
electricalgeneratorsandelectricalinterconnectionequipment
coolinganddehumidificationequipment
thermodynamiccycleoptionsandconfigurations
stepsforevaluatingthetechnicalandeconomicfeasibilityofapplyingcogenerationtechnology
informationsources
DiscussionsintheguideconcentrateonCHPsystemsthatcanbeintegratedintoneworexistingICI
boilerinstallations.AseriesofCHPconfigurationsisalsopresentedtohelpboilerownersandoperators
identifyviablecogenerationoptionsfortechnicalandeconomicevaluation.Configurationsthatare
describedinclude
steamturbinetopping-cyclesystems,includingback-pressureturbineandextraction-condensing
turbinesystems
open-cyclegasturbinetopping-cyclesystems
closed-cyclegasturbinetopping-cyclesystems
reciprocatingenginetopping-cyclesystems
fuelcelltopping-cyclesystems
microturbinetopping-cyclesystems
bottoming-cyclesystems
2

combined-cyclesystems
trigenerationsystems
Toreducepossibleconfusionwithterminologyandpromoteabetterunderstandingofrelevant
issues,aglossary,listofacronyms,andreferencesarealsoincluded.Thisinformationwillbeusefulto
boilerownersandoperatorsinterestedinlearningmoreaboutcogenerationtechnologyanditspotential
applicationtoICIboilerinstallations.
1.2 APPROACH
SuccessfulintegrationofcogenerationtechnologyintoneworexistingICIboilerinstallationscanbe
challengingbecauseCHPsystemsareunlimitedintheirthermodynamicpossibilities,andthusinthe
configurationandsizingofthevariouscomponents.Inaddition,thedesign,arrangement,andcostof
componentsisofteninfluencedbyprocesstemperaturerequirements,pressurelimits,fueltypeand
availability,processheatingdemand,andelectricpowerneeds.Fromanengineeringviewpoint,
applicationofcogenerationtechnologyisamatterofcycleselectionanddesignofpipingandvalving
arrangements,andnotofbasicdifferencesinboilers,turbines,heatexchangers,andelectricalgenerators.
However,itisimportantforboilerownersandoperatorstoconsideralternativeCHPequipment
combinationsbecausedifferencesinperformanceandapplicabilitycanhaveasignificanteffectonproject
economics.
Decisionsaboutapplyingcogenerationtechnologyneedtoreflectasmuchsite-specificinformation
aspossible.Anapproachthatisofteneffectiveinvolvescomparingthecostsandeconomicbenefitsofan
existingorbenchmarkboilerinstallationtothoseforalternativeschemesthatintegratecogeneration
technologyintotheirdesign.
4
Becausesomanyfactorsthatneedtobeconsideredareinfluencedby
conditionsatthesite,technicalandeconomicassessmentsperformedforoneinstallationmayhave
limitedapplicabilitytootherlocations.Thekeytomeaningfulanalysisinvolvesdevelopingpreliminary
designsoftechnicallyfeasibleCHPsystems.Thesedesignsneedtoincludesufficienttechnicaldetailto
allowaccurateestimatesofconstructionandoperatingcosts,electricityandCHPfuelconsumptionrates,
airandwateremissions,andpotentialcostsavings.Althoughpreparingpreliminarydesignsfor
alternativeCHPsystemsisanecessarystepintheoveralldecision-makingprocess,thereisnoassurance
thatthetime,effort,andinvestmentwillresultinreducedenergycosts.
Implementingcogenerationtechnologyinvolvestechnicalandeconomicscreeningfollowedby
detailedengineeringdesign.
5
Theprocessbeginsbydeterminingifasiteissuitableforcogeneration,
identifyingtherequiredcapacityoftheCHPequipment,andestimatingconstructionandoperatingcosts.
Duringtheevaluation,keyissuessuchasenergyrequirements,mechanicalandelectricalsystems,
electricityratesandtariffs,fuelpriceandavailability,spacerequirements,regulatoryrequirements,health
andsafetyissues,andoperationalfactorsshouldbeconsidered.Atsomepointearlyinthisprocess,the
boilerowneroroperatorneedstomakeakeydecisionaboutwhetherornottoconnecttheCHPsystemto
theelectricalgrid.IftheCHPsystemisconnectedtotheelectricalgrid,anotherdecisionmustbemade
aboutusingalloftheelectricitygeneratedbytheCHPsystemonsiteorsellingexcesselectricitytothe
localpowerprovider.IftheCHPisnotconnectedtotheelectricalgrid,thentheCHPsystemmusthave
sufficientcapacitytosatisfythecriticalelectricalneedsofthefacilitywithareservemarginforshort-
termtransients.ThesedeterminationswillinfluencethesizeoftheCHPsystemandthereforeproject
economics.
Toassistboilerownersandoperatorsinavoidingexcessiveoutlayswhileevaluatingtheviabilityof
cogenerationtechnologyataparticularsite,manpowerandresourcesshouldinitiallyfocusonanswering
thefollowingthreequestions.
3

1. Iscogenerationtechnicallyfeasible?
2. Iscogenerationeconomicallyfeasible?
3. Canstrategiesbedevelopedforovercomingbarrierstoimplementation?
OnlywhenanalysissuggeststhataCHPsystemisbothtechnicallyandeconomicallyfeasibleand
applicablebarrierstoimplementationcanbeovercomeistherereasontocontinuewiththeplanning
process,includingdetailedengineeringdesigns.Thehighcostofengineeringandtheriskoftechnical,
economic,andenvironmentalfailure,aswellasregulatoryrestraints,mandatecareandskillto
successfullydesignandbuildacustom-engineeredCHPsystem.
6
1.3 COGENERATIONOPPORTUNITIES
StudiessponsoredbyDOEsuggestthatthereareupto140GWofon-sitepower-generating
opportunitiesintheindustrialsector
79
andupto75GWofadditionalon-sitepower-generating
opportunitiesinthecommercialandinstitutionalsectors.
10,11
Becauseboilersarewidelyusedwithin
thesesectors,thereissignificantpotentialforintegratingcogenerationtechnologyintonewandexisting
ICIboilerinstallations.AlthoughimplementingaCHPprojectisnottechnicallyfeasibleateveryboiler
installationandthepaybackmaybesomewhatlongerthanothersteamsystemimprovementoptions,
manyICIboilerownersandoperatorsfindcogenerationtechnologytobeacost-effectivesavings
opportunity.
1216
NeworexistingboilerinstallationswithhighCHPpotentialusuallyfitthefollowing
profile,butCHPmayalsobeviableatinstallationsmeetingonlyafewofthesecriteria:
9,10,17,18
highelectricityprices(greaterthan$0.05/kWh),
highelectricitydemandandpeakenergyusagecharges,
averageelectricloadgreaterthanabout1MW,
ratioofaverageelectricloadtopeakloadexceedingabout0.7,
additionalprocessheatneeded,
costofCHPfuelislowcomparedtoelectricityrates,
highannualoperatinghours,
thermaldemandcloselymatchingelectricload,
steadythermalloadsorsteadyprocesswasteheatstreams,and
issuesconcerningenergysecurityandreliability.
MostnewCHPapplicationsusegasturbinesorreciprocatingenginescoupledtoanelectrical
generator.Heatrecoveredfromtheseprimemoversisthenusedtoproducesteamorhotwater,tomeet
spaceheatingorcoolingrequirements,ortocontrolhumidity.Thesesystemsmayincludeheat
exchangers,absorptionchillers,desiccantdehumidifiers,orothertypesofheat-recoveryequipment.In
anothercommonCHPapplication,boilersteampassesthroughasteamturbinetogenerateelectricity.
Heatrejectedfromthesteamturbineisthenusedforprocessapplications.Oneofthesimpleststrategies
forimplementingcogenerationtechnologyistoreplacesteam-pressure-reducingvalveswithback-
pressuresteamturbinesandelectricalgenerators.
Thefollowingfactorsenhancethepotentialofsuccessfullyapplyingcogenerationtechnologyatnew
orexistingICIboilerinstallations.
4
1. TheCHPsystemissizedtosatisfythethermalneedsoftheprocess.Insome,butnotallcases,
oversizedsystemsaregenerallymorecostlyandlessefficient.
2. Unlessinexpensivesolid,liquid,orgaseousfuelsareavailable,naturalgasisthepreferredfuelfor
mostnewCHPapplicationsbecauseofitslowemissionsandgenerallywideavailability.
3. Toenableefficientelectricpowergeneration,itmaybenecessarytogeneratethermalenergyat
substantiallyhigherpressuresandtemperaturesthanthatneededforprocessapplications.
4. Heatloadandpowerdemandoccursimultaneously.
5. Ingeneral,simultaneousdemandsforheatandpowermustbepresentforatleast4,500h/year,
althoughthereareapplicationswhereCHPsystemsmaybecosteffectivewithfewerhours.For
example,whenelectricityratesarehighorwhenthelocalpowerprovideroffersincentives,this
operatingperiodcouldbeaslowas2,200h/year.Themostcost-effectiveapplicationsarethosethat
operatecontinuously(8,760h/year).
6. Power-to-heatratiofortheplantshouldnotfluctuatemorethan10%.
7. Appropriatecogenerationtechnologyiscommensuratewiththerequiredpower-to-heatratioofthe
installation.
8. Theviabilityofcogenerationtechnologydependsonenergyprices.ThehighestpotentialforCHP
occurswhenthepriceforpurchasedelectricityishighwhilethepriceforCHPfuelislow.
9. TheeconomicfeasibilityofaCHPsystemisinverselyrelatedtocapitalandmaintenancecosts.In
otherwords,thehigherthecapitalcostsorthehigherthemaintenancecosts,thelesslikelyCHPwill
beeconomicallyviable.
10. TheCHPsystemneedstohavehighavailability.
1.4 REFERENCES
1. IndustrialandCommercialCogeneration,OfficeofTechnologyAssessment,Congressional
Boardofthe98thCongress,Washington,D.C.,February1983.
2. CombinedHeatandPower:AFederalManagersResourceGuide,preparedbyAspenSystems
Corp.fortheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,D.C.,March2000.
3. DGMonitor,Vol.III,Issue4,ResourceDynamicsCorporation,Vienna,Virginia,July/August
2003.
4. CogenerationReadyReckoner,UsersManual,Version3.1,CommonwealthDepartmentof
Industry,Tourism,andResources,CommonwealthofAustralia,September2002.
5. IntroductiontoLarge-ScaleCombinedHeatandPower,GoodPracticeGuide43,preparedfor
theDepartmentoftheEnvironment,Transportation,andtheRegionsbyETSU,Oxfordshire,England,
March1999.
6. CogenerationSystemsandEngineandTurbineDrives,Chapter7,ASHRAEHandbook
HVACSystemsandEquipment,AmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-Conditioning
Engineers,Inc.,Atlanta,Georgia,July6,2000.
7. AssessmentofReplicableInnovativeIndustrialCogenerationApplications,ResourceDynamics
Corp.,Vienna,Virginia,June2001.
8. SteamSystemOpportunityAssessmentforthePulpandPaper,ChemicalManufacturing,and
PetroleumRefiningIndustries,DOE/GO-102002-1639,OfficeofIndustrialTechnologies,U.S.
DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,D.C.,September2002.
5
9. T.Bryson,W.Major,andK.Darrow,AssessmentofOn-SitePowerOpportunitiesinthe
IndustrialSector,ORNL/TM-2001/169,preparedbyOnsiteEnergyCorp.fortheOakRidgeNational
Laboratory,OakRidge,Tennessee,September2001.
10. CHPPotentialatFederalSites,OfficeofEnergyEfficiencyandRenewableEnergy,U.S.
DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,D.C.,May2000.
11. TheMarketandTechnicalPotentialforCombinedHeatandPowerinthe
Commercial/InstitutionalSector,preparedfortheU.S.DepartmentofEnergybyONSITESYCOM
EnergyCorporation,Washington,D.C.,January2000(Revision1).
12. CogenerationHandbookfortheChemicalProcessIndustry,DOE/NBB-0059,preparedby
PacificNorthwestNationalLaboratoryfortheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,D.C.,
February1984.
13. CogenerationHandbookfortheFoodProcessingIndustry,DOE/NBB-0061,preparedby
PacificNorthwestNationalLaboratoryfortheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,D.C.,
February1984.
14. CogenerationHandbookforthePetroleumRefiningIndustry,DOE/NBB-0060,preparedby
PacificNorthwestNationalLaboratoryfortheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,D.C.,
February1984.
15. CogenerationHandbookforthePulpandPaperIndustry,DOE/NBB-0057,preparedbyPacific
NorthwestNationalLaboratoryfortheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,D.C.,February1984.
16. CogenerationHandbookfortheTextileIndustry,DOE/NBB-0058,preparedbyPacific
NorthwestNationalLaboratoryfortheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,D.C.,February1984.
17. SteamSystemOpportunityAssessmentforthePulpandPaper,Chemical,Manufacturing,and
PetroleumRefiningIndustries,MainReport,DOE/GO-102002-1639,U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,
Washington,D.C.,September2002.
18. SteamSystemOpportunityAssessmentforthePulpandPaper,Chemical,Manufacturing,and
PetroleumRefiningIndustries,Appendices,DOE/GO-102002-1640,U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,
Washington,D.C.,October2002.
6
2. COGENERATIONTECHNOLOGYISSUES
Well-designedCHPsystemsintegrateproventechnologiesforelectricpowergenerationandthermal
loadmanagementtomaximizeoverallefficiency.Unlikeconventionalfossil-firedsteamturbinepower
plantsthatdischargeupto65%oftheenergypotentialaswasteheat,CHPsystemsaredesignedto
capturemuchoftheotherwisewastedthermalenergyfromelectricpowerproductionandmakeit
availableforprocessapplications.Dependingonthemixofpowerandthermalrequirements,overall
efficiencycanvaryfromabout35%forenduserswithlowheatingrequirementsto85%ormoreforend
userswithlow-powerrequirements.Throughimprovedefficiency,CHPsystemshavethepotentialto
consumelessfuelandproducelessemissionsperdeliveredunitofoutput.Wheneffectivelyapplied,a
CHPsystemcanmakeafacilitylessdependentontheelectricalgridor,morecommonly,provide
increasedreliabilityforastrategicportionoftheelectricloadatthesite.
InstallingCHPequipmentatneworexistingboilerinstallationsprovidesameansforaddingelectric
generatingcapacitytositesthatalreadyneedtoproducethermalenergy.Selectingcogeneration
technologyforaspecificICIboilerapplicationdependsonmanyfactors,includingtheelectricityand
steamorhotwaterdemand,thedutycycle,spaceconstraints,processrequirements,emissionregulations,
fuelavailability,electricrates,andelectricalgridinterconnectionissues.Fromapracticalviewpoint,CHP
systemscanproducedifferentproportionsofelectricityandsteam,butprocesspressuresandtemperatures
haveadirectinfluenceonthedesign,arrangement,andcostofCHPcomponents.Theelectricity-to-steam
ratio(E/S)referstotherelativeproportionsofelectricandthermalenergyproducedbytheCHP
equipment.TheE/SratioismeasuredinkilowatthourspermillionBritishthermalunit(kWh/MMBtu)of
steam(orusefulthermalenergy),anditvariesamongthedifferenttypesofcogenerationtechnologies.
ThefollowingdiscussionsdescribetheconceptofCHPandprovidebackgroundinformationabout
applyingcogenerationtechnologyintheUnitedStates.Detailsaboutprimemovers,heat-recovery
components,electricpowergeneration,andcoolingequipmentincludedinvarioustypesofCHPsystems
arepresentedinsubsequentchapters.Understandingthefundamentalsofcogenerationtechnology,being
awareoffederallawsandregulationsthataffectCHPconstructionandoperation,andknowingthe
barrierstoimplementationareessentialtoevaluatingCHPviability.
2.1 TECHNOLOGYDESCRIPTION
Cogenerationtechnologycombineselectricalandmechanicalequipmentintoanoperatingsystem
designedtoconvertfuelenergyintobothelectricpowerandusefulthermalenergy.Theautomobile
engineisafamiliarapplicationofcogenerationtechnology.Besidesprovidingmechanicalshaftpowerto
movethevehicle,italsoproduceselectricitywithanalternatortoruntheelectricalsystemand
recirculateshotwaterfromtheenginetoprovidespaceheatingwhenneeded.
1
Formostindustrialapplications,CHPsystemsconsistofthreebasicelements,includingaprime
mover,anelectricalgenerator,andcomponentsforwasteheatrecovery.Somesystemseveninclude
coolingequipmentwhenacoolingeffectisneeded.Theroleoftheprimemoveristodrivetheelectrical
generator.Steamturbines,gasturbines,andreciprocatingenginesarecommontypesofprimemovers
usedinindustrialCHPsystems,butfuelcellsandmicroturbinescanalsobeusedforthispurpose.Waste
heatrecoverynormallytakesplaceinaboiler,heat-recoverysteamgenerator(HRSG),heat-recovery
muffler,oranothertypeofheatexchanger.Typesofprimemovers,wasteheat-recoveryunits,electrical
generators,andcoolingequipmentcommonlyusedinindustrialCHPsystemsareidentifiedanddescribed
inChaps.3to6,respectively.
Tofullyunderstandcogenerationtechnologypotential,itisimportanttorealizethatCHPsystems
aredesignedtoconvertheattoworkonacontinuousbasisbyselectivelyarrangingaseriesof
thermodynamicprocessesintoacycle.
2
Heat-recoveryschemesforcogenerationtechnologyareclassified
aseithertopping-cycleorbottoming-cyclesystemsdependingonthesequencethefuelenergyisused.
3
7
Intopping-cyclesystems,theenergyinfuelisfirstusedtogenerateelectricity.Wasteheatfromthe
primemoveristhenrecoveredandusedforprocessheatingorcoolingapplications.Figure2.1illustrates
energyflowinatoppingcycle.Primemoversformostindustrialtopping-cycleCHPsystemsinclude
steamturbines,gasturbines,reciprocatingengines,fuelcells,andmicroturbines.Detailsaboutspecific
topping-cyclesystemsforICIboilerapplicationsarepresentedinSect.7.1.
Fuel
Power
Generation
Rejected
Heat
Process
HeatingorCooling
Applicattions
Fig.2.1. Topping-cycleschematic.
Inbottoming-cyclesystems,high-temperaturethermalenergyisproducedandfirstusedfor
industrialapplications,suchasglassprocessingandmetalsmeltingfurnaces.Wasteheatrecoveredfrom
theindustrialprocessisthenusedtodriveaturbinetoproduceelectricpower.Bottoming-cyclesystems
aregenerallyusedinindustrialprocessesthatrejectveryhigh-temperatureheat.Consequently,
bottoming-cycleCHPsystemsarelesscommonthattopping-cycleCHPsystems.Figure2.2illustrates
energyflowinabottomingcycle.Discussionsaboutbottoming-cycleCHPsystemsforICIboiler
applicationsareprovidedinSect.7.2.
Fuel
Rejected
Heat
Fig.2.2. Bottoming-cycleschematic.
Althoughtopping-cycleandbottoming-cyclesystemsrepresentthetwofundamentalthermodynamic
processarrangementsforcogenerationtechnology,itispossibletousebothcyclesinthesamesystemto
createwhatiscommonlyreferredtoasacombined-cyclesystem.Inthesesystems,electricityisproduced
bytwoseparateelectricalgenerators.Onegeneratorispartofthetopping-cyclesystem,whiletheotheris
partofthebottoming-cyclesystem.Informationaboutcombined-cycleCHPsystemsforICIboiler
applicationsispresentedinSect.7.3.Whencoolingequipmentsuchasanabsorptionchillerisaddedtoa
combined-cycleCHPsystem,thedesigniscalledatrigenerationsystem.TrigenerationsystemsforICI
boilerapplicationsarediscussedinSect.7.4.
Almostanytypeofsolid,liquid,orgaseousfuelcanbeusedtoproduceheatneededtogenerate
electricity,butprimemovers,boilers,andHRSGsforindustrialCHPsystemsaretypicallydesignedfora
specifictypeoffuelorfuelcombination.Fuelavailability,price,handling,transportation,andstoragecan
alsoinfluencetheselectionanddesignofCHPequipment.Atlocationswithstrictenvironmental
regulations,CHPsystemsthatusesolidfuelssuchascoaltypicallyincludeemissionscontrolequipment
forlimitingsulfurdioxide(SO
2
),nitrogenoxides(NO
x
),particulatematter(PM),orotherregulatedair
pollutantreleases.Forthesesystems,thecostofachievingtherequiredairqualitycanbesoexpensive
thatalternativefuelssuchasnaturalgasareoftentheonlypracticalfueloption.
InestablishingperformancerequirementsforaCHPsystem,itisimportanttoquantifythermaland
electricloadpatternsandtoidentifythepreferredoperatingmode.Thesefactorsneedtobeconsidered
whenselectingandsizingtheequipmentsothatthesystemiscapableofdeliveringthespecifiedamounts
Industrial
Process
Power
Generation
8

ofsteamandelectricitytosatisfyprocessrequirements.Forexample,aCHPsystemthatgenerates
electricityonacontinuousbasistosupportabaseloadtypicallyhasdifferentperformance,andthus
equipmentrequirements,thanaCHPsystemthatadjustsoutputbasedondemand.
AlthoughpowerqualityandreliabilityissuesaresometimesusedtojustifytheinstallationofaCHP
system,theprimaryeconomicreasonforintegratingcogenerationtechnologyintoaneworexistingboiler
installationistodecreaseoperatingexpensesbyreducingtheamountofpurchasedenergy.Criteriafor
assessingeconomicviabilitypotentialarepresentedinFig.2.3.Ingeneral,ifthecostofelectricity
generatedonsiteexceedsthecostofpurchasedelectricity,cogenerationtechnologyisnoteconomical.
QuantifyingcostsavingspotentialrequirescomparingthecostoffuelusedbytheCHPsystemfor
electricityproductiontothecostofacorrespondingamountofpurchasedelectricity.Indeterminingifa
CHPprojectwillprovidethedesiredeconomicbenefit,theboilerowneroroperatormustestablishan
acceptableminimumcostdifferencebetweenelectricitygeneratedonsitevspurchasedelectricity.This
differenceiskeytodeterminingtheprojectpayback.Formostboilerinstallations,thelowerthecostof
fuelfortheCHPsystemorthehigherthecostofpurchasedelectricity,themorelikelytheCHPproject
willyieldacceptableeconomicbenefits.
CostofElectricity
Purchasedfrom
UtilitytoOperate
ProcessWithout
CHPSystem
CostofFuelfor
CHPSystemto
Generate
Electricity
CostofElectricity
Purchasedfrom
UtilitytoOperate
ProcessWith
CHPSystem
Or
CostofElectricity
Purchasedfrom
UtilitytoOperate
ProcessWithout
CHPSystem
CostofFuelfor
CHPSystemto
Generate
Electricity
Valueof
Electricity
Generatedby
CHPSystemand
SoldtoUtility
Fig.2.3. Criteriaforassessingeconomicviabilitypotential
ofcogenerationtechnology.
2.2 NATIONALENERGYACTS
Energyavailabilityandpricingissuesinthe1970spromotedinterestinenergyconservationand
energyefficiency.Inresponsetotheseconcerns,theNationalEnergyActsweresignedintolawin1978
toestablishafoundationforacomprehensivenationalenergypolicy.Objectivesofthelegislationwereto
reducedependenceonforeignoil,topromotealternativeenergysourcesandenergyefficiency,andto
diversifytheelectricpowerindustry.ThefivestatutesthatmakeuptheNationalEnergyActsare
identifiedbythefollowingtitlesandPublicLawnumbers.
PublicUtilityRegulatoryPoliciesActP.L.95-617
EnergyTaxActP.L.95-618
NationalEnergyConservationPolicyActP.L.95-619
PowerplantandIndustrialFuelUseActP.L.95-620
NaturalGasPolicyActP.L.95-621
ThePublicUtilityRegulatoryPoliciesAct(PURPA)wasenactedtoaugmentelectricutility
generationwithmoreefficientlyproducedpower.Toachievethisobjective,PURPAcreatedanewclass
9
ofnonutilitygeneratorsandsoughttopromoteenergy-efficientandeconomiccogenerationbyrequiring
utilitiestopurchasepowerfromcogenerationfacilitiesandthosefueledbyrenewableresources.Withthe
enactmentofPURPA,thefirstwholesalemarketsforpowerwerecreatedforelectricityfrom
cogenerationandrenewableresources.ElectricutilitiesarerequiredbyPURPAtointerconnecttocertain
cogeneratorsandsmallpowerproducers(SPPs)with80MWorlessofgeneratingcapacityandallow
themtooperateinparallelwiththeelectricalgrid.However,beforecertainutilitieswillallowconnection
tothegrid,cogeneratorsandSPPsarerequiredtopayforsomeoralloftheinterconnectioncostsandto
meettheutilitysprotectiveandsafetyrequirements.Eventhoughnonutilitypowerproducersare
permittedtoconnecttotheelectricalgrid,utilitiesareresponsibleforthestabilityandreliabilityofthe
grid.
Section210ofPURPArequiresutilitiestopurchaseexcesselectricitygeneratedbyqualified
facilities(QFs)andtoprovidebackuppoweratareasonablecost.Qualifiedfacilitiesincludedplantsthat
userenewableresourcesorcogenerationtechnologiestoproduceelectricity.AccordingtoPURPA,
cogeneratorsmustuseatleast5%oftheirthermaloutputforprocessorspaceheating(10%forfacilities
thatburnoilornaturalgas).Insomecases,thisrequirementhistoricallyforcedindependentcogenerators
tosellsteamatverylowratesinordertobecomeaQFunderPURPA.
AlthoughutilitiesarerequiredtopurchaseexcesspowerproducedbycogeneratorsandSPPs,the
purchasepriceforthepowerisbasedontheavoidedcostoftheelectricutilityasdeterminedbythe
PublicUtilityCommission.Thecosttotheutilityofproducingorotherwiseprocuringthatextrapoweris
referredtoasavoidedcost.Typically,theavoidedcostisdeterminedtobethecostofelectricity
producedbythenextnewpowerplant.Utilitieswithexcesspowergenerationcapacityoftenhave
extremelylowavoidedcosts.ThePublicUtilityCommissiondeterminesthiscosttobethecostoffuel.
Thissituationcancreatebarrierstocogeneration.
Changesinthetaxcodein1981providedcogeneratorswithimportanttaxbenefitsaffecting
depreciationschedulesandinvestmenttaxcredits.Thesechangeswereresponsibleforinjecting
significantamountsofmoneyintothecogenerationindustry.However,thetaxbenefitsenactedin1981
wereeliminatedinthemid-1980s.
The1992EnergyPolicyAct(EPACT)P.L.102-486tookthenextstepsincreatingamore
competitivemarketplaceforelectricitygenerationbyopeningaccesstotransmissionnetworksand
exemptingsomenonutilitiesfromcertainregulatoryrequirements,allowingtheirparticipationin
wholesaleelectricpowersales.ThislegislationcreatedanewclassofpowergeneratorsknownasExempt
WholesaleGenerators(EWGs).ThesegeneratorsareexemptfromthePublicUtilityHoldingCompany
Act(PUHCA)of1935andcansellpowercompetitivelytowholesalecustomers.Acogenerationfacility
canbe(butdoesnothavetobe)aQFunderPURPAandanEWGunderEPACT.Thishappenswhenthe
facilityisintheexclusivebusinessofwholesalepowersalesandmakesnoretailpowersalestoitssteam
hostorcustomer.
ElectricutilitiesarerequiredbyPURPAtointerconnectwithandbuy,attheutilitysavoidedcost,
electricityproducedbyanynonutilityfacilitythatmeetscertaincriteriaestablishedbytheFederalEnergy
RegulatoryCommission(FERC).In1996,FERCissuedtwoordersfurtherimpactingcogeneration.Order
888establishedwholesalecompetitionbyopeningtransmissionaccesstonon-utilities,andOrder889
requiredutilitiestoestablishelectronicsystemstoshareinformationaboutavailabletransmission
capacity.ForanonutilitytobeclassifiedasaQFunderPURPA,itmustmeetcertainownership,
operating,andefficiencycriteriaestablishedbyFERC.Theoperatingrequirementsstipulatethe
proportionofoutputenergythatmustbethermalenergy,andtheefficiencyrequirementsstipulatethe
maximumratioofinputenergytooutputenergy.TheQFsareeithersmall-scaleproducersofcommercial
energywhonormallyself-generateenergyfortheirownneedsbutmayhaveoccasionalorfrequent
surplusenergy,ortheyareincidentalproducerswhohappentogenerateusableelectricenergyasa
byproductofotheractivities.WhenafacilityofthistypemeetsFERCrequirementsforownership,size,
andefficiency,utilitycompaniesareobligedtopurchaseenergyfromthesefacilitiesattheutilitys
10



avoidedcost.TomeetFERCownership,operating,andefficiencyrequirements,thefollowingcriteria
mustbesatisfied.
4
Theownershipstandardrequiresthatnomorethan50%ofafacilitybeownedbyelectricutilitiesor
electricutilityholdingcompanies,eithersingleorinpartnership.Thisstandardappliestoboth
topping- andbottoming-cyclesystems.
Theoperatingstandardrequiresthataminimumof5%oftheusefuloutputofacogenerationsystem
beintheformofusefulthermalenergy.Thisstandardonlyappliestotopping-cyclesystems.
Theefficiencystandardrequiresthattheefficiencyofacogenerationsystem,asdefinedbelow,beat
least45%fortoppingcycles;iftheamountofusefulthermalenergyproducedbythecogeneration
systemexceeds15%,thentheefficiencythresholddecreasesto42.5%.Thisstandardonlyappliesto
topping-cyclesystems.Thereisnoefficiencystandardforabottomingcycleorforrenewable
resources.AccordingtoFERCrules,efficiencyisdefinedasthesumofthepoweroutputofthe
cogenerationsystemplushalfoftheusefulthermaloutputdividedbytheenergyinput,withthe
energyinputmeasuredasthefuelslowerheatingvalue.
Besidesfederalregulationsgoverningcogeneration,stateregulatoryauthoritiesalsohavethe
authoritytoregulateallcogenerationpowerpurchasedbyautility.Consequently,statesindirectlycontrol
theratespaidtocogeneratorsbyutilitiesthroughtheirpowertoapprovethecostofpurchasedpower.
2.3 ENVIRONMENTALREGULATIONS
Whilecogenerationhasthepotentialtoimproveoverallairandwaterqualitybymakingmore
efficientuseofenergyinfuel,emissionsareofconcernwheneverfossilfuels,biomass,andwastefuels
areburned.AllnewcogenerationplantsaresubjecttotheEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)
permittingprocessdesignedtomeetNationalAmbientAirQualityStandards(NAAQS).Inadditionto
theseminimumfederalstandards,manystatesimposestricterregulationsthanEPA.Thisadded
regulationcansignificantlyincreasetheinitialcostofsomecogenerationfacilities,especiallythose
locatedinurbanareasthatdonotmeetNAAQSforcertainpollutants.Compliancewithapplicable
regulationscanaffecttheeconomicviabilityofsomecogenerationplantsbecausetheemissionscontrol
equipmentrequiredtomeetenvironmentalregulationsaddstothecostoftheproject.
2.3.1 CleanAirAct
In1970,theCleanAirAct(CAA)establishedamajorroleforthefederalgovernmentinregulating
airquality.
5
Thisregulationwasfurtherexpandedbyamendmentsin1977and1990.TheCleanAirAct
Amendments(CAAA)of1990compriseanextremelylengthyandcomplexpieceoflegislationthat
authorizestheEPAtoestablishstandardsforanumberofatmosphericpollutants.
6
Compliancewith
applicableportionsoftheregulationrequiresanunderstandingoftheoriginalactthatwassignedintolaw
in1970,thevariousamendmentsthathavesincebeenadopted,changespromulgatedbyEPA,and
numerousrulingsissuedbythejudicialsystem.
TheCAAAof1990aresubdividedintothefollowingsevenmajortitlesthataddressspecificair
qualityandpollutionissues.
TitleI: ProvisionsforAttainmentandMaintenanceofNationalAmbientAirQualityStandards
(NAAQS)
TitleII: ProvisionsRelatingtoMobileSources
TitleIII: AirToxics
TitleIV: AcidDepositionControl
TitleV: Permits
11

TitleVI: StratosphericOzoneandGlobalClimateProtection
TitleVII: ProvisionsRelatingtoEnforcement
Eventhoughcogenerationhasthepotentialtoreducetotalairemissionsthroughimprovedenergy
efficiency,requirementsinTitlesI,III,IV,andVhave,ormayhaveinthefuture,animpactonthe
feasibilityofintegratingCHPsystemsintoneworexistingICIboilerinstallations.
TitleIcontainsrequirementsforachievingnationalairqualitygoals.UnderSect.109,EPAis
authorizedtoestablishprimaryandsecondaryNAAQS.Thesestandardsrepresentthemaximum
allowableconcentrationofapollutantpermittedintheambientair.Primaryambientairqualitystandards
definelevelsofairqualitythatEPAconsidersnecessary,withanadequatemarginofsafety,toprotectthe
publichealth.Secondaryambientairqualitystandardsareintendedtoprotectthepublicwelfarefromany
knownoradverseeffectsofapollutant.Bothstandardsaresubjecttorevision,andadditionalprimaryand
secondarystandardsmaybepromulgated,astheEPAAdministratordeemsnecessarytoprotectthe
publichealthandwelfare.
UnderSect.110ofTitleI,statesarerequiredtoadoptplansforimplementing,maintaining,and
enforcingNAAQSineachairqualitycontrolregionwithinitsjurisdiction.SuchplansareknownasState
ImplementationPlans(SIPs).Theseplansestablishemissionstandardsforspecificsources.Toachieve
compliance,statesaresubdividedintoanumberofidentifiableareasknownasairqualitycontrolregions
inwhichatleasttheminimumNAAQSmustbemetorcontrolrequirementsimposed.Ifthelevelofa
regulatedpollutantexceedsthespecifiedfederalstandardwithinaparticularregion,itisclassifiedasa
nonattainmentarea(NAA).WhenaregionfailstomeetaNAAQS,morestringentemissioncontrol
requirements,designedtoreduceemissionlevelsandtherebyachieveattainment,mustbeapplied.Asin
priorenvironmentallegislation,localorstateenvironmentalregulatoryagenciesmayimposestricter
regulationsonindividualsourcesorareas.
AuthorizationforEPAtoestablishperformancestandardsfornewstationaryemissionsourcesis
providedinSect.111ofTitleI.TheseNewSourcePerformanceStandards(NSPS)establishmaximum
emissionratesforselectedpollutantsfromnewemissionsourcesandexistingunitsthatundergo
substantialmodifications.Thislegislationensuresthatstandardemissionscontrolsareapplieduniformly
inallareas,irrespectiveofambientairqualityconsiderations.Accordingtothelegislation,thedegreeof
emissionslimitationisachievedthroughtheapplicationofthebestsystemofemissionreductionthathas
beenadequatelydemonstrated.Thesesystemsarereferredtoasbestavailablecontroltechnology
(BACT).
TitleIIIamendedSect.112oftheCAAregardingrequirementsforreducingtoxicairemissionsby
establishingNationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutants(NESHAP).Atoxicairpollutant,
orhazardousairpollutant(HAP),isanyoneofthenearly200pollutantsconsideredbyEPAtobe
hazardoustohumanhealthortheenvironment.Oftencharacterizedascarcinogens,mutagens,or
reproductivetoxins,HAPsaresubdividedintothefollowinggroups:
metals,includingcadmium,mercury,lead,andfinePM;
organics,includingdioxinsandfurans;and
acidgases,includinghydrogenchloride,SO
2
,andNO
x
.
TheCAAAof1990includeacomprehensiveplanforachievingsignificantreductionsinHAP
emissionsfrommajorsources.AccordingtothedefinitioninSect.112,amajorsourceisanystationary
sourceorgroupofstationarysourceslocatedwithinacontiguousareaandundercommoncontrolthat
emitsorhasthepotentialtoemitconsideringcontrols,intheaggregate,10tons/yearormoreofanyHAP
or25tons/yearormoreofanycombinationofHAPs.ToestablishregulationsforHAPemissions,EPA
developedandpublishedalistofmajorsourcecategories.Basedonthislist,EPAhaseitherissuedoris
nowdevelopingMaximumAchievableControlTechnology(MACT)standardsforeachlistedsource
12
category.Thesestandardsarebasedonthebestdemonstratedcontroltechnologyorpracticewithinthe
regulatedindustry.Currently,EPAhasestablishedMACTstandardsforcertainHAPsources,including
hazardouswastecombustionunits.
7
DiscussionsaboutproposedMACTstandardsforstationaryICI
boilers,gasturbines,andreciprocatingenginesarepresentedinSect.2.3.1.3.
WhendevelopingaMACTstandardforaparticularsourcecategory,EPAlooksatthelevelof
emissionscurrentlybeingachievedbythebest-performingsimilarsourcesthroughcleanprocesses,
controldevices,workpractices,orothermethods.Theseemissionslevelssetabaseline(oftenreferredto
astheMACTfloor)forthenewstandard.Ataminimum,aMACTstandardmustachieve,throughout
theindustry,alevelofemissionscontrolthatisatleastequivalenttotheMACTfloor.TheMACTflooris
establisheddifferentlyforexistingsourcesandnewsources.Forexistingsources,theMACTfloormust
equaltheaverageemissionslimitationscurrentlyachievedbythebest-performing12%ofsourcesinthat
sourcecategory,provided30ormoreexistingsourcesarewithinthecategory.Iftherearefewerthan30
existingsources,thentheMACTfloormustequaltheaverageemissionslimitationachievedbythebest-
performingfivesourcesinthecategory.Fornewsources,theMACTfloormustequalthelevelof
emissionscontrolcurrentlyachievedbythebest-controlledsimilarsource.Whereverfeasible,EPAwrites
thefinalMACTstandardasanemissionslimit(i.e.,asapercentreductioninemissionsoraconcentration
limitthatregulatedsourcesmustachieve).Emissionslimitsprovideflexibilityforindustrytodetermine
themosteffectivewaytocomplywiththestandard.
TitleIVestablishesrequirementsforsignificantlyreducingNO
x
andSO
2
emissions.Toachievethis
statutorygoal,EPAestablishedtheAcidRainProgram.Itsobjectiveistoreduceadverseeffectsofacid
depositionbycontrollingSO
2
andNO
x
emissionsfromfossil-fuel-firedpowerplants.Requirementsfor
SO
2
emissionsarecontainedinSect.403.ThissectionaddressestheSO
2
allowanceprogramfornewand
existingunitsandestablishesamarket-basedapproachtoSO
2
emissionreductions.Separaterequirements
forNO
x
emissionsareprovidedinSect.407.TheserequirementsarepartoftheEPAsNO
x
emission
reductionprogram.AcidRainProgramregulationshavebeencodifiedinTitle40,SubchapterCofthe
CodeofFederalRegulations.
812
TitleVcontainslegislationcoveringfederalandstateairpermittingprogramsthatapplytomajor
sourcesofatmosphericpollution.SpecificdefinitionsofmajorsourcesarespelledoutinSects.112and
302ofthelegislation.Eachpermitissuedunderthistitlemustincludeenforceableemissionlimitations
andstandards,ascheduleofcompliance,andarequirementthatthepermitapplicantsubmittheresultsof
requiredmonitoringtothepermittingauthority.Regulationsthatprovidefortheestablishmentof
comprehensivestateairqualitypermittingsystemsconsistentwithTitleVrequirementsarecontainedin
40CFRPart70(Ref.13).Additionalregulationsthatestablishcertaingeneralprovisionsandthe
operatingpermitprogramrequirementsforaffectedsourcesandaffectedunitsundertheAcidRain
Programarecontainedin40CFRPart72(Ref.8).Unitsaffectedbythisregulationareidentifiedin
40CFR72.6and40CFRPart74(Ref.9).
AlthoughEPArecognizesthatCHPoffersenergyandenvironmentalbenefitsoverelectric-only
systems,inbothcentralpowergenerationanddistributedgenerationapplications,itscurrent
administrativepoliciesandpermittingproceduresdonotallowemissionreductionsfromonesource
(electricutilitysteamgeneratingunits)tobeusedtooffsetincreasedemissionsfromanothersourcesuch
asaCHPsystem.Consequently,permitapplicationsformostCHPsystemsmustaddressincreasedair
emissionsresultingfromadditionalon-sitefuelconsumption.
Toencouragetheimplementationofcogenerationtechnology,EPAispreparinganumberoftools
thatmayhelpboilerownersandoperatorsmakeinformeddecisionsaboutCHPviability.Thesetools
includeanemissionscalculatortohelpenergyusersestimatethepotentialenvironmentalbenefitsof
replacingorupgradingtheirexistingenergyassetstoincorporateCHP,apermittingprimertohelpenergy
usersandprojectdevelopersunderstandthepermittingprocess,andahandbookforusebyairregulators
indevelopingoutput-basedemissionsstandards.
14
AccordingtoEPA,thepermittingprimerwillcover
thebasicsofCAAregulationsanddescribetheprocessforseekingapermitforaCHPproject.
13
2.3.1.1 NationalAmbientAirQualityStandards
SixcriteriapollutantsarecoveredbytheNAAQSin40CFRPart50(Ref.15).TheyincludeNO
x
,
SO
2
,PM,ozone(O
3
),carbonmonoxide(CO),andlead(Pb).Theprimaryandsecondarystandardsfor
eachofthesepollutantsexceptleadaresummarizedinTable2.1.Standardsforleadarenotcovered
becauseitisnotamajorpollutantfromcombustionoffossilfuels.Currently,theonlycombustionunits
thatmustcomplywithleademissionstandardsarelargemunicipalwastecombustionunits.
16
AnareawherethelevelofacriteriapollutantisabovetheprimarystandardisclassifiedasanNAA.
Theseareasaresubjecttomorestringentrequirementsaimedatreducingemissionstoachieveattainment.
Attainmentareasincludeareaswherethelevelofacriteriapollutantisbelowtheprimarystandard.Asthe
regulationiswritten,itispossibleforasourcetobelocatedinanareathatisclassifiedasanNAAforone
ormorepollutantsandanattainmentareafortheothers.
TheNAAmapsforeachofthesixcriteriapollutantscanbegeneratedusinganinteractivetool
(http://www.epa.gov/air/data/nonat.html?us~USA~United%20States)providedbyEPA.Thistooluses
colorshadingtoindicatewhetheranentirecountyoronlypartofthecountyexceedsNAAQS.Aspecial
selectionoptionallowstheusertocreateenhancedmaps,showingfeaturessuchascitylocations,
highways,andnationalparkoutlines.
Ownersandoperatorsofboilerinstallationsthataddcogenerationmustmeetemissionsrequirements
establishedbyEPAandmustobtainapermitfromtheregulatoryauthorityhavingjurisdictionbeforethe
systemcanbeoperated.Emissioncontrolsthatmustbeinstalled,andtheconditionsunderwhichthe
systemisallowedtooperateoftenvaryfromonelocationtoanother.Thisvariationisduethelocalair
qualityandthedegreetowhichthelocalatmosphericconditionsdeviatefromtheNAAQS.Ingeneral,
emissioncontrolrequirementsaremorestringentforsystemslocatedinNAAsthanforsystemslocatedin
attainmentareas.
2.3.1.2 NewSourcePerformanceStandards
TheEPAhasestablishedstandardsofperformancefornewstationaryemissionsources,including
gas(combustion)turbinesandboilersusedinCHPsystems.TheseNSPSarecodifiedin40CFRPart60
(Ref.17).andcovermaximumemissionratesandrequiredreductionsinpotentialcombustion
concentrationsforPM,SO
2
,andNO
x
(expressedasNO
2
).Potentialcombustionconcentrationmeansthe
theoreticalemissionsinpoundspermillionBritishthermalunits(MMBtu)heatinputthatwouldresult
fromcombustionoffuelinanuncleanedstatewithoutemissioncontrolsystems.Inthiscontext,new
sourcereferstoaunitforwhichconstructionormodificationcommencedafteraprescribeddate.
StandardsofperformancefornewstationarysourcesthathavebeenissuedbyEPAforwaste
combustionunits,ICIboilers,incinerators,electricutilitysteamgeneratingunits,andcombustion
turbinesthatcouldbeincludedaspartofaCHPsystemareidentifiedinTable2.2.Maximumemission
ratesandrequiredreductionsinpotentialcombustionconcentrationsforregulatedboilersandsteam
generatingunitsaresummarizedinAppendixAofRef.18.Atthistime,EPAhasnotestablishedNSPS
forstationaryreciprocatinginternalcombustionengine.However,proposedrules
19
forreducing
emissionsatmajorHAPemissionsourceswouldbeeffectiveindecreasingPM,NO
x
,andCOemissions
fromRICE.
2.3.1.3 NationalEmissionStandardsforHAP
NationalemissionstandardsforHAPsareprovidedin40CFR63(Ref.20).Thesestandards
regulateawiderangeofstationarysourcecategoriesthatemit(orhavethepotentialtoemit)oneormore
HAPslistedinSect.112(b)oftheCAAasamendedin1990.Someoftheregulatedsourcescould
potentiallyprovideheatforbottoming-cycleCHPsystems,whileotherssuchashazardouswaste
14
Table2.1. SummaryofNAAQSunderTitleIoftheCAA
a
Criteriapollutant Primarystandards Secondarystandards
O
3
Theprimary1-hambientairqualitystandard Thesecondaryambientairqualitystan-
40CFR50.9and forozoneis0.12ppm,dailymaximum8-h dardsforozonearethesameasthe
50.10 average.Thisstandardisattainedwhenthe primarystandards.
expectednumberofdayspercalendaryear
withmaximumhourlyaverageconcentra-
tionsabove0.12ppmisequaltoorlessthan
one.
Theprimary8-hambientairqualitystandard
forozoneis0.08ppm,dailymaximum8-h
average.Thisstandardismetatamonitoring
sitewhentheaverageoftheannualfourth-
highestdailymaximum8-haverageofozone
concentrationislessthanorequalto
0.08ppm.
NO
2
Theprimaryambientairqualitystandardfor Thesecondaryambientairqualitystan-
40CFR50.11 NO
2
is0.053ppm,annualarithmeticmean dardsforNO
2
arethesameasthe
concentration. primarystandards.
SO
2
Theprimaryannualambientairqualitystan- Thesecondary3-hambientairquality
40CFR50.4and dardforSO
2
is0.030ppm,nottobe standardforSO
2
is0.5ppm,nottobe
50.5 exceededinacalendaryear.The24-hstan- exceededmorethanoncepercalendar
dardis0.14ppm,nottobeexceededmore year.
thanoncepercalendaryear.
CO Theprimaryambientairqualitystandardsfor Therearenosecondaryambientairquality
40CFR50.8 COare9ppmforan8-haverageconcentra- standardsforCO.
tionnottobeexceededmorethanonceper
calendaryear,and35ppmfora1-haverage
concentrationnottobeexceededmorethan
oncepercalendaryear.
PMupto10min
diameter(PM
10
)
Theprimary24-hambientairqualitystandard
forPM
10
is150g/m
3
,24-haverage
Thesecondaryambientairqualitystan-
dardsforPM
10
arethesameasthe
40CFR50.6 concentration. primarystandards.
Theprimaryannualambientairquality
standardforPM
10
is50g/m
3
,annual
arithmeticmeanconcentration.
PMupto2.5min
diameter(PM
2.5
)
Theprimary24-hambientairqualitystandard
forPM
2.5
is65g/m
3
,24-haverage
Thesecondaryambientairqualitystan-
dardsforPM
2.5
arethesameasthe
40CFR50.7 concentration. primarystandards.
Theprimaryannualambientairquality
standardforPM
2.5
is15.0g/m
3
,annual
arithmeticmeanconcentration.
a
Consult40CFR50forNAAQSdetails.
15
15

Table2.2. Standardsofperformancefornewstationarysteamgeneratingsources
a
40CFR60
Title
Subpart
Cb EmissionsGuidelinesandComplianceTimesforLargeMunicipalWasteCombustorsthatare
ConstructedonorBeforeSeptember20,1994
Ce EmissionGuidelinesforHospital/Medical/InfectiousWasteIncineratorsConstructedonor
beforeJune20,1996
D StandardsofPerformanceforFossil-Fuel-FiredSteamGeneratorsforWhichConstructionis
CommencedAfterAugust17,1971
Da StandardsofPerformanceforElectricUtilitySteamGeneratingUnitsforWhichConstruction
isCommencedAfterSeptember18,1978
Db StandardsofPerformanceforIndustrial-Commercial-InstitutionalSteamGeneratingUnits
Dc StandardsofPerformanceforSmallIndustrial-Commercial-InstitutionalSteamGenerating
Units
E StandardsofPerformanceforIncinerators
Ea StandardsofPerformanceforMunicipalWasteCombustorsforWhichConstructionis
CommencedAfterDecember20,1989,andonorBeforeSeptember20,1994
Eb StandardsofPerformanceforLargeMunicipalWasteCombustorsforWhichConstructionis
CommencedAfterSeptember20,1994,orforWhichModificationorReconstructionis
CommencedAfterJune19,1996
Ec StandardsofPerformanceforHospital/Medical/InfectiousWasteIncineratorsforWhich
ConstructionisCommencedAfterJune20,1996
GG StandardsofPerformanceforStationaryGasTurbines
b
AAAA StandardsofPerformanceforSmallMunicipalWasteCombustionUnitsforWhich
ConstructionisCommencedAfterAugust30,1999,orforWhichModificationor
ReconstructionisCommencedAfterJune6,2001
BBBB EmissionGuidelinesandComplianceTimesforSmallMunicipalWasteCombustionUnits
ConstructedonorBeforeAugust30,1999
CCCC StandardsofPerformanceforCommercialandIndustrialSolidWasteIncinerationUnitsfor
WhichConstructionisCommencedAfterNovember30,1999,orforWhichModificationor
ReconstructionisCommencedonorAfterJune1,2001
DDDD EmissionsGuidelinesandComplianceTimesforCommercialandIndustrialSolidWaste
IncinerationUnitsthatCommencedConstructiononorBeforeNovember30,1999
EEEE NewSourcePerformanceStandardsforOtherSolidWasteIncineratorsConstructedafter
November30,1999(underdevelopmentbyEPA)
FFFF EmissionGuidelinesforOtherSolidWasteIncineratorsConstructedonorbefore
November30,1999(underdevelopmentbyEPA)
a
Performancestandardsforadditionalfacilitiesandindustrialprocessesareprovidedin40CFR60(Ref.17).
b
68FR17990(Ref.21).
combustors
7
couldbepartoftopping-cycleCHPsystems.Inanefforttofurtherreducetoxicair
emissions,EPAisfinalizingnationalemissionstandardsforHAPsforthefollowingtypesofcombustion
unitsthatareoftenusedinCHPsystems:
ICIboilersandprocessheaters,
22,23
stationarycombustionturbines,
24
and
stationaryreciprocatinginternalcombustionengines.
19
RulesfortheseunitsimplementSect.112(d)oftheCAAbyrequiringaffectedmajorsourcestomeet
HAPemissionsstandardsreflectingtheapplicableMACT.Amajorsourceisonethatemits10tons/year
16
ormoreofasingletoxicairpollutant,or25tons/yearormoreofacombinationofairpollutants.The
rulessetlimitsontheamountofairpollutionthatmaybereleasedbyamajorsource.Meetingthe
emissionlimitscouldbeachievedbyeither(1)installingemissioncontrolequipmentsuchasfabricfilters
orscrubbersor(2)switchingfueltoonethatproducesfewertoxicemissions.TheseMACTstandardswill
appearintheCodeofFederalRegulationinthesubpartsidentifiedinTable2.3.
Boilersandprocessheatersaffectedbytherule
22,23
areusedatfacilitiessuchasrefineries,chemical
andmanufacturingplants,andpapermills.AccordingtoEPA,anestimated58,000existingboilersand
processheaterswillbesubjecttotherulerequirements.Newboilersandprocessheaterswouldhaveupto
6monthsaftertheruleisfinal,or6monthsafterstartup,tocomplywiththenewrequirements.By
adoptingthestandard,EPAanticipatessubstantiallyreducedemissionsoftoxicairpollutants,suchas
cadmium,chromium,lead,arsenic,manganese,mercury,hydrogenfluoride,nickel,andhydrogen
chloridefromthesesourcecategories.Thedatethefinalruleforboilersandprocessheaters
25
will
publishedintheFederalRegisterhasnotbeenannouncedbyEPA.
Proposedrulesforstationarycombustionturbines
24
havebeenfinalizedbyEPAtoreduceemissions
ofanumberoftoxicairpollutantsincludingformaldehyde,toluene,acetaldehyde,andbenzene.Thefinal
rule
25
waspublishedintheFederalRegisteronMarch5,2004,andappliestocombustionturbineswitha
ratedpeakpoweroutputequaltoorgreaterthan1.0MWlocatedatmajorsourcesofHAPemissions.
Eightsubcategorieshavebeendefinedwithinthestationarycombustionturbinesourcecategory,andeach
subcategoryhasdistinctrequirements.Newcombustionturbineswouldhaveupto6monthsafterthe
Table2.3. MACTstandardsforsteamgeneratingsourcecategories
a
40CFR63
Subpart
Title Reference
EEE NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsfor Ref.7
HazardousWasteCombustors
YYYY ProposedRule:NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAir Ref.24
PollutantsforStationaryGasTurbines,68FR1888
NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsfor Ref.26
StationaryCombustionTurbinesProposedDelisting,OAR-2003-
0189;RIN2060-AK73,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,
Washington,D.C.
NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsfor Ref.27
StationaryCombustionTurbinesStayProposal,OAR-2003-
0196;RIN2060-AK73,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,
Washington,D.C.
ZZZZ ProposedRule:NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAir Ref.19
PollutantsforStationaryReciprocatingInternalCombustion
Engines,67FR77830
FinalRule:NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAir Ref.28
PollutantsforStationaryReciprocatingInternalCombustion
Engines,OAR-2002-0059;RIN2060-AG-63,U.S.Environmental
ProtectionAgency,Washington,D.C.
DDDDD ProposedRule:NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAir Ref.22
PollutantsforIndustrial/Commercial/InstitutionalBoilersand
ProcessHeaters,68FR1660
FinalRule:NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAir Ref.23
PollutantsforIndustrial,Commercial,andInstitutionalBoilersand
ProcessHeaters,OAR-2002-0058;RIN2060-AG69,U.S.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,Washington,D.C.
a
Nationalemissionstandardsforhazardousairpollutantsfromothersourcesarealsoprovidedin40CFR63(Ref.20).
17

ruleisfinal,or6monthsafterstartup,tocomplywiththenewrequirements.Existingcombustionturbines
willneedtoachievecompliancewithin3yearsaftertheruleisfinal.Affectedsourcesmayinstall
controlsknownasCOcatalyticoxidationsystemsorothermeanstoreduceemissions.Thefinalrulewas
basedonCOcatalyticoxidationsystemtechnology,whichiscapableofreducingCOemissionsaswellas
othertoxicemissionssuchasformaldehyde,toluene,acetaldehyde,andbenzene.Combustionturbines
locatedatareasourcesofHAPemissionsarenotcoveredbythefinalrule.AnareasourceofHAP
emissionsisasitethatdoesnotemitanysingleHAPatarateof10tons/yearoracombinationofHAPs
atarateof25tons/year.
AlthoughrulesforgasturbinesarepublishedintheFederalRegister,
25
onMarch31,2004,EPA
proposedarulethatwouldremovefouroftheeightsubcategoriesofcombustionturbinesfromMACT
standards.
26
ThefoursubcategoriestheEPAisproposingtoremovefromemissionscontrolare(1)lean
premixgas-firedturbines,(2)diffusionflamegas-firedturbines,(3)emergencystationarycombustion
turbines,and(4)stationarycombustionturbinesoperatedontheNorthSlopeofAlaska.Withthe
exceptionoftheemergencyturbines,theseturbinesprimarilyburnnaturalgasandmayuseoilasa
backup(nomorethan1,000h/year).Theemergencyturbinesmostlyburnoil.OnMarch31,2004,EPA
alsoproposedtostay,ordelay,theenforcementofthecombustionturbinesHAPemissionsstandardsfor
newturbinesintheleanpremixgas-firedturbinesanddiffusionflamegas-firedturbinessubcategories.
27
Theobjectiveoftheemissionstandards
19,28
forstationaryRICEistoreduceemissionsof
hydrocarbons,PM,NO
x
,andCO.Asdrafted,theruleonlyappliestoengineswithamanufacturers
nameplateratingabove500brakehorsepowerthatarelocatedatmajorsourcesofHAPemissions.To
complywiththenewrequirements,facilitieswithneworexistingsparkignition4-strokerichburn
(4SRB)enginesmayinstallnonselectivecatalyticreductionsystemsorothersystemsthatarecapableof
reducingformaldehydeemissionsto350ppborless.Fornewsparkignition2-strokeleanburn(2SLB)
and4-strokeleanburn(4SLB)enginesandforcompressionignition(CI)enginestheproposedrule
requiresinstallationofeitheracontroldeviceknownasaCOcatalyticoxidationsystem,orothersystems
capableofreducingformaldehydeemissionstothefollowingprescribedlevels.
17ppmfor2SLBengines
14ppmfor4SLBengines
580ppbforCIengines
Withtheexceptionofexistingsparkignition4SRBstationaryRICE,othertypesofstationaryRICE
(i.e.,2SLB,4SLB,andCI)locatedatexistingmajorsourcesofHAPemissionsarenotsubjecttoany
specificrequirementsundertherule.ThedatethefinalruleforstationaryRICE
28
willpublishedinthe
FederalRegisterhasnotbeenannouncedbyEPA.
2.3.1.4 Permittingrequirements
TitleI,PartsCandDoftheCAAestablishpermittingrequirementsforconstructionandoperation
ofnewandmodifiedmajorstationarysourcesofregulatedairpollutants.Collectively,EPAreferstothese
programsasthemajorNewSourceReview(NSR)program.TheNSRprovisionsoftheCAAare
combinationsofairqualityplanningandairpollutioncontroltechnologyprogramrequirements.Major
NSRprogramregulationsarecontainedin40CFR51.165(Ref.29),40CFR51.166(Ref.30),
40CFR52.21(Ref.31),40CFR52.24(Ref.32),and40CFR51,AppendixS(Ref.33).
InadministeringthemajorNSRprogram,statesmustdevelop,adopt,andsubmittoEPAfor
approvalaSIPthatcontainsemissionlimitationsandothercontrolmeasurestoattainandmaintainthe
NAAQSandtomeettheotherrequirementsinSect.110(a)oftheCAA.EachSIPisrequiredtocontaina
preconstructionreviewprogramfortheconstructionandmodificationofanystationarysourceofair
pollutiontoassurethattheNAAQSareachievedandmaintained;toprotectareasofcleanair;toprotect
18
AirQualityRelatedValues(AQRV)(includingvisibility)innationalparksandothernaturalareasof
specialconcern;toassurethatappropriateemissionscontrolsareapplied;tomaximizeopportunitiesfor
economicdevelopmentconsistentwiththepreservationofcleanairresources;andtoensurethatany
decisiontoincreaseairpollutionismadeonlyafterfullpublicconsiderationofalltheconsequencesof
suchadecision.
TitleVoftheCAAincludesprovisionsforissuanceofoperatingpermitsbythefederalgovernment
(EPA)aswellasstateandlocaljurisdictions.Thisprovisionensuresthatmandatedemissionslimitations
andemissionreductionrequirementsareachievedinactualpractice.Eachpermitspecifiesthe
enforceablerequirementsthatapplytoeachaffectedunitorsource.Inthiscontext,asourceisany
governmental,institutional,commercial,orindustrialstructure,installation,plant,building,orfacility
thatemitsaregulatedairpollutant.
ExceptforsomeverysmallCHPsystem,almosteverycogenerationprojectneedssometypeofNSR
permit.AssistanceinunderstandingthepermittingprocessinIllinoisisprovidedinitsCHP/BCHP
environmentalpermittingguidebook.
34,35
OtherstatesincludingIowa,NewYork,andCaliforniaare
developingsimilarCHPpermittingguidebooks.EffortsbyDOEinthepermittingareainvolve
developingapermittingprimerforeightsoutheasternstatesandexpandingthedatabaseofstate-specific
permitrequirements.AcomprehensivepermithandbookisalsobedevelopedbyEPA.
OneofthefirststepsinpreparingapermitapplicationfocusesondeterminingwhetheraCHP
systemisitsownsourceorpartofanothersource,andwhethertheCHPsystemisanewsourceora
modificationtoanexistingsource.Fornewsources,itisimportanttoestimatetheirpotentialtoemit
(PTE).Thisvalueoftenreflectsthedesignoperationalcapabilitybutcanalsoaccountforoperational
limits,fuels,andemissioncontrols.Formodificationstoexistingsources,itisnecessarytodeterminethe
netemissionsincrease,ifany,resultingfromtheadditionofaCHPsystemandothermodificationstothe
installationthatmaybenecessary.Currently,nocreditcanbetakenforreducedemissionsthatmight
occuratautilitypowerplantaftertheCHPsystembeginsgeneratingelectricityeitherforuseatthesite
orforresaletotheutility.Output-basedemissionstandardstoaddressthisissuearebeingpromotedby
EPAasincentivesforefficiencyandcogeneration,andfutureNSRreformsadoptedbyEPAmay
considerCHPsourcedefinitionandoutput-basedmechanisms.
Constructionpermits
Permittingrequirementsforconstructionofnewandmodifiedmajorstationarysourcesdependon
theairqualityatthelocationofthesource.RegulationsforsourceslocatedinNAAs(areasnotmeeting
NAAQS)andinozonetransportregions(OTRs),asdefinedinSect.184oftheCAA,arecontainedin
40CFR51.165(Ref.29).ThispartofthemajorNSRprogramisreferredtobyEPAasthenonattainment
NSRprogram.Inattainmentareas(areasmeetingNAAQS)orinareasforwhichthereisinsufficient
informationtodeterminewhethertheymeettheNAAQS(unclassifiableareas),theNSRrequirementsare
containedin40CFR51.166(Ref.30).ThisprogramisreferredtobyEPAasthePreventionof
SignificantDeterioration(PSD)program.
DeterminingwhetheranactivityissubjecttothemajorNSRprogramisfairlystraightforwardfor
newlyconstructedsources.TheCAAAof1990setapplicabilitythresholdsformajorsourcesinNAAs
(PTEabove100tons/yearofanyregulatedcriteriapollutant,orsmalleramounts,dependingonthe
nonattainmentclassification)andattainmentareas(100or250tons/year,dependingonthesourcetype).
AnewsourcewithaPTEatorabovetheapplicablethresholdamountissubjecttomajorNSR.The
determinationofwhatshouldbeclassifiedasamodificationsubjecttomajorNSRpresentsmoredifficult
issues.ApplicabilityofthemajorNSRprogrammustbedeterminedinadvanceofconstructionandis
pollutant-specific.Incasesinvolvingexistingsources,thisrequiresapollutant-by-pollutantdetermination
oftheemissionschange,ifany,thatwillresultfromthephysicaloroperationalchange.Revised
regulationsgoverningchangesinNSRapplicabilityrequirementsformodificationshavebeenfinalized.
36
19
ThesechangesarebasedonareviewbytheEPAAdministrator,inconsultationwiththeSecretaryof
Energyandotherrelevantagencies,ofNSRregulationsincludingadministrativeinterpretationsand
implementation.ThefivechangesthatweremadetotheNSRprograminvolvebaselineactualemissions,
actual-to-projected-actualemissionsmethodology,plantwideapplicabilitylimitations(PALs),cleanunit
exemptions,andpollutioncontrolprojects(PCP)exemptions.Thesechanges,whichbecameeffective
March3,2003,outlinehowamajormodificationisdeterminedunderthevariousmajorNSR
applicabilityoptions.
DraftguidanceforclarifyingEPAsNSRandTitleVpoliciesregardingsourcedefinitionsforCHP
facilitieswasissuedin2001(Ref.37).UndercurrentNSRandTitleVregulationsandguidance,a
stationarysourceisanybuilding,structure,facility,orinstallationthatemitsorhasthePTEanyair
pollutantsubjecttoregulationundertheCAA.Thetermbuilding,structure,facility,orinstallation
meansallthepollutantemittingactivitiesthatbelongtothesameindustrialgrouping,arelocatedonone
ormorecontiguousoradjacentpropertiesandareunderthecontrolofthesameperson(orpersonsunder
commoncontrol).
13,29,31
Anemissionsunitisanypartofastationarysourcethatemitsorhasthe
potentialtoemitanypollutantsubjecttoregulationundertheCAA.Thetermsameindustrialgrouping
referstothemajorgroupsidentifiedbytwo-digitcodesintheStandardIndustrialClassification(SIC)
Manual,whichispublishedbytheOfficeofManagementandBudget.ThepreambletotheAugust7,
1980PSDregulationsexplainstheEPAspolicyabouthowtomakesourcedeterminationswhenfacilities
atasitearenotinthesametwo-digitSICcode.Essentially,the1980PSDpreambleprovidesthat
activitiesindifferenttwo-digitSICcodesmayneverthelessstillbeaggregatedtogetherifoneactivityisa
supportfacilityforaprimaryactivityatthatplantsite.Thus,onesourceclassificationencompasses
bothprimaryandsupportfacilities,evenwhenthelatterincludesunitswithadifferenttwo-digitSIC
code.
Apermittoconstructandoperateanewormodifiedmajorsourceanywhereinanareathatdoesnot
meetNAAQS(i.e.,NAAs)cannotbeissuedunlessthesourceisrequiredtocomplywiththeLowest
AchievableEmissionsRate(LAER)asdefinedin40CFR51.165(Ref.29).ThemeaningofLAERis
discussedinTable2.4.PermitsissuedtosourceslocatedinNAAsarecalledNonattainmentNSRPermits.
Toreceiveoneofthesepermits,emissionsoffsetsmustbeobtained.Anoffsetisamethodusedinthe
CAAtogivecompaniesthatownoroperatelarge(major)sourcesinNAAsflexibilityinmeetingoverall
pollutionreductionrequirementswhenchangingproductionprocesses.Theseoffsetsrepresentreductions
inactualemissionsfromsomeothersource.Thissourcemaybeatthesameplantoratanotherplant
ownedbytheapplicantorfromsomeothercompanywithasourcethatislocatedwithintheNAA.In
actualpractice,permitapplicantsmustobtainanoffsetthatissomewhatgreaterthantheamountof
pollutiontheywillemit.ThisensuresthatpermitrequirementsaremetandtheNAAkeepsmoving
towardattainment.Thepermitapplicantmustalsoinstallpollutioncontrolequipmenttosignificantly
reduceemissions.Tradingoffsetsareallowedbecausetotalpollutionlevelswillcontinuetodecrease
usingthisapproach.RevisionsinNSRapplicabilityrequirementswererecentlyissuedbyEPAtoallow
sourcesmoreflexibilitytoresponsetorapidlychangingmarketsandtoplanforfutureinvestmentsin
pollutioncontrolandpreventiontechnologies.
36
Thedesiredobjectivesoftheserevisionsaretoincrease
energyefficiencyandencourageemissionsreductions.
ThePSDregulationsin40CFR52.21(Ref.31)allowtheinstallationandoperationoflargenew
sourcesandmodificationofexistingsourcesinareasthatmeettheNAAQS(i.e.,attainmentareas).To
assurethattheareawillcontinuetomeetNAAQS,applicantsforconstructionpermitsmustdemonstrate
thattheBACTisbeingapplied.RequirementsforBACTdeterminationsaredescribedinTable2.4.
DraftguidancefordeterminingsourceboundariesbetweenCHPsystemthatserveonethermalhost
andCHPsystemsthatservemultiplecustomerswasissuedbyEPA.
37
Accordingtothisguidance,the
definitionofbuilding,structure,facility,orinstallationprovidesthreetests:
20


Table2.4. BACTandLAERapplicabilityandrequirements
BACT
BACT:BestAvailableControlTechnology
Applicability:BACTisapplicabletonewemissionsourceslocatedinattainmentareas.Theseareasarein
compliancewithNAAQS.
a
Requirements:Bylaw,BACTdeterminationsmustconsidertheeconomic,environmental,andenergyimpactsof
eachinstallationonacase-by-casebasis.Tosatisfythisrequirement,apermitapplicantmustidentifyallair
pollutioncontroloptionsavailable,thefeasibilityofapplyingtheseoptions,theeffectivenessofeachoption,
andwhytheoptionproposedintheapplicationrepresentsBACT.Theacceptedmethodforperformingthese
assessmentsisknownastop-downBACT.Implementingtop-downBACTrequiresanassessmentofemission
controltechnologiesbeginningwiththetechniquethatisthemosteffective.Ifthistechniqueiscost-effective
andtechnicallyfeasible,thenitmustbeapplied.However,ifthecostistoohighoritsapplicationisnot
feasible,thenextmosteffectivetechniquemustbeassesseduntilanacceptabletechniqueisidentified.
LAER
LAER:LowestAchievableEmissionsRate
Applicability:LAERisapplicabletonewemissionsourceslocatedinNAAs.Theseareasarenotincompliance
withNAAQS.
a
Requirements:LAERmeansthemorestringentrateofemissionsbasedonthefollowing:
Themoststringentemissionslimitationthatiscontainedintheimplementationplanofanystateforsuchclass
orcategoryofstationarysource,unlesstheowneroroperatoroftheproposedstationarysourcedemonstrates
thatsuchlimitationsarenotachievable;or
Themoststringentemissionslimitationthatisachievedinpracticebysuchclassorcategoryofstationary
sources.Thislimitation,whenappliedtoamodification,meanstheLAERforthenewormodifiedemissions
unitswithinastationarysource.Undernoconditionsdoestheapplicationofthetermpermitaproposednew
ormodifiedstationarysourcetoemitanypollutantinexcessoftheamountallowableunderanapplicablenew
sourcestandardofperformance.
LAERisthemoststringentofalltechnology-basedregulationsandisdifferentfromBACT.Thecost-
effectivenessofapplyingaparticularemissioncontroltechniquecannotbeconsideredinLAERdeterminations.
Whenrequired,technologyequivalenttoLAERmustbeusedregardlessofthecost.
a
Consult40CFR50forNAAQSdetails.
15
1. IstheCHPadjacentorcontiguoustothehost?
2. IstheCHPundercommoncontrolwiththehost?
3. IstheCHPeither(a)partofthesameSICcodeasthehost,orifnot,(b)istheCHPasupportfacility
forthehost?
Iftheanswertoallthreetestsisyes,thenEPAconsiderstheCHPasinglesourcetogetherwiththe
host.Iftheanswertoanyofthethreetestsisno,thenEPAconsiderstheCHPtobeaseparatesource
fromthehost.ThisinterpretationclarifiesthataCHPfacilitythatiscapableofprovidingpowerorheat
notonlytothehost,butalsototheelectricalgridorelsewhere,maybeconsideredaseparatesourcefrom
thehostforpurposesofNSRandTitleVpermitting.Thatis,permittingauthoritiesmayconsideraCHP
facilitytobeaseparatesourcefromthehostfacility,eveniftheCHPfacilitycontinuestoprovideallor
mostofitsoutputtothehostfacility.ThefeaturethatdistinguishesCHPfacilitiesfromothersupport
facilitiesisthefactthataCHPfacilityisindependentlycapableofprovidingpowertotheelectricalgrid
orcustomersotherthanthehostfacility.ThisguidanceappliesevenwheretheCHPfacilityisnot
necessarilycurrentlyprovidingpowerorthermalenergytoothercustomers;itneedonlypossessthe
21

technicalcapabilitytodoso.Bytechnicalcapability,EPAmeansthatallnecessaryinfrastructurewould
beinplaceandthatsteamorwasteheatcouldbeprovidedattheturnofavalve.Therefore,ifemissions
fromtheCHPfacilityitselfexceedthemajorstationarysourcethreshold,then,aswithanynewmajor
stationarysource,theCHPfacilitymustgothroughthePSDornonattainmentNSRpermittingprocess,
whicheverisappropriate.Inaddition,PSDregulationsrequirethatcredibleemissionsdecreasesfor
nettingpurposesmustbefromemissionsunitswithinthesamesource,notfromemissionsunitsatother
sources.Emissionsnettingisatermthatreferstotheprocessofconsideringcertainpreviousand
prospectiveemissionschangesatanexistingmajorsourcetodetermineifanetemissionsincreaseofa
pollutantwillresultfromaproposedphysicalchangeorchangeinmethodofoperation.
Operatingpermits
OperatingpermitsissuedunderTitleVmustincludeenforceableemissionlimitationsandstandards,
ascheduleofcompliance,andarequirementthatthepermitapplicantsubmittheresultsofrequired
monitoringtothepermittingauthority.OtherpermittingprovisionspertaintothecertifyingofDesignated
Representativesforaffectedsources,schedulesforsubmissions,permitprocessingandrevision
procedures,andperiodiccompliancecertificationreporting.Permitsaresubjecttopubliccommentbefore
approvalandaregenerallyavailabletothepublicaftertheyareissued.
Regulationsthatprovidefortheestablishmentofcomprehensivestateandlocalairquality
permittingsystemsconsistentwiththerequirementsofTitleVarecontainedin40CFRParts70and71
(Refs.13and38).Additionalregulationsthatestablishcertaingeneralpermittingprovisionsarecontained
in40CFRPart72(Ref.8).Theapprovalstatusofstateandlocaloperatingpermitsprogramsispresented
in40CFRParts70,AppendixA(Ref.39).
Operatingpermitrequirementsforaffectedunits(i.e.,fossil-fuel-firedcombustiondevices)underthe
AcidRainProgram,pursuanttoTitleIVoftheCAA,areprovidedin40CFR72(Ref.8).Althoughthis
regulationprimarilyappliestolargefossil-fuel-firedboilersincludingelectricutilitysteam-generating
units,certainexceptionsmayrequireanowneroroperatorofaCHPsystemtoobtainanAcidRain
Permit.Applicabilityrequirementsin40CFR72.6identifyaffectedunitsandaffectedsourcessubjectto
requirementsoftheCleanAirProgram.Ingeneral,thefollowingcombustiondevicesarenotconsidered
affectedunits,sotheytypicallydonotneedanAcidRainPermittooperate:
fossil-fuel-firedunitsthatcurrentlyservegeneratorsthatdonotproduceelectricityforsale,
fossil-fuel-firedunitsthatcurrentlydonotservegeneratorswithnameplatecapacitiesgreaterthan
25MW(e),
qualifiedfacilities(seedefinitioninSect.2.2),
independentpowerproductionfacilities,
cogenerationunitsthatsupplyequaltoorlessthanone-thirdoftheirpotentialoutputcapacityor
equaltoorlessthan219,000MWhactualelectricoutputonanannualbasistoanyutilitypower
distributionsystemforsale,
solidwasteincinerators,and
unitsnotownedoroperatedbyautility.
OnAugust6,2001,EPAdeterminedthatgasturbinesandwasteheat-recoverycomponentsof
combined-cyclegasturbinesystemsqualifyaselectricutilitysteam-generatingunitsifthecombined-
cyclegasturbinesystemssupplymorethanone-thirdoftheirpotentialelectricoutputcapacityandmore
than25MWelectricoutputtoanyutilitypowerdistributionsystemforsale.
40
Basedonthis
determination,CHPsystemsofthistypearesubjecttoNSR.
22



IfanAcidRainPermitisrequiredtooperateaparticularaffectedunitorsource,regulatory
requirementsin40CFR73(Ref.41),40CFR74(Ref.9),40CFR76(Ref.42),40CFR77(Ref.11),
40CFR78(Ref.12),40CFR96(Ref.43),and40CFR97(Ref.44)dealingwithSO
2
andNO
x
reduction
programsmayneedtobeaddressedaspartofthepermittingprocess.
2.3.1.5 Statepermittingprograms
Environmentalregulationsgenerallyrecognizedthatstatesshouldberesponsiblefortakingthelead
incarryingouttherequirementsintheCAA,becausepollutioncontrolproblemsoftenrequirespecial
understandingoflocalindustries,geography,demographics,andecosystems.Statesarerequiredto
developSIPsthatexplainhoweachstatewillperformitsdutiesunderthelaw.ASIPisacollectionofthe
regulationsthatastatewillusetocleanuppollutedareas.DuringSIPdevelopment,statesmustinvolve
thepublicthroughhearingsandopportunitiestocomment.EPAmustalsoapprovetheSIP.IfaSIPis
unacceptable,EPAcantakeoverenforcingtheCAAinthatstate.Nothinginthefederalregulations
preventsastatefromestablishingmorestringentrequirementsprovidedthattherequirementsare
consistentwiththefederallaw.
Allstatesarerequiredtodevelopandimplementanoperatingpermitprogramthatmeetsminimum
federalrequirements.AuthorizationfortheoperatingpermitprogramisprovidedinTitleV,Sects.501to
506oftheCAA.Regulationsforimplementingtheoperatingpermitrequirementswerepromulgatedon
July21,1992,andareprovidedin40CFRPart70(Ref.13).Permitsarerequiredbothfortheoperation
ofunits(operatingpermits)andfortheconstructionofnewormodifiedunits.Stategovernmentsbenefit
fromtheoperatingpermitprograminseveralways:
Theoperatingpermitprogramprovidesamechanismthatstateandlocalagenciescanuseto
consolidateandadministerprovisionsoftheCAA,aswellastheirownlaws.
Theprogramprovidesallstateandlocalpermittingagencieswiththeauthoritytosustaintheir
operationsusingdirectpermitfeesratherthangeneraltaxrevenues.
Improvedindustrialcompliancewithemissionstandardsisexpectedtohelpstateandlocal
governmentsmeetNAAQSandpossiblyevenavoidadditionallocalemissioncontrols.
Whenrequired,stateorlocalpermittingauthoritiesadministeracidrainpermittingprogramsunder
bothTitlesIVandVoftheCAA.TheyprocessAcidRainPermitapplications,issuedraftAcidRain
Permitsforpubliccomment,andsubmitproposedAcidRainPermitstoEPAforreview.Thepermitting
authoritiesthenissueAcidRainPermitsthatareapproved.EachAcidRainPermitspecifiestheTitleIV
requirementsthatapplytotheaffectedsourceandisaportionofalargerTitleVpermit.AnAcidRain
PermitspecifieseachunitsallowanceallocationandNO
x
emissionlimitations(ifapplicable),andalso
specifiescomplianceplan(s)fortheaffectedsource.
Theprocessforobtainingconstructionandoperatingpermitsfornewairemissionssourcesdepends
onmanyfactors,
18
includingwhetherthesourceislocatedinanareathatdoesordoesnotmeetNAAQS.
AlthoughthegeneralprocedureforobtainingconstructionandoperatingpermitsforCHPsystemsisnow
well-established,obtainingapermitisoftentime-consumingandtechnicallycomplex.Extensive
knowledgeofthecombustionsystemsandemissioncontrolequipment;anunderstandingofapplicable
local,state,andfederallaws;andawillingnesstoworkwithpermittingauthoritiesareessential.Basedon
lessonslearned,itisapparenttoowners,operators,andregulatorsthatthebesttimetocontrolpollutionis
atthetimethesourceisinstalledormodified.Thismeansthatnewunitsshouldusethebestemissions
controltechnologythatisavailable,andmodificationstoexistingunitsshouldresultinreducedemissions
toachieveNAAQSmandatedbytheCAAAof1990(Refs.4547).Thepermittingprimerunder
developmentbyEPAshouldbeavaluableresourceforboilerownersandoperatorsinterestedin
integratingcogenerationtechnologyintotheiroperations.
23
GuidanceforenvironmentalpermittingofCHPsystemsinIllinoiswasissuedinJanuary2003to
assistpotentialCHPcandidatesinidentifyingwhichpermitsareneededandunderstandingthevariousair
permittingissueinvolvedinthepermittingprocesses.TheIllinoisCHP/BCHPEnvironmentalPermitting
Guidebookisdividedintotwovolumes.VolumeARoadmappingthePermittingProcess
34
detailsthe
currentpermittingprocessforCHPsystemsinIllinoisandprovidestoolsintheformofanemissions
calculatorandastep-by-stepquestionnairetohelpnavigatethepermittingprocess.Asectionaddressing
constructionpermitbasicsdescribesrequirementsfornonattainmentNSRpermitsandtheneedforLAER
complianceandPSDpermitsinattainmentareaswhereBACTmustbeemployed.VolumeBPermitting
Issues(ASurveyandDialogue)
35
discussesspecificpermittingtopicsaswellaspotentialopportunitiesto
streamlinethepermittingprocess.Textinthisvolumeisbasedonasurveyof20currentCHP
installationsandfeedbackfromCHPdevelopersandtheIllinoisEnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
AlthoughtheguidebookfocusesprimarilyonCHPfacilitiesinIllinoisthatusenaturalgasordiesel
engines,boilerownersandoperatorsinterestedinunderstandingthefundamentalsofCHPpermitting
mayfindtheseresourcesandtoolshelpful.
2.3.2 CleanWaterAct
TheCleanWaterAct(CWA)wasestablishedin1977asamajoramendmenttotheFederalWater
PollutionControlActof1972andwassubstantiallymodifiedbytheWaterQualityActof1987.This
legislationestablishedthebasicstructureforregulatingdischargesofpollutantsintothewatersofthe
UnitedStates.The1987amendmentstotheCWAsignificantlychangedthethrustofenforcement
activities.Greateremphasisisnowplacedonmonitoringandcontroloftoxicconstituentsinwastewater,
thepermittingofoutfallscomposedentirelyofstormwater,andtheimpositionofregulationsgoverning
sewagesludgedisposal.Thesechangesresultedinmuchstricterdischargelimitsandgreatlyexpandedthe
numberofchemicalconstituentsmonitoredintheeffluent.
AkeyfeatureoftheCWArequirestheEPAtoestablisheffluentlimitationsfortheamountsof
specificpollutantsthatmaybedischargedbymunicipalsewageplantsandindustrialfacilities.The
primarymethodbywhichtheactimposeslimitationsonpollutantdischargesisthenationwidepermit
programestablishedunderSect.402andreferredtoastheNationalPollutantDischargeElimination
System(NPDES).UndertheNPDESprogramanypersonresponsibleforthedischargeofapollutantor
pollutantsintoanywatersoftheUnitedStatesfromanypointsourcemustapplyforandobtainapermit.
TheNPDESpermittingprocessistheprimarytoolforenforcingtherequirementsoftheNPDES
PermitProgram.SpecificNPDESprogramareasapplicabletoindustrialsourcesincludeprocesswater
discharges,nonprocesswastewaterdischarges,andtheindustrialstormwaterprogram.Beforewastewater
canbedischargedtoanyreceivingstream,eachwastewaterdischargepoint(outfall)mustbe
characterizedanddescribedinapermitapplication.TheprimaryregulationsdevelopedbyEPAto
implementtheNPDESPermitProgramareprovidedin40CFR122(Ref.48).Therearetwotypesof
NPDESpermitsindividualandgeneralpermits.Anindividualpermitisapermitthatisspecifically
tailoredforanindividualfacility.Generalpermitscovermultiplefacilitieswithinaspecificcategory.
Boilerblowdown,coolingtowerblowdown,andcoolingwaterrepresentwastewaterstreams
commonlyassociatedwithCHPinstallationsthatmustbeaddressedinNPDESpermitapplications.
GuidancethatmaybeusefulinunderstandingtheNPDESpermittingprocessandpreparingNPDES
applicationshasbeenissuedbyEPA.
49
2.4 BENEFITSANDBARRIERS
Cogenerationisdefinedasthesequentialproductionofelectricalormechanicalpowerandthermal
energyfromasinglesource.Fromapracticalviewpoint,CHPsystemscanbeofanysize,andthereisno
limitastotheratioinwhichthetwotypesofenergyareproportioned.Inaddition,powergeneratedbya
24




CHPsystemcanbeusedon-siteorexported,andthethermalenergycanbeusedforheating,cooling,or
both.Currentregulationsallowutilities,end-users,andthird-partyinvestorstoownandoperateCHP
systems.Thisflexibilitymeansalmostlimitlessopportunitiesforapplyingcogenerationtechnology,but
successfulintegrationofcogenerationtechnologyintoneworexistingboilersystemsmustbeboth
technicallyfeasibleandeconomicallyviable.
Technicalfeasibilityinvolvesmorethanapplyingappropriateengineeringprinciplesinthedesignof
aCHPsystemtomeetperformancecriteria.Itoftenrequiresobtainingconstructionandoperatingpermits
fromauthoritieshavingjurisdictionbasedoncompliancewithenvironmental,energy,andsafety
regulations.Obtainingthesepermitsandreceivingpermissiontoconnecttotheelectricalgridcaninvolve
installationofspecialsafetyequipment,constructionofemissioncontroldevices,modificationsto
existingfacilities,orprocesschangesthatarenotpractical.
Economicviabilityisequallyimportantandgenerallyinvolvesmorecomplexissuesthatare
sometimesdifficulttoquantify.Determiningeconomicviabilityshouldbebasedonacceptancecriteria
establishedbytheinvestoraftertakingintoconsiderationrealisticprojectionsofsiteenergyrequirements
andpurchasedenergycosts.Establishingappropriateeconomicacceptancecriteriaiscriticaltooverall
projectsuccessofthesereasons:
4
Artificiallyhighenduserrequirements,particularlyhighthermalrequirements,canresultin
overstatedcogenerationoperatingcostsavings.
FailuretoconsideranticipatedorpotentialchangesinsiterequirementscanresultinaCHPsystem
thatisnotproperlysizedforlong-termviability.
FailuretocompareaCHPsystemservinganassumedfacilityheating,ventilating,andair
conditioning(HVAC)systemtotheoptimumtypeofHVACsystemforthefacilitycanresultin
illusionarysavings.
Failuretoconsiderbothincrementalcapitalandoperatingcostswillleadtoerroneousconclusions
aboutprojectviability.
Benefitsandpotentialapplicationsofcogenerationtechnologyaswellasbarrierstoimplementation
thatcanaffecttechnicalfeasibilityandeconomicviabilityarediscussedinthefollowingsections.
2.4.1 BenefitsandPotentialApplications
Thepotentialforon-sitepowergenerationintheU.S.industrialsectorwasexaminedforDOEto
identifyopportunitiesforhelpingindustrycontrolenergycosts.
50
Existingon-sitegenerationcapacityin
theindustrialsectorwasestimatedtobeinexcessof45,000MW,withmost(42,000MW)beingCHP
systems.ThetotalremainingCHPpotentialisestimatedat88,000MWincludingsystemsthatexport
powertotheelectricalgrid.IndustrieswiththemostCHPpotentialincludeforestproducts,chemicals,
food,petroleum,andprimarymetals.BenefitsofCHPincludeincreasedenergyefficiency,operatingcost
savings,andreducedairemissions.
Comparedtocentralutilitysteamgeneratingunits,CHPsystemsextractmoreusefulenergyfrom
fuelandarethereforesignificantlymoreefficient.Increasedefficiencytranslatestoreducedenergy
consumptionandassociatedfuelscosts.Theprofitabilityofcogenerationgenerallyresultsfromlower
costelectricity,butitssuccessdependsonusingtherecoveredheatproductively.Cogenerationislikelyto
besuitableinsituationswherethereisafairlyconstantandcontinuousthermaldemand.
AlthoughthereissignificantCHPpotentialintheindustrialsector,marketshareissensitivetoCHP
fuelprice.Forexample,withnaturalgasat$2.50/MMBtu,a30-MWCHPsystemiscompetitivein90%
oftheindustrialmarket,but,at$4.75/MMBtu,thecompetitivesharedropsto43%,assumingelectric
pricesremainconstant.
50
Thestudyalsorevealedthata5-MWCHPsystemiscompetitivewithdelivered
electricpricesfor37%oftheindustrialcustomers,whilea30-MWCHPsystemiscompetitivefor68%of
25





industrialcustomers.Becauseofhigherequipmentandinstallationunitcosts,arelativelysmall1-MW
CHPreciprocatingenginesystemiscompetitiveforonly20%oftheindustrialcustomers.These
comparisonsarebasedonanaturalgaspriceof$3.50/MMBtuandtheavoidedboilerfuel.Insummary,
thestudyresultssuggestthateconomicbenefitsofCHPtendtodecreaseasCHPfuelpriceincreasesand
tendtoincreaseasCHPcapacityincreases.
Environmentalbenefitsofcogenerationaretypicallycharacterizedintermsofcarbondioxide(CO
2
)
emissionreductions.ThesereductionsarepossiblebecauseCHPsystemsextractmoreusefulenergyfrom
fuelthanelectric-onlysystems.Throughincreasedefficiencyandreducedfuelconsumption,CHP
systemsalsohavethepotentialtoreduceoverallcriteriapollutantemissions,includingNO
x
,SO
2
,and
PM.Althoughtheremaybeanetdecreaseinairemissionsthroughtheapplicationofcogeneration
technology,emissionswillincreasefromsiteswithexistingboilerinstallationsafterCHPsystemsare
installed.Thisincreaseinemissions,whichisduetoincreasedfuelconsumptionrequiredtoproduceon-
sitepower,isapermittingissuebecausecurrentregulationsdonotallowCHPtoreflectincreasedfuel
utilizationandreducedemissionsinherentinthetechnology.
Otherpotentialbenefitsprovidedbycogenerationtechnologyincludeenhancedreliabilityandpower
quality,operationalandload-managementflexibility,andenergy-managementstrategies.Dependingon
thesiteconditions,variousdesignapproachesareavailableformanagingon-siteenergyproduction,and
eachmodehasassociatedbenefits.Thevalueofthesebenefitsdependonfactorssuchascharacteristicsof
thefacility,operatingconstraints,energyuseandprices,loadprofiles,andelectricratetariffs.
Whenexaminingthepotentialofcogenerationtechnologyforaparticularapplication,itmaybe
necessarytoconsiderhowandwhentheCHPsystemwilloperate.Thefollowingmodesmaybeusedto
achieveaparticularstrategicobjective.
4
IsolatedDesignandOperation:Inthismode,aCHPsystemissizedtomeetthesitepeakwithreserve
allowanceforshort-termpowertransientsandtooperatewithnoconnectiontotheelectricalgrid.By
operatinginthismode,noelectricitypurchasesarerequired.
Base-LoadedDesignandOperation:Inthismode,theCHPsystemisinterconnectedtotheelectrical
gridandsizedtomeetthesitesbase-loadrequirements.Byoperatinginthismode,part-load
operationisavoided,noredundantcapacityisrequired,andonlysupplementalpowerinexcessofthe
baseloadispurchasedfromtheelectricutility.
Load-TrackingDesignandOperation:Inthismode,theCHPsystemisinterconnectedtothe
electricalgridandsizedtotrackeitherthesitesthermalorelectricload.Byoperatinginthismode,
supplementalpowerpurchases,heatrejection,orsupplementalthermalenergymayberequired,but
bothelectricandthermalapproachescanbedesignedtosupplythesitespeakrequirements.
PeakShaving:Inthismode,theCHPsystemisdesignedtosatisfythesitespeakpowerrequirements
eitherbyoperatingduringthesitespeakdemandperiodsorduringtheutilityspeakdemandperiods.
Byoperatinginthismode,thepurchaseofmoreexpensiveon-peakpowerisavoided,thereby
decreasingtheaveragepriceofpower.
EconomicallyDispatched:Inthismode,theCHPsystemisoperatedusinganapproachthatfactorsin
thevalueofpurchasedpowerandboilerfuelcostsrelativetocogenerationsystemfueland
maintenancecostsandtheabilitytouserecoverableheat.Byoperatinginthismode,itispossibleto
usemicroprocessorcontrolsystemstoperformreal-timecalculationsofoperatingcostsandcost
savingsasabasisformakingoperatingdecisions.Inaddition,iftheCHPsystemhaselectriccapacity
thatexceedstheenergyneedsoftheindustrialfacility,thisexcesscapacitycanbesoldtothe
wholesalemarketwhenpricesarefavorable.
26

2.4.2 BarrierstoImplementation
BarriersencounteredinimplementingCHPprojectstypicallyinvolvebothtechnicalandnon-
technicalissuesthatareofteninterrelated.Understandingthemeaningandsignificanceofbarriersthat
existforaparticularCHPprojectiskeytodevelopingeffectivestrategiesforsuccessfullyintegrating
cogenerationtechnologyintoneworexistingboilerinstallations.Althoughbarriersgenerallyvaryfrom
oneinstallationtoanother,certainbarrierscanbeseverethatprojectplanningmustbeabandoned.
Manyofthetechnicalbarrierstocogenerationcanberelatedtotheelectricutilitysresponsibilityto
maintainthereliability,safety,andpowerqualityoftheelectricpowersystem.Thesebarriersinclude
requirementsforprotectiverelaysandtransferswitches,
requirementsforequipmenttocontrolpowerquality,and
requirementsforpowerflowstudiesandotherengineeringanalyses.
ConnectingaCHPsystemtotheelectricalgridusuallyinvolvescompliancewithnationalcodesand
consensusstandardsissuedbytheNationalFireProtectionAssociation(NFPA),includingtheNational
ElectricCode,theOccupationalSafetyandHealthAdministration(OSHA),andlocalandstateregulatory
authorities.Inaddition,mostelectricutilitieshaveinterconnectionandsafetyrequirementsthatreflect
companypoliciesandoperatingprocedures.
Utilitiestraditionallyusemechanicalrelaysandtransferswitchesthatautomaticallyisolateutility
andnonutilitygeneratingequipmentfromtheelectricalgrid.Theprimarypurposeforthisequipmentisto
provideprotectionagainstaphenomenonknownasislanding.Islandingisasafetyhazardthatoccurs
whenageneratingfacilitysuchasaCHPsystemcontinuestosupplypowertoaportionoftheelectrical
gridafterthebalanceofthegridhasbeende-energized.Undercertainconditions,islandingincreasesthe
riskoffirewhengeneratingequipmentcontinuestofeedashortcircuit,anditincreasestheriskof
electrocutionwhenapersonmakescontactwithalinethathasbeendisconnectedfromtheelectricalgrid
butcontinuestobeenergizedbyanonutilitygenerator.Althoughmechanicalrelaysandtransferswitches
areeffectiveandreasonablyefficient,thecostofinstallingthisequipmentasaprerequisiteforCHP
interconnectioncanhaveanegativeimpactontheeconomicviabilityoftheproject.
Powerqualitycontrolisanotherutilityconcern.AsdiscussedinSect.5.1,issueswithpowerquality
includevoltageandfrequencydisturbances,voltageflicker,andwaveformdistortion.Utilities
traditionallyrequiretheinstallationofover-undervoltageandover-underfrequencyrelaysandother,
separate,protectivedevicestoensurethatpowerqualityisacceptable.Someutilitiesacceptthepower
qualityprotectionofferedbymodernelectronicequipment,butmanyothersinsistontheuseof
traditional,utility-approveddevices.
BeforeallowingconnectionofaCHPsystemtotheelectricalgrid,utilitiescommonlydealwith
localdistributionsystemcapacityconstraintsbyconductingpre-interconnectionstudies.Theobjectivesof
thesestudiesaretoevaluatethepotentialeffectsofthegeneratingfacilityontheaffectedportionofthe
utilitysystemandtodeterminewhetheranyupgradesorotherchangesareneededtoaccommodatethe
generatingfacility.Thecostofthesestudiesusuallyispassedontothefacilityowneroroperator.
Regulatoryauthoritiesoftenendorsethispracticeundertheuserpaysprinciple.Asanadditional
barrier,equivalentstudiesfornewloadsthatmaybeofequalsizeandimpactmaybeaddressedquite
differentlyunderlong-establishedservicetariffs.
Inadditiontotheserequirements,itmayalsobenecessarytoenterintowrittenagreementswiththe
utilityconcerningrates,metering,insuranceandliability,standbypower,operatingschedules,andother
operationalissues.
51
TheInstituteofElectricalandElectronicEngineers(IEEE)hasissuedastandard
titledStandardforInterconnectingDistributedResourceswithElectricPowerSystems.
52
Itaddressesa
varietyoftechnicalrequirementsforinterconnectingCHPsystemstotheelectricalgrid,butother
27


importantissuessuchascharges,tariffs,andcontractrulesthatoftenvaryfromoneutilitytothenextare
beyondthescopeofthestandard.OtherutilityissuesthatcaninfluenceCHPprojectplanninginclude
Directutilityprohibition
Tariffbarriers
9 Demandcharges
9 Backuptariffs
9 Buy-backrates
9 Exitfees
9 Uplifttariffs
9 Regionaltransmissionproceduresandcosts
Selectivediscounting
Costsfortransmissionsystemupgradesrequiredbytheutility.Theseupgradesaregenerallybasedon
loadflowstudiesinwhichtheutilityassertsthatthegeneratingcapabilityoftheCHPsystemexceeds
thecapacityofthenearbytransmissiongrid.Costsfortheseupgrades,whichcanbesubstantial,are
passedalongtotheCHPsystemowneroroperator,thusaffectingtheeconomicviabilityofthe
project.
BoilerownersandoperatorsinterestedininstallingaCHPsystemneedtocommunicatewith
appropriateutilityrepresentativesatanearlystageintheplanningprocess.Someutilitiesrequire
redundantmechanicalrelaysandtransfersswitcheseventhoughthegeneratingequipmentincludes
integralelectronicprotectiondevicesthatcomplywiththeIEEEstandard,
52
whileothersprohibitCHP
systemsfromoperatinginparallelwiththeelectricalgridandmayevenrefusetointerconnectwiththese
systems.
51
Undertheseconstraints,projectplannershaveonlytwooptions;operateindependentlyofthe
grid,orabandontheproject.Insomecases,CHPprojectsinstalledonthecustomersideoftheelectric
metermaynotbefeasibleduetounfavorableutilitypolicies.
AnotherpotentialbarrierthatCHPprojectplannersmustfacecentersonobtainingconstructionand
operatingpermitsthatcomplywithapplicableenvironmentalregulations.BecausemostCHPsystemsare
classifiedasnewinstallationsirrespectiveofsizeoroutput,theyaresubjecttoeitherthenonattainment
NSRprogramorthePSDpermittingprocessdependingontheairqualitywherethefacilityislocated.
BecausecurrentairqualityregulationsdonotrecognizetheoverallenergyefficiencyofCHPorcreditthe
emissionsavoidedfromdisplacedgridelectricitygeneration,projectplanningisgenerallyrequiredto
includedesignsforemissioncontrolsystemsthatachieveLAERcomplianceorrepresentBACT.In
addition,emissionstestingandmonitoringequipmentforverifyingcompliancemustbeincludedaspart
ofthedesign.Thecostofemissioncontrolequipmentaswellasthecostofapplyingforconstructionand
operatingpermitscanbesignificant,especiallyforsmallerCHPsystemswheretheincrementalcostis
oftendisproportionatelyhigh.
28
2.5 REFERENCES
1. IndustrialandCommercialCogeneration,OfficeofTechnologyAssessment,Congressional
Boardofthe98thCongress,Washington,D.C.,February1983.
2. Steam,ItsGenerationandUse,40thed.,eds.S.C.StultzandJ.B.Kitto,BabcockandWilcox,
Barberton,Ohio,1992.
3. T.R.Casten,TurningOfftheHeat:WhyAmericaMustDoubleEnergyEfficiencytoSave
MoneyandReduceGlobalWarming,PrometheusBooks,Amherst,NewYork,1998.
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ConditioningEngineers,Inc.,Atlanta,Georgia,1996.
5. CleanAirAct,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,
http://www.epa.gov/oar/caa/contents.html
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http://www.epa.gov/oar/caa/overview.txt
7. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsfromHazardousWasteCombustors,
40CFR63,SubpartEEE,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
8. PermitsRegulation,40CFR72,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
9. SulfurDioxideOpt-Ins,40CFR74,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
10. ContinuousEmissionsMonitoring,40CFR75,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
11. ExcessEmissions,40CFR77,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
12. AppealProceduresforAcidRainProgram,40CFR78,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
13. StateOperatingPermitPrograms,40CFR70,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
14. Output-BasedRegulations:AHandbookforAirRegulators,DraftFinalReport,U.S.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,April22,2004.
15. PrimaryandSecondaryNationalAmbientAirQualityStandards,40CFR50,U.S.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
16. StandardsofPerformanceforLargeMunicipalWasteCombustorsforWhichConstructionis
CommencedAfterSeptember20,1994,orforWhichModificationorReconstructionisCommenced
AfterJune19,1996,40CFR60,Eb,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
17. StandardsofPerformanceforNewStationarySources,40CFR60,U.S.Environmental
ProtectionAgency.
18. C.B.Oland,GuidetoLow-EmissionBoilerandCombustionEquipmentSelection,
ORNL/TM-2002/19,OakRidgeNationalLaboratory,OakRidge,Tennessee,April2002.
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CombustionEngines;ProposedRule,FederalRegister,67,No.244,7783077874,December19,2002.
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18002,April14,2003.
22. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsforIndustrial/Commercial/
InstitutionalBoilersandProcessHeaters;ProposedRuleFederalRegister,68,No.8,16601763,
January13,2003.
23. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsforIndustrial,Commercial,and
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ProtectionAgency,Washington,D.C.
24. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsforStationaryGasTurbines;
ProposedRule,FederalRegister,68,No.9,18881929,January14,2003.
25. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsforStationaryGasTurbines;Final
Rule,FederalRegister,69,No.9,1051210548,March5,2004.
29
26. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsforStationaryCombustionTurbines
ProposedDelisting,OAR-2003-0189;RIN2060-AK73,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,
Washington,D.C.
27. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsforStationaryCombustionTurbines
StayProposal,OAR-2003-0196;RIN2060-AK73,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,Washington,
D.C.
28. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsforStationaryReciprocatingInternal
CombustionEngines,OAR-2002-0059;RIN2060-AG-63,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,
Washington,D.C.
29. PermitRequirements,40CFR51.165,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
30. PreventionofSignificantDeteriorationofAirQualityRequirements,40CFR51.166,U.S.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
31. PreventionofSignificantDeteriorationofAirQuality,40CFR52.21,U.S.Environmental
ProtectionAgency.
32. StatutoryRestrictionsonNewSources,40CFR52.24,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
33. EmissionOffsetInterpretativeRuling,40CFR51,AppendixS,U.S.EnvironmentalProtection
Agency.
34. IllinoisCHP/BCHPEnvironmentalPermittingGuidebook,VolumeA:Roadmappingthe
PermittingProcess,preparedfortheIllinoisDepartmentofCommerceandCommunityAffairs,U.S.
DepartmentofEnergyChicagoRegionalOfficebytheUniversityofIllinoisatChicagoEnergy
ResourcesCenter,January23,2003.
35. IllinoisCHP/BCHPEnvironmentalPermittingGuidebook,VolumeB:PermittingIssues(A
SurveyAndDialogue),preparedfortheIllinoisDepartmentofCommerceandCommunityAffairs,U.S.
DepartmentofEnergyChicagoRegionalOfficebytheUniversityofIllinoisatChicagoEnergy
ResourcesCenter,January23,2003.
36. PreventionofSignificantDeterioration(PSD)andNonattainmentNewSourceReview(NSR):
BaselineEmissionsDetermination,Actual-to-Future-ActualMethodology,PlantwideApplicability
Limitations,CleanUnits,PollutionControlProjects,FederalRegister,67,No.251,8018680289,
December31,2002.
37. SourceDeterminationsforCombinedHeatandPowerFacilitiesundertheCleanAirActNew
SourceReviewandTitleVPrograms,DraftMemorandum,JohnS.Seitz,Director,OfficeofAirQuality
PlanningandStandards,OAR(MD-10),U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,October15,2001.
38. FederalOperatingPermitPrograms,40CFR71,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
39. ApprovalStatusofStateandLocalOperatingPermitsPrograms,40CFR70,AppendixA,U.S.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
40. NewSourceReview:ApplicabilityDeterminationforCycleGasTurbineSystems:Response
lettertoPMRaher,LetterfromJohnS.Seitz,Director,OfficeofAirQualityPlanningandStandards,
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,toMr.PatrickM.Raher,Hogan&HoganL.L.P.,Washington,
D.C.,August6,2001.http://www.epa.gov/ttn/oarpg/t5pgm.html
41. SulfurDioxideAllowanceSystem,40CFR73,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
42. AcidRainNitrogenOxidesEmissionReductionProgram,40CFR76,U.S.Environmental
ProtectionAgency.
43. NO
x
BudgetTradingProgramforStateImplementationPlans,40CFR96,U.S.Environmental
ProtectionAgency.
44. FederalNO
x
BudgetTradingProgram,40CFR97,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
45. AirPollutionOperatingPermitProgramUpdate,KeyFeaturesandBenefits,EPA/451/K-98/002,
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,February1998.
46. F.A.Govan,PermittingRequirementsforIndustrial,Commercial,andInstitutionalBoilers,
PendentMedia,Inc.,Cleveland,Ohio,November2000.
30
47. M.R.Barr,What15,000+PermitsandPermitModificationsHaveTaughtUs,presentedatthe
CIBONO
x
ControlXIVConference,SanDiego,California,March13,2001.
48. EPAAdministeredPermitPrograms:TheNationalPollutantDischargeEliminationSystem,
40CFR122,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
49. WaterPermitting101,OfficeofWasteManagementWaterPermitting,U.S.Environmental
ProtectionAgency.http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/101pape.pdf
50. T.Bryson,W.Major,andK.Darrow,AssessmentofOn-SitePowerOpportunitiesinthe
IndustrialSector,ORNL/TM-2001/169,preparedbyOnsiteEnergyCorp.fortheOakRidgeNational
Laboratory,OakRidge,Tennessee,September2001.
51. R.B.Alderfer,M.M.Eldridge,andT.J.Starrs,MakingConnections:CaseStudiesof
InterconnectionBarriersandTheirImpactonDistributedPowerProjects,NREL/SR-200-28053,
NationalRenewableEnergyLaboratory,Golden,Colorado,May2000.
52. StandardforInterconnectingDistributedResourceswithElectricPowerSystems,IEEEStandard
No.1547-2003,InstituteofElectricalandElectronicsEngineers,NewYork,2003.
31
32
3. PRIMEMOVERS
Aprimemoverisamachineormechanismthatconvertsenergyintowork.Primemoverscommonly
usedinindustrialCHPapplicationsincludesteamturbines,gasturbines,microturbines,andreciprocating
engines.Theirprimaryfunctionistoconverttheenergyreleasedfromfuelintomechanicalenergyor
shaftpower.Thispoweristypicallyusedtoturnanelectricalgenerator,butitcanalsobeusedtopower
othertypesofmechanicaldevices.Fuelcellsrepresentanothertypeofenergyconversiondevicethatis
sometimesusedasaprimemoverinCHPapplications.Althoughfuelcellsdonotproduceshaftpower,
theyarecapableofconvertingenergytoelectricitythroughanelectrochemicalprocessthatdoesnot
involvefuelcombustion.Toprovideanunderstandingoftheirfeaturesandoperationalcharacteristics,
descriptionsofturbine-basedandnon-turbine-basedprimemoversarepresented,andschematicsof
typicalprimemoverconfigurationsusedinCHPapplicationsareshown.
SelectingaprimemoverthatiswellsuitedforaparticularCHPapplicationrequiresknowledgeof
itsdesignandperformancecharacteristicsaswellasitspotentialapplications.Acomparisonoftypical
parametersforsteamturbines,gasturbines,microturbines,reciprocatingengines,andfuelcellsis
summarizedinTable3.1.Additionalinformationabouteachtypeofprimemoverispresentedinthe
followingsections.Discussionsabouttheuseofprimemoversinvariousthermodynamiccyclesandtheir
roleindifferentCHPsystemconfigurationsarepresentedinChap.7.Ausefulresourcethatprovides
informationregardingcommerciallyavailableprimemoversandothertypesofdistributedenergy
equipmenthasbeenassembledbytheCaliforniaEnergyCommission
(www.energy.ca.gov/distgen/equipment/equipment.html).
3.1 STEAMTURBINES
Steamturbinesarecomplexpiecesofrotatingmachinerythatarecustomdesignedforsteamdelivery
atprescribedpressuresandtemperatures.Theyhavebeenusedasprimemoversinconventionalpower
plantsandindustrialCHPapplicationsformorethan100yearsandrepresentmaturetechnology.Because
steamturbinesarecapableofoperatingoverabroadrangeofsteampressures,theyareusedintopping-
cycle,bottoming-cycle,andcombined-cycleCHPsystems.
1
Steamturbineshavereplacedmost
reciprocatingsteamenginesforelectricpowergenerationbecauseoftheirhigherefficienciesandlower
costs.
2
3.1.1 Description
Asteamturbineisconstructedwithastationarysetofblades(callednozzles)andamovingsetof
adjacentblades(calledbucketsorrotorblades)installedwithinapressure-retaininghousing.The
stationarynozzlesacceleratethesteamtohighvelocitybyexpandingittolowerpressure,whilethe
rotatingbladeschangethedirectionofthesteamflowtoproducetorque.Steamturbinesaresubdivided
intotwoprincipalturbinetypes,impulseandreaction,dependingonthewaytheydirectsteamflow.
3
Impulsesteamturbinesareruggedmachinesthatcanwithstandheavy-dutyservice.Inoperation,
impulsesteamturbineshavelittleornopressuredropacrossthemovingblades.Steamenergyis
transferredtotherotorentirelybythesteamjetsstrikingthemovingblades.Becausethereistheoretically
nopressuredropacrossthemovingblades,internalclearancesarelarge,andnobalancepistonisneeded.
Thesefeaturesmakeimpulseturbinesverydurable.
Reactionsteamturbinesaresomewhatmorecomplexintheirdesignthanareimpulsesteam
turbines.Intheseunits,thesteamexpandsinboththestationaryandmovingblades.Themovingblades
usethesteamjetenergyofthestationarybladesandalsoactasnozzles.Reactionforcesproducedbythe
pressuredropacrossbladessupplementthesteamjetforcesofthestationaryblades.Thesecombined
forcesproduce
33
34
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rotation.AlthoughreactionsteamturbinesarewidelyusedinEuropeandtherestoftheworld,theyare
seldomusedasmechanicaldrivesintheUnitedStates.
Shaftpowerdeliveredbyasteamturbineisnormallyusedtoturnanelectricalgenerator.The
amountofelectricpowergenerateddependsonhowmuchthesteampressurecanbereducedwhile
flowingthroughthesteamturbine.Ingeneral,thehigherthesteampressuresuppliedtothesteamturbine,
thegreatertheelectricpoweroutput.Shaftpowercanalsobeusedtoturnpumps,compressors,andother
typesofrotatingmachinery.
High-pressuresteamneededtopowerasteamturbineinanindustrialCHPsystemisgenerally
providedbyasteamsupplysystem.Mostofthesesystemsaredesignedtoburnfossilfuelsandinclude
fuelpreparationandhandlingequipment,aboilerorHRSGcapableofproducingsteam,andemissions
controlequipment.Wasteheatrecoveredfromprocessfurnaces,gasturbines,reciprocatingengines,and
otherheatsourcescanalsobeusedtogeneratesteamforsteamturbines.
3.1.2 DesignandPerformanceCharacteristics
SteamturbinesforCHPsystemsarecategorizedaseither(1)noncondensing(back-pressure)steam
turbinesor(2)condensingsteamturbines.Bothtypesworkwellincogenerationapplicationsbecause
theyofferawiderangeofdesignflexibilitytomatchprocessheatingdemandandperformance
specifications.Dependingonthedesign,steamturbinesarecapableofoperatingoverabroadrangeof
steampressureswithinletpressuresupto3,500psigandexhaustpressuresnearabsolutevacuum
conditions.Sizelimitationisusuallynotanissuebecausesteamturbinesaremanufacturedwithcapacities
rangingfromunder100kWtoover250MW.Inthemultimegawattsizerange,industrialandutility
steamturbinedesignationsmerge,withthesamesteamturbineabletoservebothindustrialandsmall
utilityapplications.
2
Noncondensingsteamturbinesexhausttheentireflowofsteamatoneormorelocations.Thesteam
exhaustiseitherusedforprocessapplicationsorsuppliedtoalowerpressuresteamturbine.Typical
dischargepressuresrangefrom50to250psig.Electricpowergeneratingcapacityofnoncondensing
steamturbinesissignificantlyreducedasthedischargeorbackpressureincreases.Forexample,steam
dischargedat150psigsacrificesabouthalftheelectricpowerthatcouldbegeneratedwhensteam
suppliedtothesteamturbineat750psigand800Fisallowedtoexpandtovacuuminacondenser.
2
Steamturbinesthatexhausttheentireflowofsteamatonelocationareknownasstraightnoncondensing
steamturbines,whilesteamturbinesthatexhauststeamattwoormorelocationsareknownasextraction
noncondensingsteamturbines.BothconfigurationsareshowninFig.3.1.
Steamturbinesthatexhaustsomeorallofthesteamflowtoacondenserareknownascondensing
steamturbines.
2
Straightcondensingsteamturbinesexhausttheentireflowofsteamtoacondenserthat
maintainsvacuumconditionsatthedischargeoftheturbine.Unitsofthisdesignaretypicallyusedas
power-onlyutilitysteamturbinesandarenotsuitableformostcogenerationapplications.Condensing
steamturbineswithopeningsinthehousingforexhaustingaportionofthesteamatsomeintermediate
pressurebeforetheremainingflowofsteamisexhaustedtoacondenserareknownasextraction-
condensingsteamturbines.ThisarrangementprovidesdesignflexibilityandiswellsuitedforCHP
applicationsbecauseextractedsteamcanbesuppliedtotheprocessattherequiredconditions.Some
extraction-condensingsteamturbinesevenhavemultipleextractionpointssothatsteamcanbesupplied
atdifferentpressures.DependingontheCHPcontrolscheme,steampressurefromanextractionturbine
mayormaynotbeautomaticallyregulated.Whenregulated,steamextractioncanbecontrolled,allowing
moresteamtoflowthroughtheturbinetogenerateadditionalelectricityduringperiodsoflowthermal
demand.Thisdesignalsoallowsrapidresponsetochangesinsteamdemand.Theconfigurationofan
extraction-condensingsteamturbinewithintermediate- andlow-pressureextractionportsisshownin
Fig.3.2.
36
High-Pressure
Steam
Steam Electric
Generator
Turbine Power
Low-Pressure
ProcessSteam
SchematicAStraightNon-CondensingSteamTurbine
High-Pressure
Steam
Steam Electric
Generator
Turbine Power
Intermediate-Pressure
ProcessSteam
Low-Pressure
ProcessSteam
SchematicBExtractionNon-CondensingSteamTurbine
Fig.3.1. Noncondensingorback-pressuresteam
turbineconfigurationsforCHPapplications.
High-Pressure
Steam
Intermediate-Pressure
ProcessSteam
Low-Pressure
Steam
Turbine
Generator
Condenser ProcessSteam
Electric
Power
Fig.3.2. Extraction-condensingsteamturbine
configurationforCHPapplications.
Adifferenttypeofcondensingsteamturbinethatexhauststheentireflowofsteamtoacondenseris
knownasstraightcondensingsteamturbine.Unitsofthisdesignaretypicallyusedaspower-onlyutility
steamturbinesandarenotsuitableformostcogenerationapplications.Steamturbinesthatexhausta
portionofthesteamatoneormorelocationsbeforetheremainingsteamflowstoacondenserareknown
asextraction-condensingsteamturbines.
9
Theconfigurationofanextraction-condensingsteamturbine
withintermediate- andlow-pressureextractionportsisshowninFig.3.2.
Inselectingasteamturbinedesign,itisimportanttomatchCHPpressureandtemperature
requirementsandtomaximizeelectricalefficiencywhileprovidingthedesiredthermaloutput.Between
thepower-onlyoutputofacondensingturbineandthepowerandsteamcombinationofnoncondensing
andextractionturbines,essentiallyanycombinationofpowerandheatcanbesupplied.Thecomplexity
oftheCHPsystemusuallydictatesthetypeofsteamturbineneededtoachieveoptimalperformance.
37
Codesandstandardsforsteamturbinedesign,construction,performance,andinstallationarelistedin
Table3.2.
Thelonghistoryofsteamturbineusehasresultedinalargeinventoryofsteamturbinestage
designs.Bydrawingonsuchalargeinventory,manufacturersareabletovarytheflowareainthestages
andadjustlocationswheresteamisremovedfromtheflowpathbetweenstagestosatisfyalmostany
thermalrequirements.Moststeamturbinescurrentlymanufacturedaremultistagedeviceswitha
combinationofreactionandimpulsestages.Inthisconfiguration,individualbladescanoperateasboth
impulseandreactionflowdevices.
22
Forreliabilityandcostreasons,steamturbinedesignsforindustrial
CHPapplicationsaregenerallylesscomplicatedthansteamturbinesuseonlyforelectricityproduction.
Becausetherearenoestablishedstandardsforsteamturbineinletpressuresandtemperatures,the
followingvaluesareoftenusedtoinitiallydesignandsizethesteamsystem:
23
Table3.2. Codesandstandardsforsteamturbines
Designation Title Publisher
APIStandard612,5thed. Petroleum,Petrochemical,andNaturalGas
IndustriesSteamTurbinesSpecial-
purposeApplications
AmericanPetroleumInstitute,
Washington,D.C.
10
ASMEPTC6-1996 PerformanceTestCodeonSteamTurbines AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
11
ASMEPTC6SReport-1988
(Reaffirmed1995)
ProceduresforRoutinePerformanceTestsof
SteamTurbines
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
12
ASMEPTC6Report-1985 GuidanceforEvaluationofMeasurement
UncertaintyinPerformanceTestsofSteam
Turbines
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
13
ASMEPTC6A-2001 TestCodeforSteamTurbines,AppendixAto
PTC6
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
14
ASMETDP1-1998 RecommendedPracticesforthePreventionof
WaterDamagetoSteamTurbinesUsedfor
ElectricPowerGeneration
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
15
ASMEB31.1-2001 PowerPiping AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
16
ASMEB31.3-2002 ProcessPiping AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
17
APIRecommended
Practice574,2nded.
InspectionPracticesforPipingSystem
Components
AmericanPetroleumInstitute,
Washington,D.C.
18
NEMAStandards
Publication
No.SM23-1991(R1997,
R2002)
SteamTurbinesforMechanicalDriveService NationalElectrical
ManufacturersAssociation,
Rosslyn,Virginia
19
NEMAStandards
Publication
No.SM24-1991(R1997,
R2002)
Land-BasedSteamTurbineGeneratorSets
0-33,000kW
NationalElectrical
ManufacturersAssociation,
Rosslyn,Virginia
20
IEEEStandardNo.1547-
2003
StandardforInterconnectingDistributed
ResourceswithElectricPowerSystems
InstituteofElectricaland
ElectronicsEngineers,New
York
21
38

400psigat750F,
600psigat825F,
850psigat900F,and
1,250psigat950For1,000F.
Steamturbinesthatpowerelectricalgeneratorsoperateatasinglespeed.Agovernorisusedto
controlthespeedwithinsetlimitsoverthetotalloadrange.Whenusedtodriveothertypesofrotating
machinery,steamturbinesareoftenrequiredtooperateoverarangeofspeeds.Forslowerspeed
equipmentlikereciprocatingcompressorsandpumps,agearboxcanbecoupledtothesteamturbineshaft
toachievethenecessaryspeedreduction.Speed-modifyingequipmentforsteamturbineapplications
oftenusespurgearunits,epicyclicgears,clutches,orhydroviscousdrivestoaccommodatetherequired
speedofthedrivenequipment.
3
State-of-the-artcontrolsystemsuseelectronicspeedandpressure
sensors,digitalprocessingandlogic,andhydraulicallyoperatedvalvestoachieveoptimumoperating
performance.
Electricalgeneratorsandsteamturbinesareoftenassembledandsuppliedasasinglepackageready
forfieldinstallation.Whenconsideringsteamturbineoptions,itisimportanttorealizethatturbine-
generatorpackagescanbeveryheavyandmayrequireconstructionofspecialfoundationsandpedestal
supportswithadequatestructuralcapacity.Itisalsoimportanttorecognizethatconstructionofthehigh-
pressure,high-temperaturesteampipesthatconnectsteamturbinestoboilersgenerallyrequire
engineeringandmechanicalexpertisetorealizecodecompliance.
Duringoperation,enclosedsteamturbinesoundlevelsaregenerally85dBAorless.
22
Inmany
cases,noisesemanatingfrompipes,pumps,valves,fuel-handlingsystems,andboilersareagreater
concern.
3.1.2.1 Efficiency
Efficiencyisoneofthemostfrequentlyusedtermsinthermodynamics. Itindicateshowwellan
energyconversionortransferprocessisaccomplished. Thermodynamicefficiencyisatermusedfor
expressingefficiencyfordevicesthatoperateincyclesorforindividualcomponentsthatoperatein
processes. Thethermalefficiencyofacycleistheratioofoutputenergytoinputenergy. Becausethe
meaningofefficiencycansometimesbeconfusing,termsusedinthisdiscussiontodescribedifferent
typesofefficiencyaredefinedasfollows:
2
Isentropicefficiency:acomparisonoftheactualworkoutputofamachinecomparedtotheideal,or
isentropic,output.Itisameasureoftheeffectivenessofextractingworkfromtheexpansionprocessand
isusedtodeterminetheoutletconditionsofthesteamfromasteamturbine.
CHPelectricalefficiency:ameasureoftheamountoffuelenergyconvertedintoelectricity. In
numericalterms,CHPelectricalefficiencyisafunctionofthenetelectricitygeneratedandthetotalfuel
inputexpressedasfollows:
Netelectricitygenerated/Totalfuelinput
TotalCHPefficiency:ameasureofthenetelectricitygenerated,thenetheatsuppliedtotheprocess,
andthetotalfuelinputexpressedasfollows:
(Netelectricitygenerated+Netheatsuppliedtoprocess)/Totalfuelinput
Effectiveelectricalefficiency:afunctionofthesteamturbineelectricpoweroutputandthetotalfuel
inputexpressedasfollows:
39
Steamturbineelectricpoweroutput/[Totalfuelinput(Steamtoprocess/Boilerefficiency)]
Boilerefficiency: avaluethatcharacterizestheamountofheatcapturedbytheboilerorHRSGand
transferredtothewatercomparedtotheheatinput. Boilerefficiencyisafunctionofboilerlossesand
combustionlosses.
Theisentropicefficiencyofasteamturbineisameasureofhoweffectivelytheturbineextractswork
fromsteam. Itreferstotheratioofworkactuallygeneratedbytheturbinetothatgeneratedbyaperfect
turbinewithnointernallossesusingsteamatthesameinletconditionsanddischargingtothesame
downstreampressure(actualenthalpydropdividedbytheisentropicenthalpydrop). Steamturbine
efficiencyisafunctionofturbinebladegeometry,flow,andspeed. Itisgenerallynotaffectedbysteam
inlettemperaturesorpart-loadoperation.
Backpressuresteamturbinesyieldthehighestthermodynamicefficiencywhen100%oftheexhaust
steamisusedforthermalprocessapplications. Multistage(moderatetohigh-pressureratio)steam
turbineshavethermodynamicefficienciesthatvaryfrom65%forsmall(under1,000-kW)unitstoover
90%forlargeindustrialandutilitysizedunits. Small,single-stagesteamturbinescanhave
thermodynamicefficienciesaslowas50%. WhenasteamturbineexhauststoaCHPapplication,the
thermodynamicefficiencyoftheturbineisnotascriticalasinapower-onlycondensingmodebecause
themajorityoftheenergynotextractedbythesteamturbinesatisfiesthethermalload. Inpower-only
applications,theenergyinsteamturbineexhaustislostinthecondenser.
Forstandardsteamturbinepowerplants,electricalgeneratingefficiencyvariesfromahighofabout
41%forlarge,electricutilityplantsdesignedforthehighestpracticalannualcapacityfactor,tounder
10%forsmall,simpleplantsthatmakeelectricityasabyproductofdeliveringsteamtoprocess
applicationsordistrictheatingsystems. Efficiencyofelectricitygenerationbysteamturbinesincreases
withincreasinginlettemperatureandpressureratio,andwithsizeuptoabout30MW(Ref.24). InCHP
applications,theamountoffuelconvertedintoelectricitybyasteamturbine(CHPelectricalefficiency)is
generallylowbecausetheprimaryuseofthefuelenergyistoproducelargeamountsofsteamtomeet
processdemands. AlthoughCHPelectricalefficiencyislow,theeffectiveelectricalefficiencyofsteam
turbinesystemsisgenerallyhigh,becausealmostalltheenergydifferencebetweenthehigh-pressure
boilerorHRSGoutputandthelowerpressureturbineoutputisconvertedtoelectricity. Thismeansthat
totalsteamturbineCHPsystemefficiencygenerallyapproachestheboilerefficiency,whichtypically
rangesfrom70%to85%dependingonboilertypeandage,fuel,dutycycle,application,andsteam
conditions.
2
Alargesteamturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystemwithanefficientwatertubeboiler,
economizer,andpreheatercanachieveatotalCHPefficiencythatexceeds90%(Ref.23).
3.1.2.2 Capitalcost
Steamturbinepricesvarysignificantlydependingontheextentofcompetitionforunitsofdesired
size,inletandexitsteamconditions,rotationalspeed,andstandardizationofconstruction.Pricequotes
areusuallyprovidedforanassembledsteamturbineandelectricalgeneratorpackagewiththegenerator
accountingfor20%to40%ofthetotalprice.
Installationcostsfornewsteamturbineandboilersystemsgenerallyrangefrom$800to$1,000/kW,
buttheincrementalcostofaddingasteamturbinetoanexistingboilersystemortoanexistingcombined-
cycleplantisapproximately$200to$800/kW(Refs.2and4).Modificationstothesteamsupplysystem
toaccommodatetheinstallationofasteamturbinecanalsoaddtotheoverallcost.Insituationswhere
thereisaneedtoquicklyaddgeneratingcapacity,steamturbinesmaynotbethepreferredoption.There
canbearelativelylongleadtimebetweenthetimethesteamturbineisorderedandthetimeitbegins
operating.
40
3.1.2.3 Availability
Theavailabilityofsteamturbinesistypicallyquitehigh,withaforcedoutagerateof2%orless.
Whenasteamturbineisoperatedproperly,maintainedregularly,andsuppliedwithtreatedboilerwater,
itsservicelifecanexceed30years.Inoperation,steamturbinesrequirelongwarm-upperiodsto
minimizethermalexpansionstressesandcomponentwear.Unlikereciprocatingenginesandgasturbines,
steamturbinesdonotrequireauxiliarystartingsystems,butlargesteamturbinesmaytakehourstowarm
upproperly.Afterwarmup,steamturbinesusuallyprovidesatisfactoryservicewhentheyoperate
continuouslyforextendedperiods.Optimumperformanceisgenerallyachievedatapproximately95%of
theratedload.
22
3.1.2.4 Maintenance
Steamturbinesareveryreliableandhavealonghistoryofsatisfactoryperformance.Manyonly
requireoverhaulsafterseveralyearsofproductiveservice.
1
Routinemaintenanceisgenerallylimitedto
makingsurethatallfluids(steamflowingthroughtheturbineandoilforthebearings)arecleanandatthe
propertemperature.Maintainingproperfeedwaterandsteamchemistryisalsonecessarytominimize
bothcorrosionanderosionproblems.Thesepracticesarekeytoassuringlong-term,reliableperformance.
Apotentialmaintenanceissuewithsteamturbinesrelatestosolidscarryoverfromtheboilerthat
depositonturbinenozzlesandotherinternalparts.Thesedeposits,whichmayormaynotbesolublein
water,candegradeturbineefficiencyandadverselyaffectpoweroutput.Approachesoftentakento
dislodgesoliddepositsincludeapplyingmanualremovaltechniques,crackingthedepositsbyshuttingthe
turbineoffandallowingittocool,andwashingtheturbinewithwaterwhileitisrunningtoremovewater
solubledeposits.Othermaintenanceissuesincludeinspectingauxiliariessuchaslubricationpumps,
coolers,andstrainersandcheckingsafetydevicessuchastheoperationofoverspeedcontrols.Cyclic
operationandoperationatlowloadscanalsocreatestress- andcorrosion-fatigueproblems.Steamturbine
maintenancecostsarerelativelylow,typicallyaround$0.002/kWh(Refs.2and24).
3.1.2.5 Heatrecovery
Theamountandqualityofrecoveredheatfromasteamturbineisafunctionoftheenteringsteam
conditionsandthedesignofthesteamturbine.Medium- andlow-pressuresteamexhaustedfromasteam
turbinecanbeuseddirectlyinaprocess,convertedtootherformsofusefulthermalenergy,orusedto
powerothersteamturbines.Wasteheatdischargedorextractedfromasteamturbineintheformoflow-
pressuresteamcanbeusedtoproducehotwater,poweranabsorptionchiller,orrechargedesiccants.
Replacingpressure-reducingvalveswithsteamturbinesisaveryeffectivewaytorecoverwasteheatand
therebyimprovetheoverallenergyefficiencyofaCHPsystem.
3.1.2.6 Fuelsandemissions
Steamturbinesarenotdesignedtoburnfuel.Theyrelyonboilersorothersteam-generating
equipmenttodelivertherequiredamountofhigh-pressuresteam.Thisseparationoffunctionsenables
steamturbinestooperatewithanenormousvarietyoffuelswhileemittingnoregulatedairpollutants.
Althoughhigh-pressuresteamcanbeproducedbythecombustionofsolid,liquid,orgaseousfuel,
manyfactorsmustbeconsideredwhenselectingafuelandthecombustionequipmentthatwillconvert
thechemicalenergyinthefuelintosteam.Fuelprice,fuelavailability,equipmentcost,andemissionsare
keyfactorsthatcanaffecttheselectionprocess,buttheroleoflegal,political,environmental,and
technicalissuesinthedecision-makingprocessshouldnotbeignored.
25
Becausefuelcostiscritically
importanttoCHPeconomicviability,neworexistingboilerinstallationsthatburninexpensiveorwaste
41
fuelssuchasbiomass,refuse-derivedfuel(RDF),tire-derivedfuel(TDF),ormunicipalsolidwaste
(MSW)representcogenerationopportunitieswithhigherthanaveragepotentialforeconomicsuccess.A
listoffuelscommonlyburnedtogeneratesteamneededtopowersteamturbinesispresentedinTable4.3.
3.1.3 PotentialApplications
Steamturbinesarewellsuitedformedium- andlarge-scaleindustrialCHPapplicationswhere
inexpensivefuelssuchascoal,biomass,varioussolidwastesandbyproducts(e.g.,woodchips,TDF,
RDF,SMW,etc.),residualoil,andrefinerygasesareavailable.Addingasteamturbineandelectrical
generatorpackagetoanexistingboilerinstallationthatusesinexpensivefuelsisoftenaneconomically
attractiveoption,especiallywhentheboilerisalreadycapableofprovidingmorethanenoughhigh-
pressuresteamtosatisfythethermaldemand.Insituationswhereanexistingboilerproducesonlylow-
pressuresteam,itmaynotbefeasibletouseasteamturbinetogenerateelectricityunlessthelow-
pressureboilerisreplacedormodifiedforhigherpressureservice.Becauseoptimumsteamturbine
performanceoccurswhentheturbineoperatescontinuously,steamturbinesareusedmosteffectivelyfor
base-loadapplications.
Animportantoptionforapplyingcogenerationtechnologytoaneworexistingboilerinstallation
involvestheuseofnoncondensingorback-pressuresteamturbinesasasubstituteforpressure-reducing
valves.SuchanarrangementisshowninFig.3.3.Steamturbinesusedforthistopping-cycleapplication
arecapableofprovidingpressureregulationwhilealsoproducingelectricity.Althoughback-pressure
steamturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystemsexhibitveryhightotalenergyefficiency,theyprovidelittle
flexibilityindirectlymatchingelectricaloutputtoelectricalrequirementsbecausesteamflowthroughthe
turbineiscontrolledbythethermalload.Asanalternative,excesssteamcanbeventedtotheatmosphere,
butthispracticeisveryinefficientandresultsinthewasteoftreatedboilerwater.
22
Straightsteam
condensingturbinesoffernoopportunityfortopping-cycleCHPapplications,buttheyaresuitableforuse
inbottoming-cycleCHPsystems.Steamgeneratedfromprocesswasteheatcanbemostefficientlyused
byfull-condensingsteamturbineswhenthereisnootheruseforlow-pressuresteam.
23
Boilerownersandoperatorswhoareinterestedinintegratingcogenerationtechnologyintoan
existingboilerinstallationshouldconsidertheadditionofsteamturbines,especiallyiftheirsteam
requirementsarerelativelylargecomparedtotheirpowerneeds.Tohelpmakethedecision,itis
importanttoverifythattheexistingboileriscapableofsupplyingadditionalsteamattherequired
pressureandtemperatureneededtooperatetheturbine-generatorset.Inaddition,theremainderofthe
steamsupplysystemmustbeabletoaccommodatetheincreasedflowrateoflowerqualitysteam
exhaustedbythesteamturbine.Forfavorablesituations,thedecisioninvolvesonlytheaddedcapitalcost
ofthesteamturbine,itselectricalgenerator,controls,andelectricalinterconnection,withthebalanceof
plantalreadyinplace.Inaddition,theremainderofthesteamsupplysystemmustbeableto
accommodatethesubsequentchangesinsteamflow.
Steam
Turbine
Generator
Low-Pressure
ProcessSteam
Electric
Power
High-Pressure
Steam
PressureReducing
Valve(PRV)
Fig.3.3. Back-pressuresteamturbinearrangement
thatfunctionsasalow-pressuresteamsource.
42
3.2 GASTURBINES
Gasturbineshavebeenusedforelectricpowergenerationsincethe1930s.Alsoknownas
combustionturbines,gasturbinesarecurrentlythepreferredchoiceformostnewpowerplantsinthe
UnitedStates.
6
Besidesbeingeconomical,gasturbinesthatfirenaturalgascanbedesignedtorelease
verylowlevelsofNO
x
.Natural-gas-firedgasturbinesarealsobeingusedtorepowerexistingpower
plants,therebyallowingownerstoraiseoutputandincreaseoverallefficiencywithoutconstructinganew
plant.
26
InindustrialCHPapplications,gasturbinesareusedasprimemoversforgeneratingelectricityin
bothtopping-cycleandcombined-cyclesystems.Toeffectivelyusethewasteheat,thermalenergythatis
rejectedfromgasturbinesasacontinuousstreamofhigh-temperatureexhaustgasesisrecoveredand
usedinprocessheatingapplicationstoachieveoverallsystemefficienciesof70%to80%.Therecovered
heatisprimarilyusedtoproducesteamortoincreasethetemperatureofboilerfeedwater,butitcanalso
beusedfordirectheatingandotherprocessingapplications.
3.2.1 Description
Basicelementsofagasturbinearetheaircompressor,combustionchamber,andturbine.In
operation,freshairisdrawninbythecompressorandforcedintothecombustionchamber.Insidethe
combustionchamber,thecompressedairmixeswiththefuel,andcombustionoccurs.Duringcombustion,
thechemicalenergyinthefuelisreleasedtoproducethehigh-temperaturecombustionproductsneeded
topowerthegasturbine.Ashotcombustionproductsareproduced,theyflowthroughthegasturbine
beforebeingdischargedtotheatmosphere.
Mechanicalenergyusedbytheaircompressorissuppliedbytheturbinewiththeremainderofthe
energybeingavailableforotherformsofusefulwork.Workrequiredbytheaircompressoristypicallyas
muchashalf,butmaybeuptotwo-thirds,ofthepowerdevelopedbythegasturbine.Remaining
mechanicalenergyisnormallyusedtoturnanelectricalgenerator,butitcanalsobeusedasthepower
sourceforothertypesofrotatingmachinerysuchaspumps,compressors,andfans.Gasturbinesare
suitableforproducingelectricityforeitherbase-loadedorpeakingapplications.
Twobasictypesofgasturbinesareusedforstationarypowerproduction:(1)aeroderivativegas
turbinesareadaptedfromtheirjetenginecounterparts,and(2)industrialorframegasturbinesareused
exclusivelyforstationarypowergeneration.
6
BothdesignshavebeenusedsuccessfullyinCHP
applicationsbecauseoftheirlowinitialcost,highavailability,lowmaintenancecosts,fuel-switching
capabilities,high-qualityheat,andhighefficiencyinlargesizes.
22
Aeroderivativegasturbinesarelightweightandthermallyefficient,buttheyareusuallymore
expensivethangasturbinesthataredesignedandbuiltexclusivelyforstationaryapplications.When
modifiedforstationaryuse,aeroderivativegasturbinesaregenerallycapableoffasterstart-upsandmore
rapidresponsetochangingloads.Thelargestaeroderivativegasturbinesavailableforstationarypower
productionhavegeneratingcapacitiesthatrangefrom40to50MW.Becausemanyofthesegasturbines
operatewithcompressionratiosintherangeof30-to-1,theyrequireahigh-pressureexternalfuelgas
compressor.
Industrialorframegasturbinesarecommerciallyavailableinthe1- to250-MWcapacityrangeand
areusedexclusivelyforstationarypowergeneration.Althoughindustrialgasturbinesaretypicallyless
efficientandmuchheavierthanaeroderivativeturbines,theyarebettersuitedforcontinuousbase-load
operationwithlongerinspectionandmaintenanceintervals.Compressionratiosforindustrialgasturbines
aregenerallymoremodestrangingupto16-to-1,andtheyoftendonotrequireanexternalfuelgas
compressor.Fromacostviewpoint,industrialgasturbinesaregenerallylessexpensivethancomparably
sizedaeroderivativegasturbines.
43
Gasturbinesarealsoclassifiedaseithersingle-shaftorsplit-shaftortwo-shaftmodels.
23
Single-
shaftmodelshavethecompressor,gas-producerturbine,andpowerturbineonthesameshaft.Theyare
usedprimarilywhenaconstantspeedisrequiredforelectricpowergenerationorwhenstartingtorqueis
low.Two-shaftmodelshavetheaircompressorandhotgasgeneratorsectionononeshaftandthepower
outputsectiononasecondshaft.Theyareusedwhenhightorquestartingisrequiredandwhenvariable
speedatfullloadisnecessary.
Manufacturersgenerallymountthegasturbineonthesamebaseastheelectricalgenerator.Astep-
downgearboxisoftenneededtoreducethehighshaftspeedofthegasturbinetothespecifiedoperating
speedofthegenerator.Inoperation,gasturbinesareverynoisy.Forthisreason,theyaregenerally
housedinanacousticenclosurethatprovidestherequiredlevelofnoiseattenuation.
3.2.2 DesignandPerformanceCharacteristics
MostgasturbinesusedinCHPapplicationsaredesignedtooperateinanopen-cycleconfiguration
withfreshcombustionairdrawninthroughthecompressorandexhaustgasesdischargedtothe
atmosphere.Typicalexhaustgastemperaturesareuptoorslightlyabove1,000F(Ref.1).Inthis
arrangement,thebladesandotherinternalcomponentsareexposedtothehotexhaustgasesandthe
associatedproductsofcombustion.Exposuretotheexhaustgasstreammakesopen-cyclegasturbines
susceptibletohigh-temperaturecorrosionanderosionproblems.Tominimizedamage,mostgasturbines
aredesignedtoburncleanfuelsuchasnaturalgasthatisfreefrompotentiallyharmfulimpurities.
Althoughfiringoffuelsotherthannaturalgasisfeasible,itisusuallynotpracticalunlessthecombustion
systemincludesauxiliaryfuelcleaningequipment.Fuelselectionisalsoimportantbecausetheenergyin
thefuelinfluencesgasturbineperformance.Forexample,thehotexhaustgasesleavingthecombustion
chamberwhenusingalowcalorificvaluefuelsuchaslandfillgaswillnotbethesameaswhenoperating
onnaturalgasbecausethemassflowthroughthegasturbinedeterminesthepoweroutput.Tohelp
improvegasturbineefficiency,aheatexchangerknownasarecuperatorcanbeaddedtothesystem.Its
purposeistorecoverthermalenergyfromtheexhaustgasstreamanduseittopreheatthepressurized
combustionairthatdischargesfromthecompressor.Althoughrecuperatorsimprovegasturbine
efficiency,theamountofrejectedheatavailableforprocessapplicationsislowerbecausetherecuperator
reducestheexhaustgastemperaturetoabout600Forless.
1
Configurationsofopen-cyclegasturbine
systemswithandwithoutrecuperatorsareshowninFig.3.4.
Inclosed-cyclegasturbinesystems,theworkingfluidthatflowsthroughtheturbinehousingis
typicallyeitherheliumorair,notthehotcombustionproducts.Thisfluidcirculatesinaclosedloopthat
connectsthegasturbinetoaheatexchangerlocatedwithinthecombustionchamber.Thefunctionofthis
heatexchangeristotransferthermalenergyfromthehotcombustionproductstotheworkingfluid.By
circulatinganuncontaminatedworkingfluidthroughthegasturbine,thepotentialforturbinebladewear
anddamagearesignificantlyreducedbecausethebladesandothervulnerablecomponentsareisolated
fromthehigh-temperatureexhaustgasstream.Thisarrangementalsopermitsgreaterfuelflexibility,
makingitpossibletofiregasturbineswithavarietyoffuelsotherthannaturalgas.Toimprove
efficiency,aregeneratorcanbeaddedtoaclosed-cyclesystemtorecoverheatfromtheexhaustgas
streamanduseittoincreasethetemperatureofthecombustionair.Configurationsofclosed-cyclegas
turbinesystemswithandwithoutregeneratorsareshowninFig.3.5.
Althoughitmaybetechnicallyfeasibletoincludeaheatexchangeraspartofthecombustion
chamber,long-termdurabilityinthehigh-temperatureandsevereserviceenvironmentrepresentsa
significantdesignchallenge.Currently,therearenocommerciallyavailablegasturbinessuitablefor
closed-cycleoperations.
44
Open-CycleGasTurbinewithoutRecuperator
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Electric
Power
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Generator
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Recuperator
Open-CycleGasTurbinewithRecuperator
Generator
Electric
Power
Fig.3.4. Open-cyclegasturbineconfigurationsforCHP
applications.
45
Closed-CycleGasTurbinewithRegenerator
Closed-CycleGasTurbinewithoutRegenerator
Combustion
Chamber
Exhaust
Electric
Power
Combustion
Chamber
Air
Fuel
Generator
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Working
Fluid
Supply
Working
Fluid
Return
Regenerator
Electric
Power
Air
Generator
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Working
Fluid
Supply
Working
Fluid
Return
Combustion
Chamber
Exhaust
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Fig.3.5. Closed-cyclegasturbineconfigurationsforCHP
applications.
GasturbinesareusedprimarilyinCHPtopping-cyclesystemseitherseparatelyoraspartof
combined-cyclesystemstoproduceelectricityandtogenerateheatforprocessapplications.Althoughthe
hotexhaustgasescanbeuseddirectlyforprocessheatingapplications,gasturbineCHPsystems
generallyincludeeitherafiredorunfiredHRSGoranICIboilertorecovertherejectedheat.Effective
heatrecoveryisnecessaryforefficientgasturbineoperation.
Topromoteeffectivecommunicationsbetweengasturbinepurchasersandmanufacturersabout
technicalissuesrelatedtostationaryopen-cycle,closed-cycle,semiclosed-cycle,andcombined-cyclegas
46
turbinesystems,theB133StandardsCommitteeoftheAmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers
(ASME)hasdevelopedaseriesofstandardsapplicabletogasturbineprocurement.
2737
Thepurposeof
thestandardsistofacilitatepreparationof,andresponsesto,gasturbineprocurementspecifications.
Specificsystemconfigurationscoveredbythestandardsinclude
simplecycle,single-shaftgasturbines;
regenerativecycle,single-shaftgasturbines;
simplecycle,single-shaftgasturbines(i.e.,withseparatepowerturbine);
intercooledandreheatcycle(compoundtype),multishaftgasturbinewithloadcoupledtolow-
pressureshaft;
single-shaftgasturbinewithairbleedandhotgasbleed;
single-shaftclosed-cyclegasturbine;
single-shafttype,combinedcycle;and
multishafttype,combinedcycle(configurationwithtwoturbinesandonesteamturbine).
Additionalcodesandstandardsapplicabletodesign,construction,performance,andinstallationof
gasturbinesystemsarelistedinTable3.3.
3.2.2.1 Efficiency
Todelivermaximumpoweratoptimumefficiency,theturbineneedstobesuppliedwithgasatthe
highestpracticaltemperature.Thisisimportantbecausethepoweroutputisproportionaltotheabsolute
temperatureofthegasthatpassesthroughtheturbine.Raisingtheinlettemperatureincreasesgasturbine
efficiencyespeciallywhenthedifferencebetweentheinletandexhausttemperaturesincreases.The
temperatureofthecombustionairalsoaffectsgasturbineefficiency.Astheairtemperaturedecreases,the
airdensityincreases,resultinginincreasedmassflowandthushigherefficiency.Varioustechniques,
suchasevaporativecooling,waterspraying,andmechanicalcooling,canbeusedtoreducethe
temperatureofthecombustionair.
Currentstate-of-the-artgasturbinedesignshaveinlettemperaturesthatapproachorsometimes
exceed2,400F(Ref.1).Achievingmeaningfulefficiencyimprovementbyincreasingtheinlet
temperaturebeyondthisvalueisnotverypracticalbecausematerialssuitableforcontinuousservice
abovethistemperatureareeitherunavailableorprohibitivelyexpensive.
Reducingtheexhaustgastemperatureisamorepracticalwaytoimprovegasturbineefficiency.
Thiscanbeaccomplishedbyinstallingarecuperatorintheexhaustgasstream.Arecuperatorusesheat
recoveredfromtheexhaustgasestoincreasethetemperatureoftheairthatdischargesfromthe
compressor,therebyreducingtheamountoffuelrequiredtoproduceaspecificinlettemperature.
Dependingongasturbineoperatingparameters,installingarecuperatorcanincreaseefficiencyfrom30%
to40%(Ref.6).
Althoughuseofaregeneratorisaneffectivewaytoreducefuelconsumption,significant
engineeringchallengesareassociatedwithitsdesign,construction,andin-serviceperformanceinthe
high-temperatureexhaustgasenvironment.Someofthemoreimportanttechnicalissuesarediscussedin
Sect.4.1.3.Regeneratorsarealsoexpensive,andtheircostcannormallyonlybejustifiedwhenthegas
turbineoperatesforalargenumberoffull-powerhoursperyearandthecostoffuelisrelativelyhigh.
6
Anotherwaytoimprovegasturbineefficiencyistooperatetheaircompressorwithinletairflowat
aslowatemperatureaspossible.Becauseambientconditionsinfluencegasturbineperformance,
manufacturersnormallyspecifycapacityandperformanceunderstandardizedconditionsof59Fand
47
Table3.3. Codesandstandardsforgasturbines
Designation Title Publisher
APIStandard616,4thed. GasTurbinesforthePetroleum,Chemical,
andGasIndustryServices
AmericanPetroleumInstitute,
Washington,D.C.
38
APIRecommended
Practice11PGT,1sted.
RecommendedPracticeforPackaged
CombustionGasTurbines
AmericanPetroleumInstitute,
Washington,D.C.
39
ASMEPTC4.4-1981
(Reaffirmed2003)
PerformanceTestCodeonGasTurbineHeat
RecoverySteamGenerators
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
11
ASMEPTC22-1997 PerformanceTestCodeonGasTurbines AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
40
ASMEB31.1-2001 PowerPiping AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
16
ASMEB31.3-2002 ProcessPiping AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
17
ASMEB31.8-2000 GasTransmissionandDistributionPiping
Systems
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
41
ASME39771-2000 GasTurbines:Procurement,Part1:General
IntroductionandDefinitions
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
27
ASME39772-2000 GasTurbines:Procurement,Part2:Standard
ReferenceConditionsandRatings
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
28
ANSIB133.3-1981
(Reaffirmed1994)
ProcurementStandardforGasTurbine
AuxiliaryEquipment
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
29
ANSIB133.4-1978
(Reaffirmed1997)
GasTurbineControlandProtectionSystems AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
30
ANSIB133.5-1978
(Reaffirmed1997)
ProcurementStandardforGasTurbine
ElectricalEquipment
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
31
ANSI/ASME
B133.7M-1985
(Reaffirmed2001)
GasTurbineFuels AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
32
ANSIB133.8-1977
(Reaffirmed2001)
GasTurbineInstallationSoundEmissions AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
33
ASMEB133.9-1994
(Reaffirmed2001)
MeasurementofExhaustEmissionsfrom
StationaryGasTurbineEngines
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
34
ANSIB133.10-1981
(Reaffirmed1994)
ProcurementStandardforGasTurbine
InformationtobeSuppliedbyUserand
Manufacturer
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
35
ANSIB133.11-1982
(Reaffirmed1994)
ProcurementStandardforGasTurbine
PreparationforShippingandInstallation
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
36
ANSIB133.12-1981
(Reaffirmed2001)
ProcurementStandardforGasTurbine
MaintenanceandSafety
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
37
APIRecommended
Practice574,2nded.
InspectionPracticesforPipingSystem
Components
AmericanPetroleumInstitute,
Washington,D.C.
18
ISO2314 GasTurbinesAcceptanceTests AssociationFrancaisede
Normalisation,Paris,France
42
ASTMDesignation:
D396-02
StandardSpecificationforFuelOils AmericanSocietyofTestingand
Materials,West
Conshohocken,
Pennsylvania
43
48
Table3.3. (continued)
Designation Title Publisher
ASTMDesignation:
D975-03
StandardSpecificationforDieselFuelOils AmericanSocietyofTestingand
Materials,West
Conshohocken,
Pennsylvania
44
ASTMDesignation:
D2880-03
StandardSpecificationforGasTurbineFuel
Oils
AmericanSocietyofTestingand
Materials,West
Conshohocken,
Pennsylvania
45
NFPA54 NationalFuelGasCode NationalFireProtection
Association,Quincy,
Massachusetts
46
NFPA85 BoilerandCombustionSystemsHazards
Code
NationalFireProtection
Association,Quincy,
Massachusetts
47
IEEEStandardNo.:1547-
2003
StandardforInterconnectingDistributed
ResourceswithElectricPowerSystems
InstituteofElectricaland
ElectronicsEngineers,New
York
21
FederalRegister,68,No.9,
1888-1929,January14,
2003
NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardous
AirPollutantsforStationaryGasTurbines;
ProposedRule
EnvironmentalProtection
Agency,Washington,D.C.
48
FederalRegister,68,
No.71,17990-18002,
April14,2003
StandardsofPerformanceforStationaryGas
Turbines
EnvironmentalProtection
Agency,Washington,D.C.
49
FederalRegister,69,No.9,
10512-10548,March5,
2004
NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardous
AirPollutantsforStationaryGasTurbines;
FinalRule
EnvironmentalProtection
Agency,Washington,D.C.
50
OAR-2003-0189;
RIN2060-AK73
NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardous
AirPollutantsforStationaryCombustion
TurbinesProposedDelisting
EnvironmentalProtection
Agency,Washington,D.C.
51
OAR-2003-0196;
RIN2060-AK73
NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardous
AirPollutantsforStationaryCombustion
TurbinesStayProposal
EnvironmentalProtection
Agency,Washington,D.C.
52
60%relativehumidityatsealevel.
22
Atinletairtemperaturesnear100F,poweroutputcandropto90%
orlessofthespecifiedcapacity.Similarly,operatingagasturbineatelevationswellabovesealevel
resultsinreducedoutput.
Peakgasturbineefficiencyoccursat100%ofthefullratedload.
6
Outputlessthanthefullratedload
isachievedbyreducingtheturbineinlettemperature,butthischangeinoperatingconditionsalsoresults
indecreasedgasturbineefficiency.Asanexample,efficiencydecreasestoabout75%whenagasturbine
operatesatonly45%ofitsfullratedload.
22
3.2.2.2 Capitalcost
Abasicgasturbinepackageconsistsofagasturbine,gearbox,electricalgenerator,inletandexhaust
ducting,inletairfiltration,lubricationandcoolingsystems,standardstartingsystem,andexhaust
silencing.Optionssuchasauxiliaryequipmentforstartingthegasturbineduringpoweroutagescanadd
tothecost.Dependingonthesize,capitalcostsforsuchpackagesvarybetween$300and$900/kW
(Ref.4);however,moreprecisecostdataarepubliclyavailable.
53
Thecostofthegasturbinepackage
49
plusthecostforaddedcomponentsrequiredtoimplementcogenerationataparticularinstallation
comprisethetotalequipmentcost.Theseadditionalcostsareforcomponentssuchasafuelgas
compressor,heat-recoverysystem,watertreatmentsystem,andemissioncontrolsthatmayberequiredto
makeaCHPprojectoperational.Othercoststhatcancontributetothetotalplantcostincludeengineering
fees;installationlaborandmaterialexpenses;projectmanagementcostsforlicensing,insurance,
environmentalpermitting,commissioning,andstartup;andinterestcharges.Actualinstalledcostscan
varywidelyandareaffectedbysiterequirementsandconditions,regionalpricevariations,and
environmentalandotherlocalpermittingregulations.
Althoughcostsmayvarysignificantlyfromonesitetoanother,thereareeconomiesofscalefor
largergasturbineCHPsystems.Ingeneral,thepriceofagasturbinepackagedeclinesonlyslightly
betweentherangeof5and40MW,butancillaryequipmentsuchastheHRSG,gascompressor,water
treatment,andelectricalequipmentaremuchlowerincostperunitofelectricaloutputasthesystems
becomelarger.
6
3.2.2.3 Availability
Gasturbinesarecapableofoperatingforlongperiodsinaconstant-outputorbase-loadedmode.
Whenoperatedinthisway,theservicelifeisextendedbecausethegasturbineisnotsubjectedto
repeatedthermalandmechanicaltransients.Theestimatedavailabilityofgasturbinesoperatingonclean
gaseousfuelslikenaturalgasisinexcessof95%.
Somegasturbinesrequireeitherelectricalgridpower,anexternalhydraulicorelectricmotor,a
smallreciprocatingengine,oracompressedairsupplytostart;otherscanbeequippedtostartwithno
externalpowersources.
30
Uponstarting,theelectricalgeneratorcanbegindeliveringpowerwithinafew
minutes,buttheavailabilityofsteamorhotwaterproducedbyheatrecoverywillbedelayed.Thetime
neededtobringtheheat-recoverysystemuptotherequiredoperatingconditionsvariesfromone
installationtoanother.
3.2.2.4 Maintenance
Gasturbinemaintenancecostsaretypicallylow,rangingfrom$0.002to$0.008/kWh(Ref.4)for
gasturbinesthatarefiredbyhigh-qualitygaseousfuelsandoperateforlongperiods(1,000hormore)at
atime.Maintenanceactivitiesoftenincluderoutineinspections,on-lineandpreventivemaintenance,and
scheduledoverhaulsat12,000to50,000operating-hourintervals.Routineinspectionsmayinvolvevisual
examinationsoffiltersandgeneralsiteconditions,vibrationmeasurementstodetectwornbearings,
rotors,anddamagedbladetips,andothertypesofinternalexaminationsofcriticalitemssuchasfuel
nozzlesandhotgascomponents.Overhaulsmayinvolvedimensionalinspections,productupgradesand
testingoftheturbinecompressor,rotorremoval,inspectionofthrustandjournalbearings,blade
inspectionandclearancemeasurements,andpackingsealinstallation.Replacementofanentiregas
turbinecansometimesbeaccomplishedinonetofourdaysdependingonthesizeoftheunit,butlarger
unitsoftentakelonger.
Forgasturbinesthatoperateonacyclicbasisandforgasturbinesthatoperateabovetheirrated
capacityforsignificantperiodsoftime,maintenancecoststendtoincreasecomparedtogasturbinesthat
operatemoreorlesscontinuouslyattheratedload.Gasturbinesfueledbyliquidratherthangaseousfuels
willalsohaveincreasedmaintenancecostsandhigherthanaverageoverhaulintervals.
6
3.2.2.5 Heatrecovery
AsdiscussedinSect.3.2.3.1,overallCHPsystemefficiencyisafunctionoftheamountofthermal
energyrecoveredfromthegasturbineexhaust.ForindustrialCHPapplications,heatrecoveryisnormally
50
accomplishedineitheraHRSGoranICIboilerdesignedtoproduceeithersteamorhotwater.
InformationaboutHRSGsandICIboilersisprovidedinSects.4.1.1,4.2.1,andSect.4.2.2.
AHRSGisacommonheat-recoveryunitusedinmanygasturbineCHPsystems.Inoperation,the
gasturbineexhaustflowsaroundandthroughthetubesoftheHRSGwherethermalenergyisrecovered
andusedtoproducesteamorhotwater.Ifthethermalenergyinthegasturbineexhaustisnotsufficient
toproducetheneededamountofsteamorhotwater,theHRSGcanbeequippedwithaseparateburner
andcombustioncontrolsystemforsupplementaryfuelfiring.
AnICIboilercanalsobeusedinagasturbineCHPsystemtofunctionasaheatrecoveryboiler.In
oneapplication,theexhaustgasstreamisdirectedintothecombustionchamberoftheboilerwhereit
servesaspreheatedcombustionair.Thistechniquesisfeasiblebecausegasturbineexhaust,whichis15%
ormoreoxygen,iscapableofsupportingcombustion.
22
Asanalternative,thethermalenergyinthegas
turbineexhaustcanbeusedtoincreasethetemperatureoftheboilerfeedwater.
AlthoughbothtechniquesrepresenteffectivewaystorecoverheatandtherebyimproveoverallCHP
systemefficiency,facilitymodificationsmaybenecessaryatexistingICIboilerinstallationsto
implementthesetechniques.Usinggasturbineexhaustaspreheatedcombustionairmayrequire
modifyingthefacilitytoallowconnectionofthegasturbineexhaustpipingtotheboilerandchangingthe
boilercontrolsystemtoassurepropercombustion.Changesintheemissionscontrolandmonitoring
systemsmayalsoneedtobeconsideredasoverallemissionlevelsatthesitewillincreasewhenthegas
turbinebeginsoperating.Otherfacilitymodificationsincludingtheadditionofaheatexchangerand
changingtheconfigurationofthefeedwaterpipingsystemmaybenecessarytorecoverthethermal
energyintheexhaustgasesanduseittoheattheboilerfeedwater.
Toprovideoperatingflexibility,gasturbineexhaustsystemsmayincludeadivertervalveanda
dumpstack.Thedivertervalveisusedtomodulatetheexhaustgasflowintotheheat-recoveryequipment
ortodiverttheentireexhaustgasstreamtothedumpstackwhenheatrecoveryisnotrequired.
3.2.2.6 Fuelsandemissions
MostgasturbinesaredesignedtofireeithergaseousorliquidfuelssuchasnaturalgasorNo.2fuel
oil,butsomearedesignedasdual-fuelunitswiththeabilitytoquicklyswitchfromoneofthesefuelsto
another.Thisfeaturemaybeimportantiffuelpricesfluctuate.Becausegasturbinesoperateatelevated
pressures,gaseousfuelmustbeinjectedintothecombustionchamberatapressurethatisslightlyabove
theworkingpressureofthegasturbine.Ifthesupplypressureofthegaseousfuelisinsufficient,thegas
turbinemustbeequippedwithafuelgascompressor.Pipelinequalitynaturalgaswithaheatingvalue
thatrangesfromabout900to1,100Btuperstandardcubicfoot(scf)isnormallyaverysatisfactoryfuel
forgasturbines,especiallywhenitissuppliedtotheinstallationatthepipelineworkingpressure.When
liquidfuelsareused,pumps,flowcontrols,nozzles,andmixingsystemsaregenerallynecessaryto
delivertherequiredamountoffueltothecombustionchamberattherequiredpressure.
Occasionally,gasturbinesaredesignedtooperateonresidualorcrudeoil.Thesedesignsincludea
fueldeliverysystemwithfuelfilters,atomizers,andpretreatmentequipmentforeliminatingpotentially
damagingtraceelementsthatcanresultinexcessiverepairsormakeitnecessarytooperatethegas
turbineatlowerinlettemperatureseventhoughoutputandefficiencyarereduced.Othercontaminants
suchasash,alkalis,andsulfurfoundincertainfuelscanproducealkalisulfatedepositsongasturbine
internals.Besidesdegradingperformance,thesedepositscancontributetocorrosionofhigh-temperature
components.Tominimizetheadverseeffectsoffuelcontaminantsongasturbineperformance,itis
importantforfuelspecificationstoincludelimitsonthesecontaminants.
TheprimarypollutantsemittedbygasturbinesareNO
x
,CO,andvolatileorganiccompounds
(VOCs).StrategiescommonlyusedtorestrictNO
x
formationduringcombustionincludewaterorsteam
injectiontoreducethecombustiontemperaturetolevelswhereNO
x
formationisminimizedanduseof
premixburners.Theseburnersaredesignedtosupplyapreciselycontrolledmixtureoffuelandairtothe
51
burnertominimizelocalzonesofhightemperature,therebyreducingNO
x
formation.Theprimary
postcombustionNO
x
controltechniquecurrentlyinuseisselectivecatalyticreduction(SCR).Inthis
technique,ammonia(NH
3
)isinjectedintotheexhaustgasstreamwhereitreactswithNO
x
inthe
presenceofacatalysttoproducenitrogen(N
2
)andwater(H
2
O).TheCOemissionsarecontrolledusing
anoxidationcatalystthatpromotestheoxidationofCOandhydrocarboncompoundstoCO
2
andwateras
theexhaustgasstreamflowsthroughthecatalystbed.Arelativelynewemissioncontroltechniqueknown
asSCONOXcombinescatalyticconversionofCOandNO
x
withanabsorption-regenerationprocess
thateliminatestheammoniareagentfoundinSCRtechnology.In1998,EPARegion9identified
SCONOXasLAERtechnologyforgasturbineNO
x
control.
6
AdditionalinformationaboutSCRand
SCONOXispresentedinTable4.6.
Otherpollutantssuchasoxidesofsulfur(SO
x
)andPMmayalsobeemittedbygasturbinesthatfire
residualorcrudeoil.ScrubbertechnologyiseffectinginremovingbothsulfurcompoundsandPMfrom
exhaustgasstreams,whileelectrostaticprecipitatorsandbaghousesareeffectiveinreducingPM
emissions.
54,55
3.2.3 PotentialApplications
Gasturbinetechnologyhasbeensuccessfullyappliedinbothtopping-cycleandcombined-cycle
CHPsystems.Overallsuccessisaresultoflowinitialandmaintenancecosts,highavailability,fuel
switchingcapabilities,high-qualityrecoverableheat,andhighefficienciesinlargersizes.Gasturbines
alsoprovideownersandoperatorswithoperationalflexibility.Theyarecapableofsupplyingelectricity
tosatisfyeitherbase-loadorpeakingpowerdemand,andtheheatrecoveredfromgasturbineexhaustcan
beusedtogeneratesteamorhotwaterorfordirectheatingordryingapplications.Asanalternativeto
electricitygeneration,shaftpowerdeliveredbyagasturbinecanbeusedtodriveamechanicalchiller,
compressor,pump,orothertypesofrotatingmachinery.
Ingeneral,gasturbinesarefiredbyeithergaseousorliquidfuelswithnaturalgasbeingthepreferred
fueloption.Exceptforsitesthatonlyhaveaccesstosolidfuel,addingagasturbinepackagetoanewor
existingICIboilerinstallationcanbeacost-effectivewaytoincreasesteamorhotwaterproductionand
generatesomeoralloftheelectricityneededatthesite.Economicbenefitsofapplyinggasturbine
technologyimprovewhenthepriceoffuelislowcomparedtothecostofequivalentelectricalenergy.
Industrialsitesthathaveaccesstoinexpensivegaseousfuelssuchaslandfillorsyntheticgashave
stableelectricitydemandandneedaconstantsupplyofheatforprocessapplications,arepotential
candidatesfortopping-cyclegasturbineCHPapplications.Insituationswhereelectricityandthermal
demanddonotcoincide,acombined-cycleCHPsystemisanoptionworthconsidering.Thesesystems
includebothgasandsteamturbinesandeitheranICIboileroraHRSGorbothtoprovideheatrecovery.
Duringperiodsofhigherelectricitydemand,alloramajorityofthethermaloutputfromthegasturbine
canbeusedtoproducethesteamneededtopowerasteamturbineandelectricalgeneratorset.Under
theseconditions,thegasturbineoperatesatornearfullloadwhereefficiencyishighest,andthesteam
turbineoperatesatpartloadwithalmostnolossinefficiency.Assteamdemandincreases,allorpartof
thethermaloutputfromthegasturbinecanbeusedforprocessheatingapplications.Whenelectricaland
thermaldemandoccuratapproximatelythesametime,theburneronasupplementaryfiredHRSGorICI
boilercanbeusedtoproducetherequiredamountofadditionalheatwhiletheturbinesareproducing
electricityatornearcapacity.
3.3 MICROTURBINES
Microturbinesaresmallgasturbinesthatrangeinsizefrom30to350kW.Theyhavearelatively
smallnumberofmovingpartsandarecapableofoperatingonavarietyofgaseousandliquidfuels.In
operation,microturbinesproducehigh-speedrotationthatdrivesanelectricalgenerator.Theyalsoreject
52
high-temperatureexhaustgasesthatcontainasignificantamountofrecoverablethermalenergy.Although
thistechnologyhasonlybeenavailablesincethelate1990s,microturbinesarebeingusedinbothpower-
onlygenerationandtopping-cycleandcombined-cycleCHPsystems.
3.3.1 Description
Thetwobasiccomponentsofamicroturbinearethecompressorandgasturbine.Aninternalheat
exchangerknownasarecuperatorisoftenaddedtorecoverheatfromtheexhaustgasesandthereby
improveoverallenergyefficiency.Inoperation,aradialflow(centrifugal)compressorcompressesthe
combustionairthatisthenpreheatedintherecuperator,usingheatrecoveredfromtheexhaustgasstream.
Aftertheheatedairfromtherecuperatormixeswithfuelinthecombustionchamber,thehotcombustion
gasesexpandthroughtheturbine.Microturbinesarecurrentlyavailableineithersingle-shaftortwo-shaft
modelsandhavesoundattenuationfeaturestoreducenoise.
Insingle-shaftmodels,thecompressor-turbinepackageismountedonthesameshaftasthe
electricalgenerator.Thisassembly,whichissupportedbyeithertwooil-lubricatedorairbearings,has
highoverallreliabilitybecausethereisonlyonemovingpart.Single-shaftmodelsgenerallyoperateat
highspeeds(over60,000rpm)andgenerateelectricpowerwithvariablefrequency.Thispoweris
rectifiedtodirectcurrent(dc)andtheninvertedto60-Hzalternatingcurrent(ac).Whenasingle-shaft
microturbinestarts,thegeneratoractsasamotorturningtheturbine-compressorshaftuntilsufficient
speedisreachedtostartthecombustionprocess.Ifthesystemisoperatingindependentoftheelectrical
grid,apowerstorageunitsuchasabatteryisneededtopowerthegeneratorduringstartup.Several
minutesareneededtostartmostmicroturbinesandachievefull-poweroperation.Theconfigurationofa
single-shaftmicroturbinewithahigh-speedgeneratorisshowninFig.3.6.
Two-shaftmodelsuseexhaustgasesfromthecompressorturbinetopowerasecondturbinethat
drivestheelectricalgenerator.Inthismodel,thepowerturbineconnectstoaconventionalelectrical
generatorbyagearbox.Althoughthetwo-shaftdesignfeaturesmoremovingparts,itdoesnotrequire
complicatedpowerelectronicstoconverthighfrequencyacpoweroutputto60Hz.Theconfigurationof
amicroturbinewithaconventional3,600-rpmgeneratorisshowninFig.3.7.
3.3.2 DesignandPerformanceCharacteristics
Asamicroturbineoperates,atmosphericairiscontinuouslycompressed,heated,andthenexpanded
throughtheturbinecausingrotation.Likelargergasturbines,excesspowerproducedbytheturbineover
thatconsumedbythecompressorisusedforpowergeneration.Powerproducedbytheexpansionturbine
andconsumedbythecompressorisproportionaltotheabsolutetemperatureofthegaspassingthrough
thedevices.Consequently,itisadvantageoustooperatetheexpansionturbineatthehighestpossible
temperatureandtooperatethecompressorwithinletairflowataslowatemperatureaspossible.
Astechnologyadvancementspermithigherturbineinlettemperature,theoptimumpressureratio
alsoincreases.Highertemperatureandpressureratiosresultinhigherefficiencyandspecificpower.
Thus,thegeneraltrendingasturbineadvancementhasbeentowardacombinationofhighertemperatures
andpressures.Basedonpracticalconsiderations,currentmicroturbinetechnologylimitsturbineinlet
temperaturestoabout1,800Forless.Thisallowsmicroturbinemanufacturerstouserelatively
inexpensivematerialsfortheturbineandtomaintainpressureratiosatacomparativelylow3.5to4.0
(Ref.7).Tofurtherimproveenergyefficiency,microturbinemanufacturersaddrecuperatorstoreducethe
amountoffuelrequiredtoproducetherequiredinlettemperature.
Microturbineperformanceishighlysensitivetosmallvariationsincomponentperformanceand
internallosses.Thisisbecausethehigh-efficiencyrecuperatedcycleprocessesamuchlargeramountof
airandcombustionproductsflowperunitofnetpowereddeliveredthanisthecaseforhigh-pressureratio
53

Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Recuperator
Electric
Power
Rectifier Inverter
High-Speed
Generator
Fig.3.6.Single-shaftmicroturbinewithhigh-speed
generatorforCHPapplications.
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Recuperator
Gas
Turbines
Electric
Power
Conventional
Generator
Fig.3.7. Two-shaftmicroturbinewithconventional
generatorforCHPapplications.
simple-cyclegasturbines.Becausethenetoutputofamicroturbineisthesmalldifferencebetweentwo
largenumbers(thecompressorandexpansionturbineworkperunitofmassflow),smalllossesin
componentefficiency,internalpressurelosses,andrecuperatoreffectivenesshavelargeimpactsonnet
efficiencyandnetpowerperunitofmassflow.Forthesereasons,itisadvisabletofocusontrendsand
comparisonsinconsideringperformance,whilerelyingonmanufacturersguaranteesforprecisevalues.
3.3.2.1 Efficiency
Currentmicroturbinedesignshavemaximuminlettemperaturesof1,800Forless.Thisallowsthe
useofrelativelyinexpensivematerialsinthehigh-temperatureexhaustgasenvironment.Although
54

restrictingtheinlettemperatureisaneffectivewaytoachievealongservicelifeatareasonablecost,it
limitsefficiencybecausepoweroutputisproportionaltotheabsolutetemperatureofthegasthatpasses
throughthedevice.Becauseincreasingtheinlettemperatureisnotapracticaloption,microturbine
manufacturersimproveefficiencybyaddingarecuperatortothemicroturbine.
Recuperatorsremoveheatfromtheexhaustgasstreamandusetherecoveredheattoincreasethe
temperatureofthecompressedairsuppliedtothecombustionchamber.Thisapproachreducesthe
amountoffuelneededtoproduceaspecificinlettemperatureandtherebyincreasesefficiency.Asan
example,useofarecuperatorinamicroturbinewithapressureratioof3.2-to-1essentiallydoublesthe
efficiencyfrom14%to29%.AsdiscussedinSect.4.1.3,recuperatorsareexpensivecomponentsthatadd
tothecostofamicroturbine,butthecostincreaseiseasiertojustifyastheannualnumberoffull-power
operatinghoursincrease.Microturbineswithrecuperatorsoperatingatfullpowertypicallyachievetotal
CHPefficienciesrangingfrom65%to75%withE/Sratiosbetween0.4and0.7(Ref.7).Inthiscontext,
totalCHPefficiencyisafunctionofthenetelectricitygenerated,thenetheatsuppliedtotheprocess,and
thetotalfuelinputexpressedasfollows:
(Netelectricitygenerated+Netheatsuppliedtoprocess)/Totalfuelinput
Operatingamicroturbineatlessthatfullpowerinvolvesreducingthemassflowthroughtheturbine
anddecreasingtheinlettemperature.Thesepart-loadoperatingconditionsresultindecreasedefficiency
comparedtofull-poweroperation.
TheCHPelectricalefficiencyofamicroturbinesystemrangesfromabout18%to29%andisbased
onthehigherheatingvalue(HHV)ofthefuel,whichincludestheheatofcondensationofthewatervapor
inthecombustionproducts.
7
OtherkeyfactorsthatinfluenceCHPelectricalefficiencyincludethe
pressureratioandtheinlettemperature.Ingeneral,CHPelectricalefficiencyincreasesastheinlet
temperatureincreasesanddecreasesasthepressureratiodeclinesbelowabout3.5-to-1(Ref.7).Inthis
context,CHPelectricalefficiencyisafunctionofthenetelectricitygenerated,dividedbythetotalfuel
input.
3.3.2.2 Capitalcost
Thecostofabasicmicroturbinepackagethatincludestheturbine,generator,andpowerelectronics
rangesfromabout$750to$1,500/kW,butwhenengineering,construction,auxiliaryequipment,and
financingcostsareaddedtointegratethemicroturbinepackageintoaCHPsystem,thetotalcost
increasestoabout$1,300to$2,500/kW(Refs.4and7).Althoughmicroturbineshavelimitedgenerating
capacity,itispossibletoarrayanumberofmicroturbinepackagestogethertofunctionasamultiunit
powersource.Installingmultipleunitsatthesamesitetosatisfyelectricitydemandortoprovide
redundancycanimpactthecapitalcostoftheinstallation.
3.3.2.3 Availability
Availabilityofmicroturbinesisestimatedtobe90%orbetterespeciallywhenmultipleorbackup
unitsareinstalled.Multipleunitsoperatinginparallelincreasegeneratingcapacityandhavethepotential
forimprovingpowerqualityandreliability.Becausemicroturbinetechnologyisrelativelynew,field
servicedataarelimited,butmicroturbinemanufacturershavetargetedavailabilitiesabout98%.The
operatinglifeofamicroturbineisestimatedtobeinthe40,000-to80,000-hrange.
7
55

3.3.2.4 Maintenance
Estimatedmaintenancecostsformicroturbinescanrangeupto$0.018/kWh.Thiscostcovers
periodicinspectionsofthecombustionchamberandbearingsandregularfilterreplacements.Overhauls
formicroturbinesoperatingonnaturalgasarerequiredat20,000-to40,000-hintervals,buton-offcycling
anduseoffuelswithhighlevelsofimpuritiesorcontaminantscoulddecreasetheoverhaulintervalto
5,000h.
3.3.2.5 Heatrecovery
Thetemperatureofmicroturbineexhaustgasesleavingtherecuperatorrangesfromabout400Fto
600F.Thisheatissuitableformanyprocessapplications,includingtheproductionofhotwaterandlow-
pressuresteam.Recoveryofmicroturbineexhaustgasheatcanbeaccomplishedbydirectingtheexhaust
gasstreamthrougheitherafiredorunfiredHRSG.Asanalternative,theexhaustgasescanbemixedwith
combustionairsuppliedtoanICIboiler.Thisapproachisfeasiblebecausethehigh-temperature,oxygen-
richexhaustiscapableofsupportingcombustion.InformationaboutHRSGsandtheICIboileris
presentedinSects.4.1.1,4.2.1,and4.2.2.
Heatcanalsoberecoveredbydirectingtheexhaustgasstreamthroughaheaterexchangerwhere
heatfromtheexhaustisusedtoincreasetheboilerfeedwatertemperature.ForCHPsystemsthatprovide
cooling,heatrecoveredfrommicroturbineexhaustcanalsobeusedtodriveanabsorptionchillerora
desiccant-basedcoolingsystem.AdditionalinformationabouttheseunitsisdiscussedinSects.6.1and
6.2.Theamountofheatthatisavailableforrecoverydependsontheuseandeffectivenessofa
recuperatordesignedtoremoveheatfromtheexhaustgasstream.
3.3.2.6 Fuelsandemissions
Whileconventionalgasturbinesaretypicallydesignedtoburnnaturalgas,microturbinesarecapable
ofburningawidevarietyoffuels,includingnaturalgasandsourgasesthathavehigh-sulfurandlow-Btu
contentsandliquidfuels,suchasgasoline,kerosene,dieselfuel,anddistillatefueloil.Theyarealso
capableofburningwastegasesthatwouldotherwisebeflaredorreleaseddirectlyintotheatmosphere.
Microturbinesthatoperateongaseousfuelsuselean-premixcombustiontechnologytoreduceNO
x
formation.Inthistechnique,alargeamountofairisthoroughlymixedwiththefuelbeforethefuel-air
mixtureisinjectedintothecombustionzone.Thehighair-to-fuelratiocreatesalowerflametemperature
resultinginreducedNO
x
formation.PostcombustiontechniquesthatcanbeusedtoreduceNO
x
emissionsincludeSCRandSCONOX.Additionalinformationaboutthesetechniquesispresentedin
Table4.6.
ReducingCOandunburnedhydrocarbonemissionsrequireskeepingtheair-fuelmixturewithinthe
combustionchamberforarelativelylongperiodoftimetopromotecompletefueloxidation.
Microturbinemanufacturersdesignthefuelfiringsystemstoachievealongresidencetimewithinthe
combustionzone.
Emissionlevelsformicroturbinesthatoperateatfullloadhavethepotentialtobeextremelylow.
However,emissionlevelstendtoincreaseunderpart-loadoperatingconditions.
3.3.3 PotentialApplications
Microturbinesareideallysuitedfordistributedgenerationapplicationsbecauseoftheirflexibilityin
connectionmethods,abilitytobearrayedinparalleltoservelargerloads,abilitytoprovidestableand
reliablepower,andlowemissions.Theiruseinindustrialtopping-cycleandcombined-cycleCHP
applicationsisalsopossible,providedthepowerrequirementsdonotexceedabout1MW.Useof
56

microturbinesforlargerpowerapplicationsisgenerallynotpracticalbecausethegeneratingcapacityofa
singlemicroturbineislimitedto350kWorless.Achievinggreatercapacityrequiresinstallationof
multiplemicroturbinesarrayedinparallel.WhenusedforsmallerCHPapplications,microturbinescan
produceelectricityforbase-loaded,load-tracking,orpeak-shavingsituations.
3.4 RECIPROCATINGINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINES
Reciprocatingenginesareusedforavarietyofstationarypowergenerationapplications,including
emergencypower,base-loadpower,andpeakingservice.Theseenginesareavailableforsmallerpower
generationapplicationsinsizesrangingfromafewkilowattstoabout5MW,butmultiplereciprocating
enginescanbeusedtoincreasegeneratingcapacityandimproveavailability.
1
Heavy-dutyreciprocating
enginesareextremelyefficientandreliablepowerproducerswiththeabilitytogeneratehotwaterorlow-
pressuresteamforCHPapplications.
3.4.1 Description
Therearetwobasictypesofreciprocatingenginesforpowergenerationsparkignition(SI)and
compressionignition(CI).TheSIenginesusesparkplugswithahigh-intensitysparkoftimeddurationto
igniteacompressedair-fuelmixturewithinthecylinder.Gaseousorreadilyvaporizedliquidfuelssuchas
gasoline,propane,manufacturedgas,orlandfillgasareusedroutinelyasfuelforSIengines,butnatural
gasisthepreferredfuelforelectricpowergeneration.TheCI,ordieselengines,achieveignitionthrough
theheatofcompression.Theytypicallyoperateoneitherdistillateorresidualoil,buttheycanalsobe
designedtooperateinadual-fuelmode,burningprimarilynaturalgaswithasmallamountofdieselfuel
servingascompression-ignitedpilotfuel.Dieselengineshavehistoricallybeenthemostpopulartypeof
reciprocatingenginesforpowergenerationapplications,butSIenginesfueledbynaturalgasarenowthe
engineofchoiceforthehigher-duty-cyclestationarypowermarket.
8
Mostreciprocatingenginesoperateonafour-strokecycleconsistingofintake,compression,power,
andexhauststrokes.Tworevolutionsofthecrankshaftoccurineachfour-strokecycle.Two-strokecycle
reciprocatingenginesoperatewithacompressionstrokefollowedbyapowerorexpansionstroke.These
enginesonlyrequireonerevolutionofthecrankshafttocompleteeachtwo-strokecycle.Theair-fuel
mixtureneededbytheseenginesisdistributedtothevariouscylindersbytheintakemanifoldanddrawn
intothecylindereitherbynaturalorchargedaspiration.Naturalaspirationenginesdrawtheair-fuel
mixtureintothecylinderatatmosphericpressure.Inchargedaspiration,theair-fuelmixtureissuppliedto
thecylinderunderpressure.Pressurizationisaccomplishedeitherbyacompressororsuperchargerdriven
byanengineauxiliaryoutputshaft,aseparatedrive,orbyanexhaust-poweredturbineknownasa
turbocharger.
Reciprocatingenginesarefurtherclassifiedashigh-speed(1,000to3,600rpm),medium-speed(275
to1,000rpm),orlow-speed(58to275rpm).Thespeedatwhichapower-generatingreciprocatingengine
mustoperateisimportantbecauseelectricalgeneratorstypicallyrunatfixed(orsynchronous)speedsto
maintainaconstant60-Hzoutput.
3.4.2 DesignandPerformanceCharacteristics
Powerrating,fuelconsumption,andthermaloutputareimportantperformancecharacteristicsthat
influencethewayreciprocatingenginesareusedinCHPapplications.
23
Factorsthataffectpowerrating
includedisplacement,rotationalspeed,methodofignition,compressionratio,typeofaspiration,cooling
system,jacketwatertemperature,andintercoolertemperature.Manymanufacturersrateenginecapacities
basedonstandardrequirementsandreferenceconditions.
56
Knowledgeaboutperformanceatreference
conditionsisnecessarytoestablishengineratingsundersiteconditions.Fuelconsumptionisinfluenced
57

bycombustioncycle,rotationalspeed,compressionratio,andtypeofaspiration.Formostreciprocating
engines,about30%ofthefuelenergyisremovedbythejacketcoolingsystemandabout30%isremoved
bytheexhaustgases.Exhaustgastemperaturescanbeupto1,200Fatfullloadandupto1,000Fat60%
loadforfour-cyclenaturallyaspiratedandturbochargednaturalgasengines.
23
Two-cyclelowerspeed
engineshavelowerexhaustgastemperaturesrangingfromabout500Fto700F.Somereciprocating
engineshavecoolingsystemscapableofproducing200Fto210Fhotwater,whilethosewithhigh
pressureforcedcirculationandebullientcoolingsystemscanoperatewithjackettemperaturesupto
265F.SourcesofrejectedthermalenergyfromatypicalRICEforCHPapplicationsareshownin
Fig.3.8.
Startingreciprocatingenginesrequiresminimalauxiliarypowerthatisoftensuppliedbybatteries.
Theirfast-startcapabilityallowsreciprocatingenginestoquicklysupplyelectricityondemandinpeaking
andemergencypowersituations.
Reciprocatingengineshavetwooperationalissuesthatneedtobeconsideredtoensuresatisfactory
performance.Inoperation,theyproduceout-of-balanceforcesthatmayrequirespecialstructuralsupports
orfoundationsdesignedtoabsorbthedynamicforcesandcyclicvibrations.Minimizingfoundation
requirementssometimesinvolvesuseofpneumaticsupportsystems.Noiseisalsoapotentialproblem.
Althoughnoisefromreciprocatingenginesissomewhatlessofaproblemthanwithgasturbines,acoustic
shieldingmaybeneededtoreducenoisetoanacceptablelevel.
CodesandstandardsforRICEdesign,construction,performance,andinstallationarelistedin
Table3.4.
3.4.2.1 Efficiency
Reciprocatingengineefficiencyisafunctionofmanyfactorsincludingcompressionratio.High
compressionallowsthecombustionofmorefuelduringasinglepistonstroke,thusincreasingengine
capacity.Natural-gas-firedSIengineshavecompressionratiosthattypicallyrangefromabout9-to-1to
12-to-1.Dieselenginesoperateatslightlyhighercompressionratiosof13-to-1.Theadditionofa
turbochargerincreasespowerdensity.
Large-capacity,low-speed,SIenginescanhavefuelefficienciesofabout37%fornatural-gas-
poweredenginesbasedontheHHVofthefuel.Discussionsabouttheheatingvalueofnaturalgasand
otherfuelsarepresentedinSect.3.4.2.6.Atreducedloads,theheatrateofSIenginesincreases,and
efficiencydecreases.Theefficiencyat50%loadisapproximately8%to10%lessthanfull-load
efficiency.Astheloaddecreasesfurther,thecurvebecomessomewhatsteeper.Whilenatural-gas-fueled
SIenginescomparefavorablytogasturbines,whichtypicallyexperienceefficiencydecreasesof
Generator
Engine
Exhaust
Electric
Power
ReciprocatingEngine
Return
from
Process
Turbocharger
To
Process
Water Oil
Fig.3.8. RICEforCHPapplications.
58

Table3.4.CodesandstandardsforRICEs
Designation Title Publisher
ASMEPTC17-1973
(Reaffirmed2003)
PerformanceTestCodeonReciprocating
Internal-CombustionEngines
AmericanSocietyof
MechanicalEngineers,New
York
57
APIRecommended
Practice7C-11F,1sted.
RecommendedPracticeforInstallation,
Maintenance,andOperationofInternal-
CombustionEngines
AmericanPetroleumInstitute,
Washington,D.C.
58
ISO8528-1,1sted. ReciprocatingInternalCombustionEngine
DrivenAlternatingCurrentGenerating
SetsPart1:Application,Ratingand
Performance
InternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization,Geneva
Switzerland
59
ISO8528-2,1sted. ReciprocatingInternalCombustionEngine
DrivenAlternatingCurrentGenerating
SetsPart2:Engines
InternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization,Geneva
Switzerland
60
ISO8528-3,1sted. ReciprocatingInternalCombustionEngine
DrivenAlternatingCurrentGenerating
SetsPart3:AlternatingCurrent
GeneratorsforGeneratingSets
InternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization,Geneva
Switzerland
61
ISO8528-5,1sted. ReciprocatingInternalCombustionEngine
DrivenAlternatingCurrentGenerating
SetsPart5:GeneratingSets
InternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization,Geneva
Switzerland
62
ISO3046-1,1sted. ReciprocatingInternalCombustion
EnginesPerformancePart1:
DeclarationsofPower,Fueland
LubricatingOilConsumptions,andTest
MethodsAdditionalRequirementsfor
EnginesforGeneralUse
InternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization,Geneva
Switzerland
56
ISO3046-3,2nded. ReciprocatingInternalCombustion
EnginesPerformancePart3:Test
Measurements
InternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization,Geneva
Switzerland
63
ISO3046-4,2nded. ReciprocatingInternalCombustion
EnginesPerformancePart4:Speed
Governing
InternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization,Geneva
Switzerland
64
ISO3046-5,2nded. ReciprocatingInternalCombustion
EnginesPerformancePart5:Torsional
Vibrations,andTestMethodsAdditional
RequirementsforEnginesforGeneralUse
InternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization,Geneva
Switzerland
65
ISO3046-6,3rded. ReciprocatingInternalCombustion
EnginesPerformancePart6:
OverspeedProtection
InternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization,Geneva
Switzerland
66
ASMEB31.1-2001 PowerPiping AmericanSocietyof
MechanicalEngineers,New
York
16
ASMEB31.3-2002 ProcessPiping AmericanSocietyof
MechanicalEngineers,New
York
17
ASMEB31.8-2000 GasTransmissionandDistributionPiping
Systems
AmericanSocietyof
MechanicalEngineers,New
York
41
59

Table3.4.(continued)
Designation Title Publisher
APIRecommended
Practice574,2nded.
InspectionPracticesforPipingSystem
Components
AmericanPetroleumInstitute,
Washington,D.C.
18
ASTMDesignation:D396-02 StandardSpecificationforFuelOils AmericanSocietyofTesting
andMaterials,West
Conshohocken,
Pennsylvania
43
ASTMDesignation:D975-03 StandardSpecificationforDieselFuelOils AmericanSocietyofTesting
andMaterials,West
Conshohocken,
Pennsylvania
44
ASTMDesignation:D1835-03 StandardSpecificationforLiquefied
Petroleum(LP)Gases
AmericanSocietyofTesting
andMaterials,West
Conshohocken,
Pennsylvania
67
NFPA54 NationalFuelGasCode NationalFireProtection
Association,Quincy,
Massachusetts
46
IEEEStandardNo.1547-2003 StandardforInterconnectingDistributed
ResourceswithElectricPowerSystems
InstituteofElectricaland
ElectronicsEngineers,New
York
21
FederalRegister,67,No.244,
77830-77874,December19,
2002
NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardous
AirPollutantsforStationaryReciprocating
InternalCombustionEngines;Proposed
Rule
EnvironmentalProtection
Agency,Washington,D.C.
68
OAR-2002-0059;
RIN2060-AG-63
NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardous
AirPollutantsforStationaryReciprocating
InternalCombustionEngines
EnvironmentalProtection
Agency,Washington,D.C.
69
15%to25%athalf-loadconditions,multipleenginesmaybepreferabletoasinglelargeenginetoavoid
efficiencypenaltieswheresignificantloadreductionsareexpectedonaregularbasis.
Dieselenginesexhibitmorefavorablepart-loadcharacteristicsthanSIengines.Theefficiencycurve
fordieselenginesiscomparativelyflatbetween50%and100%load.TheE/Sratiosfordieselenginesare
comparativelyhighandoftenrangefrom350to700kWh/MMBtu.Low-speeddieselstypicallyare
designedforpeakefficiencyat75%offullload.Part-loadperformanceforcurrentandadvanced
technologyhigh-speeddieselsisexcellent.Medium-speeddiesels,whoseratedcapacitiesoverlap
high-speeddieselsatthesmallscaleandlow-speeddieselsatthelargescalefollowthesametrend.
24
TotalCHPefficiencyvariesdependingonsizeandE/Sratio.Natural-gas-firedSIenginestypically
havetotalCHPefficienciesbetween70%and80%andCHPelectricalefficienciesthatrangefrom30%
to40%.Inthiscontext,totalCHPefficiencyisafunctionofthenetelectricitygenerated,thenetheat
suppliedtotheprocess,andthetotalfuelinputexpressedasfollows:
(Netelectricitygenerated+Netheatsuppliedtoprocess)/Totalfuelinput
andCHPelectricalefficiencyisameasureoftheamountoffuelenergyconvertedintoelectricity.CHP
electricalefficiencyisafunctionofthenetelectricitygeneratedandthetotalfuelinputexpressedas
follows:
60


Netelectricitygenerated/Totalfuelinput
Reciprocatingengineefficiencyandpowerarereducedbyapproximately4%per1,000feetof
altitudeabove1,000feet,andabout1%forevery10Fabove77F.
3.4.2.2 Capitalcost
Thefirstcostofareciprocatingengineandgeneratorsetisgenerallylowerthangasturbinesystems
inthe3-to5-MWsizerange.
8
InstalledcostsforreciprocatingengineCHPsystemsvaryfromabout
$900to$1,500/kW.Reciprocatingengineshavehigherelectricalefficienciesthangasturbinesof
comparablesize,andthuslowerfuel-relatedoperatingcosts.Althoughmaintenancecostsfor
reciprocatingenginesarehigherthanforgasturbines,themaintenancecanoftenbeperformedbyin-
housestafforalocalserviceprovider.
3.4.2.3 Availability
Givenpropermaintenance,reciprocatingengineshaveproventobereliablepowergenerators.
Averageannualavailabilityisrelativelyhigh,sometimesexceeding95%.Expectedservicelifetimevaries
from15to25years,dependingonenginesize,fuelburned,andqualityofmaintenance.
24
3.4.2.4 Maintenance
Allreciprocatingenginesrequireregularmaintenanceandperiodicrepairstoprovidedependable
service.Fordieselengines,lubricatingoilandfilterchangesareroutinelyperformedafter350to700hof
operation.
23
Natural-gas-fueledenginescanoperatesomewhatlongerbetweenintervals.Majoroverhauls
forenginesthatoperatecontinuouslyareneededaboutevery3to6years.
3.4.2.5 Heatrecovery
Thermalenergyrejectedbyareciprocatingenginecanberecoveredfromtheexhaust,jacketcooling
system,lubricatingsystem,turbocharger,andaftercooler.WhenreciprocatingenginesareusedinCHP
applications,therecoveredheatcanbeusedtoproduceeitherhotwaterorlow-pressuresteam.By
recoveringheatinthecoolingsystemsandexhaust,approximately70%to80%oftheenergyofthefuel
iseffectivelyutilizedtoproducebothpowerandusefulthermalenergy.
Theprimarysourceofheatfromareciprocatingengineistheengineexhaust.Withtemperaturesthat
typicallyrangefromabout700Fto1,000F,therecoveredheatcanbeusedtoproducesteam.
23
Heat
recoveryisaccomplishedineitheranunfiredHRSGoraheatexchangerknownasaheat-recovery
muffler.AdditionalinformationaboutunfiredHRSGsandheat-recoverymufflersispresentedin
Sects.4.1.1and4.1.2.Whentheexhaustcontainslargeamountsofexcessair,therejectedheatcanalso
berecoveredinafiredHRSGoraboilerprovidedthepulsatingnatureoftheexhaustgasflowdoesnot
adverselyimpactthecombustionprocess.
Heatrejectedbythevariouscoolingsystemscanberecoveredandusedtoproduceeitherhotwater
orlow-pressuresteam(lessthan30psig).EbullientcoolingsystemsdiscussedinSect.4.1.4recoverheat
bycirculatingaboilingcoolantthroughtheengine.Forcedcirculationsystems,discussedinSect.4.1.5,
recoverheatbycirculatingapressurizedliquidcoolantthroughtheengine.
Lubricatingoil,turbocharger,andaftercoolerheatrecoveryisgenerallyatlowertemperatures.Oil
temperaturesareusuallymaintainedatabout190F,makingthisheatusableforhotwatergeneration.
Turbochargersareeitherair-orwater-cooledandhaveanaftercooleronthedischargesidetoavoid
61

feedinghot,lessdenseairtotheengine.Aftercoolerwatertemperaturesrangefromabout90Fto135F
andmayonlybeusefulforspecificindustrialprocessapplications.
3.4.2.6 Fuelsandemissions
Reciprocatingenginesarefueledbypropane,wastegases,dieselfuel,andfueloil,butthepreferred
fuelisnaturalgas.Gasoline-fueledenginesaregenerallynotusedforindustrialCHPapplicationsbecause
offuelstoragehazards,fuelcosts,andhighermaintenancerequirementscomparedtoenginesfueledby
naturalgas.Specificationsforfueloil,
43
dieselfuel,
44
andliquefiedpetroleum(LP)gases
67
suitablefor
useinstationaryreciprocatingengineshavebeenadoptedbytheAmericanSocietyforTestingand
Materials(ASTM).
HeatingvaluesoffuelarecharacterizedaseitherHHVorlowerheatingvalue(LHV).TheLHV
deductstheenergynecessarytokeepwater,whichisproducedduringcombustion,inthevaporstate.
TypicalLHV/HHVratiosarefuel-dependentandrangefrom0.87forhydrogento1.00forCO.The
LHV/HHVratiofornaturalgasvariesfrom0.9to0.95dependingonthemasspercenthydrogenandthe
amountofinertgas.Ingeneral,theLHVandHHVofnaturalgasareapproximately900and
1,000Btu/scf,respectively.Manymanufacturersbasetheirnatural-gasenginepowerratingsonLHV,
therebyyieldingahigherreportedefficiency.HeavyfueloilshaveaLHV/HHVratioequalto0.96,while
thecorrespondingratioforlighteroilsis0.93.
AllreciprocatingenginesemitNO
x
,CO,andunburnedhydrocarbons,whileenginesthatoperateon
oilalsoemitsulfurcompoundsandPM.Duringcombustion,NO
x
andCOemissionscanbereducedby
usingeitheraleanair-fuelmixtureorstagedignition.Bothapproacheslowerthecombustiontemperature
andtherebyinhibitNO
x
formation.AcommonapproachforreducingNO
x
,CO,andunburned
hydrocarbonsemissionsaftercombustionoccursinSIenginesistopasstheexhaustgasesthrougha
catalystorseriesofcatalyststoremovespecificpollutants.Thethree-waycatalytic(TWC)conversion
processisthebasicautomotivecatalyticconverterprocessthatreducesconcentrationsofallthreeofthese
pollutants,
8
butitcannotbeusedwithCIengines.ReducingNO
x
emissionscanalsobeaccomplished
usingSCR,SNCR,orthemoreexpensiveSCONOXtechnique.Additionalinformationaboutthese
techniquesispresentedinTable4.6.ThePMcanberemovedinanelectrostaticprecipitatororabag
house,whileSO
2
emissionscanbereducedbypassingtheexhaustgasesthroughawetordry
scrubber.
54,55
Itisalsopossibletoreduceemissionsfromliquid-fueledenginesbyusingafueladditive.
Recentdevelopmentsincomputertechnologyhaveimprovedthefuelefficiencyofreciprocating
enginesandreducedtheiremissions.TheSIreciprocatingenginesoperatingonnaturalgashavelower
emissionratesthandieselenginesoperatingonliquidfuels.Thefinaldecisiononfuelselectionshould
takeintoconsiderationfuelavailability,fuelcost,storagerequirements,emissionsrequirements,andfuel
consumptionrate.
3.4.3 PotentialApplications
Reciprocatingenginesarewellsuitedforpowergenerationintopping-cycleandcombined-cycle
CHPapplications.Theirabilitytostartquicklyandfollowloadwellmakesreciprocatingenginesuseful
forbase-load,standby,emergency,andpeakshavingoperation.Theyalsoexhibitgoodpart-load
efficiencyandgenerallyhavehighreliability.InCHPapplications,hotwaterandlow-pressuresteam
producedbyreciprocatingenginesisappropriateforlow-temperatureprocessneeds,spaceheating,and
waterheating.Itisalsosuitablefordrivingabsorptionchillersthatprovidecoldwater,airconditioning,
orrefrigerationandfordesiccantdehumidification.
62

3.5 FUELCELLS
Fuelcellsrepresentanentirelydifferentapproachtotheproductionofelectricitycomparedto
traditionalprimemovertechnologies.Unitsbasedonfuelcelltechnologyaresimilartobatteriesinthat
bothproduceadcthroughanelectrochemicalprocesswithoutdirectcombustionoffuel.Unlikebatteries
thatdeliverpowerfromafiniteamountofstoredenergy,fuelcellscanoperateindefinitely,provideda
continuousfuelsourceisavailable.Asenergyconversiondevices,fuelcellshaveanumberof
advantages:
highenergyconversionefficiencythatisrelativelyindependentofsize,
goodpart-loadcharacteristicsforload-followingsituations,
modulardesignandflexibilityofsize,
lowenvironmentalimpact,
rejectionofheatsuitableforcogeneration,and
quickresponsetoloadchanges.
Becausefuelcelltechnologyisrelativelynew,currentcapitalcostsonadollar-per-kilowattbasisare
high,andthereisalackoffielddataonmaintenance,repair,andreliability.Fuelcelloperationsarealso
sensitivetocertaincontaminantsthatmaybepresentinthefuelsuchassulfurandchlorides.
3.5.1 Description
Allfuelcellsderiveenergyfromtheoxidationofhydrogen.Inoperation,hydrogenandoxygenreact
toproducewaterinthepresenceofanelectrolyte.Thisreactiongeneratesanelectrochemicalpotential
thatdrivesanelectricalcurrentthroughanexternalcircuit.
24
Hydrogenusedasfuelcanbederivedfroma
varietyofsources,includingfossilfuelsandrenewableenergysources.
Thehydrogenreformer,fuelcellstack,andinverterarethethreebasiccomponentsthatgovernthe
operationofafuelcell.
4
Inthehydrogenreformer,hydrogenisextractedfromagaseousfuel.Thefuel
cellstackisanelectrolytematerialsituatedbetweenoppositelychargedelectrodeswherethehydrogen
generatesdcpowerinanelectrochemicalreaction.Conversionofdcpowertoacpoweroccursinthe
inverter.
Therearefivetypesoffuelcells:
1. phosphoricacid(PAFC),
2. protonexchangemembrane(PEMFC),
3. moltencarbonate(MCFC),
4. solidoxide(SOFC),and
5. alkaline(AFC).
Currently,onlyPAFCandMCFCunitsarecommerciallyavailable,
5
andtheiruseinCHPsystemsis
generallyrestrictedtolow-temperatureprocessneedssuchaswaterheatingorlow-pressuresteam(less
than30-psig)applications.Worldwide,anumberofPAFCdemonstrationprojectsareinvariousphases
oftestingorunderfabrication,mostlyinthe50-to200-kWcapacityrange.Themajorindustrial
participantsarefromtheUnitedStatesandJapan.
63

3.5.2 DesignandPerformanceCharacteristics
Today,thereareonlytwocommerciallyavailablefuelcells,a200-kWPAFCunitanda250-kW
MCFCunit.DesignandperformancecharacteristicsareprovidedforthemorecommonPAFCunits.
InformationonothertypesoffuelcellsisavailableintheFuelCellHandbook.
70
TheelectrolyteinaPAFCconsistsofconcentratedphosphoricacid.Asiliconcarbidematrixisused
toretaintheacid,whileboththeelectrodes,whichalsofunctionascatalysts,aremadefromplatinumor
itsalloys.Theoperatingtemperatureismaintainedbetween300Fand430F.Atlowertemperatures,
phosphoricacidtendstobeapoorionicconductor,andCOpoisoningoftheplatinumelectrocatalystin
theanodebecomessevere.
TheelectrochemicalreactionsoccurringinPAFCsare
H
2
2H
+
+2e

attheanode,and
1/2O
2
+2H
+
+2e

H
2
O
atthecathode.Theoverallreactionis
1/2O
2
+H
2
H
2
O .
NotethatthefuelcelloperatesonH
2
,whileCOisapoisonwhenpresentinaconcentrationgreater
than0.5%.Ifahydrocarbonsuchasnaturalgasisusedasafuel,reformingofthefuelbythereaction
CH
4
+H
2
O3H
2
+CO
andshiftofthereformatebythereaction
CO+H
2
OH
2
+CO
2
arerequiredtogeneratetherequiredhydrogenfuel.Anysulfurcompoundspresentinthefuelhavetobe
removedpriortouseinthecell(upstreamofthereformer)toaconcentrationof<0.1partspermillionby
volume(ppmV).Thefuelcellitself,however,cantolerateamaximumof50ppmVofsulfurcompounds.
ThereisalsoalimitontheCOconcentrationinthefuelgasof0.5%.Theoperatingtemperatureofa
PAFCisabout390Fwithphosphoricacidconcentrationsof100%.
Ingeneral,fuelcellsproducelownoiselevels(60dBAat30ft)anddonotvibrate.Consequently,it
maybepossibletositeafuelcellinsideabuilding,butfannoiseandmoistureventingneedtobe
consideredinthesiteselectionprocess.Codesandstandardsforfuelcellperformanceandinstallationare
listedinTable3.5.ThegeneralarrangementofPAFCcomponentsisshowninFig.3.9.
3.5.2.1 Efficiency
Oneofthemainadvantagesoffuelcellsisthehighconversionefficiencythatmayrangefrom36%
to54%basedontheHHVofthefuel.Thefuelconversionefficiencyishigherthanthatofmostenergy
conversionsystems,andtheefficiencyadvantagebecomesmoresignificantatthesmallerscalesbecause
theefficiencyoffuelcellsisnearlyconstantwithsize.ForaPAFC,theconversionefficiencyoffuel
boundenergytoelectricityistypically36to42%onafuel(naturalgas)HHVbasis.Whenwasteheatis
effectivelyrecoveredandusedforprocessapplications,totalCHPefficiencycanbeashighas85%.In
64

Table3.5.Codesandstandardsforfuelcells
Designation Title Publisher
ASMEPTC50-2002 PerformanceTestCodeonFuelCellPower
SystemsPerformance
AmericanSocietyof
MechanicalEngineers,New
York
71
ASMEB31.8-2000 GasTransmissionandDistributionPiping
Systems
AmericanSocietyof
MechanicalEngineers,New
York
41
APIRecommended
Practice574,2nded.
InspectionPracticesforPipingSystem
Components
AmericanPetroleumInstitute,
Washington,D.C.
18
NFPA853 StandardsfortheInstallationofStationary
FuelCellPowerPlants
NationalFireProtection
Association,Quincy,
Massachusetts
72
IEEEStandardNo.1547-2003 StandardforInterconnectingDistributed
ResourceswithElectricPowerSystems
InstituteofElectricaland
ElectronicsEngineers,New
York
21
Inverter
AC
Electric
Power
Process
Heat
Fuel
Reformer
FuelCell
Stack
DC
Processed
Fuel
Fuel
Air
Steam
Exhaust
Gas
Fig.3.9. PAFCforCHPapplications.
thiscontext,totalCHPefficiencyisafunctionofthenetelectricitygenerated,thenetheatsuppliedtothe
process,andthetotalfuelinputexpressedasfollows:
(Netelectricitygenerated+Netheatsuppliedtoprocess)/Totalfuelinput
Theefficiencyunder50%loadiswithin2%ofitsfull-loadefficiency,butastheloaddecreases,the
curvebecomessomewhatsteeper.
5
Thisperformancecharacteristicmeansthatfuelcellshaveexcellent
loadfollowingcapabilitywithsteadyefficiencydowntoaboutone-thirdofratedcapacity.
65

3.5.2.2 Capitalcost
TheinstalledcostofafuelcellsystemdesignedforuseinaCHPapplicationishigh,rangingfrom
about$2,800to$5,500/kW.Thisincludesthefuelcellplusauxiliaryequipmentcosts.Inatypical
installation,thestacksubsystemrepresentsfrom25%to40%ofthecost,thefuelprocessingsubsystem
from25%to30%,thepowerandelectronicssubsystemfrom10%to20%,thethermalmanagement
subsystemfrom10%to20%,andancillarysubsystemsfrom5%to15%.Majorbarrierstothewidespread
useoffuelcellsistheirhighinitialinstalledcost
5
andtheirlimitedservicehistory.Basedoncurrentfuel
andelectricityprices,fuelcellsystemcostswillneedtodecreasetoabout$1,000/kWbeforefuelcell
technologybecomescompetitivewithothertypesofprimemoversformostCHPapplications.
4
3.5.2.3 Availability
Fuelcellshavedemonstratedgreaterthan90%availabilitybasedonlimitedlong-termoperating
experience,andsomePAFCunitshaveachievedoperationallivesof70,000h(lessthan10years).
5
3.5.2.4 Maintenance
Routinefuelcellmaintenanceinvolvesinspectionsandadjustmentsandperiodicfilterreplacements.
Majoroverhaulsincludecatalystreplacementaboutevery3to5years,reformercatalystsreplacement
aboutevery5years,andstackreplacementaboutevery4to8years.Maintenancecostsrangefromabout
$0.007to0.02/kWhexcludingstackreplacement.
5
3.5.2.5 Heatrecovery
Therearefourpotentialsourcesofuseableheatfromafuelcell:exhaustgasincludingwater
condensation,stackcooling,anodeoff-gascombustion,andreformerheat.
5
About25%to45%ofthe
availableheatcanberecoveredfromthestackcoolingloopthatoperatesatabout400F.Theexhaustgas
coolingloopprovidesthebalanceoftheheat.Maximumsystemefficiencyoccurswhenallofthe
availableanodeoff-gasheatandinternalreformerheatisusedinternally.
Heatgeneratedduringoperationisremovedbyeitherliquidorgaseouscoolantsthatarerouted
throughcoolingchannelsinthestack.Complexmanifoldsandconnectionsarerequiredforliquid
cooling,butbetterheattransferisachievedthanwithaircooling.Gascoolingontheotherhandhas
simplicity,reliability,andrelativelylowcost.ForPAFCs,therecoveredheatcanbeusedeffectivelyto
increasethetemperatureofboilerfeedwater.
3.5.2.6 Fuelsandemissions
Hydrogenusedbyafuelcellcanbederivedfromavarietyofsourcessuchasnaturalgas,liquefied
petroleumgases,includingpropane-butanemixtures,coal,biomass,or,potentiallythroughelectrolysis,
wind,andsolarenergy.Fuelcontaminantssuchassulfurandchloridesmustbereducedtoacceptable
levelspriortoenteringthefuelprocessingcatalystbecausetheyaredetrimentaltocatalystlife.
Fuelcellsproducevirtuallynoregulatedairpollutantsbecausetheprimarypowergeneratingprocess
doesnotinvolvecombustion.Someemissionsarereleased,however,whensurfaceburnerelementsare
usedtoprovideheatforthereformingprocess.Ifthetemperatureofthecombustionprocessismaintained
atlessthan1,800F,theformationofthermalNO
x
isminimized,andthetemperatureissufficientlyhigh
tocontrolCOandVOCemissions.
66

3.5.3 PotentialApplications
Fuelcellsaremosteffectiveininstallationswithrelativelyhighandcoincidentelectricityand
heatingneeds.Althoughfuelcellsarecurrentlyonlyavailablewithlimitedgeneratingcapacity,multiple
fuelcellscanbeinstalledtoincreaseelectricaloutputtoamegawattormore.Useofmultiplefuelcells
canbebeneficialbecausetheycanbesynchronizedtomeetchangingdemands.
InCHPtopping-cycleandcombined-cycleapplications,wasteheatrejectedbyafuelcellcanbe
usedtopreheatboilerfeedwater,producehotwater,orgeneratelow-pressuresteam.Thetimeneededto
startupafuelcellisrelativelylong.Becauseofthischaracteristic,fuelcellsareeffectiveforbase-loaded
service,butarenotwellsuitedforpeakshavingorstandbyservice.
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67

18. InspectionPracticesforPipingSystemComponents,APIRecommendedPractice574,2nded.,
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36. ProcurementStandardforGasTurbinePreparationforShippingandInstallation,ANSI
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37. ProcurementStandardforGasTurbineMaintenanceandSafety,ANSIB133.12-1981
(Reaffirmed2001),AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers,NewYork,1981.
38. GasTurbinesforthePetroleum,Chemical,andGasIndustryServices,APIStandard616,4th
ed.,AmericanPetroleumInstitute,Washington,D.C.,August1998.
39. RecommendedPracticeforPackagedCombustionGasTurbines,APIRecommended
Practice11PGT,1sted.,AmericanPetroleumInstitute,Washington,D.C.,May1,1992.
40. PerformanceTestCodeonGasTurbines,ASMEPTC22-1997,AmericanSocietyof
MechanicalEngineers,NewYork,1997.
41. GasTransmissionandDistributionPipingSystems,ASMEB31.8-2000,AmericanSocietyof
MechanicalEngineers,NewYork,2000.
68

42. GasTurbinesAcceptanceTests,ISO2314,InternationalOrganizationforStandardization,
GenevaSwitzerland,1999.
43. StandardSpecificationforFuelOils,ASTMDesignation:D396-02,AmericanSocietyof
TestingandMaterials,WestConshohocken,Pennsylvania,2002.
44. StandardSpecificationforDieselFuelOils,ASTMDesignation:D975-03,AmericanSociety
ofTestingandMaterials,WestConshohocken,Pennsylvania,2003.
45. StandardSpecificationforGasTurbineFuelOils,ASTMDesignation:D2880-03,American
SocietyofTestingandMaterials,WestConshohocken,Pennsylvania,2003.
46. NationalFuelGasCode,NFPA54,NationalFireProtectionAssociation,Quincy,
Massachusetts,July19,2002.
47. BoilerandCombustionSystemsHazardsCode,NFPA85,NationalFireProtection
Association,Quincy,Massachusetts,February9,2001.
48. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsforStationaryGasTurbines;
ProposedRule,FederalRegister,68,No.9,18881929,January14,2003.
49. StandardsofPerformanceforStationaryGasTurbines,FederalRegister,68,No.71,17990
18002,April14,2003.
50. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsforStationaryGasTurbines;Final
Rule,FederalRegister,69,No.9,1051210548,March5,2004.
51. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsforStationaryCombustion
TurbinesProposedDelisting,OAR-2003-0189;RIN2060-AK73,U.S.EnvironmentalProtection
Agency,Washington,D.C.
52. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsforStationaryCombustion
TurbinesStayProposal,OAR-2003-0196;RIN2060-AK73,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,
Washington,D.C.
53. GasTurbineWorldHandbook,PequotPublishing,Inc.,Fairfield,Connecticut,2003.
54. CombustionFossilPower,4thed.,ed.J.G.Singer,CombustionEngineering,Inc.,Windsor,
Connecticut,1991.
55. Steam,ItsGenerationandUse,40thed.,eds.S.C.StultzandJ.B.Kitto,BabcockandWilcox,
Barberton,Ohio,1992.
56. ReciprocatingInternalCombustionEnginesPerformancePart1:DeclarationsofPower,Fuel
andLubricatingOilConsumptions,andTestMethodsAdditionalRequirementsforEnginesforGeneral
Use,ISO3046-1,5thed.,InternationalOrganizationforStandardization,Geneva,Switzerland,May1,
2002.
57. PerformanceTestCodeonReciprocatingInternal-CombustionEngines,ASMEPTC17-1973
(Reaffirmed2003),AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers,NewYork,1973.
58. RecommendedPracticeforInstallation,Maintenance,andOperationofInternal-Combustion
Engines,APIRecommendedPractice7C-11F,1sted.,AmericanPetroleumInstitute,Washington,D.C.,
November1,1994.
59. ReciprocatingInternalCombustionEngineDrivenAlternatingCurrentGeneratingSets
Part1:Application,RatingandPerformance,ISO8528-1,1sted.,InternationalOrganizationfor
Standardization,Geneva,Switzerland,January1,1993.
60. ReciprocatingInternalCombustionEngineDrivenAlternatingCurrentGeneratingSets
Part2:Engines,ISO8528-2,1sted.,InternationalOrganizationforStandardization,Geneva
Switzerland,January1,1993.
61. ReciprocatingInternalCombustionEngineDrivenAlternatingCurrentGeneratingSets
Part3:AlternatingCurrentGeneratorsforGeneratingSets,ISO8528-3,1sted.,International
OrganizationforStandardization,Geneva,Switzerland,January1,1993.
69

62. ReciprocatingInternalCombustionEngineDrivenAlternatingCurrentGeneratingSets
Part5:GeneratingSets,ISO8528-5,1sted.,InternationalOrganizationforStandardization,Geneva,
Switzerland,January1,1993.
63. ReciprocatingInternalCombustionEnginesPerformancePart3:TestMeasurements,
ISO3046-3,2nded.,InternationalOrganizationforStandardization,GenevaSwitzerland,January1,
1989.
64. ReciprocatingInternalCombustionEnginesPerformancePart4:SpeedGoverning,
ISO3046-4,2nded.,InternationalOrganizationforStandardization,Geneva,Switzerland,March15,
1987.
65. ReciprocatingInternalCombustionEnginesPerformancePart5:TorsionalVibrations,and
TestMethodsAdditionalRequirementsforEnginesforGeneralUse,ISO3046-5,2nded.,International
OrganizationforStandardization,GenevaSwitzerland,December1,2001.
66. ReciprocatingInternalCombustionEnginesPerformancePart6:OverspeedProtection,
ISO3046-6,3rded.,InternationalOrganizationforStandardization,Geneva,Switzerland,October1,
1990.
67. StandardSpecificationforLiquefiedPetroleum(LP)Gases,ASTMDesignation:D1835-03,
AmericanSocietyofTestingandMaterials,WestConshohocken,Pennsylvania,2003.
68. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsforStationaryReciprocatingInternal
CombustionEngines;ProposedRule,FederalRegister,67,No.244,7783077874,December19,2002.
69. NationalEmissionStandardsforHazardousAirPollutantsforStationaryReciprocatingInternal
CombustionEngines,OAR-2002-0059;RIN2060-AG-63,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,
Washington,D.C.
70. J.H.Hirschenhofer,D.B.Stauffer,R.R.Engleman,andM.G.Klett,FuelCellHandbook,4th
ed.,DOE/FETC-99/1076,U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,OfficeofFossilEnergy,Morgantown,West
Virginia,November1998.
71. PerformanceTestCodeonFuelCellPowerSystemsPerformance,ASMEPTC50-2002,
AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers,NewYork,2002.
72. StandardsfortheInstallationofStationaryFuelCellPowerPlants,NFPA853,NationalFire
ProtectionAssociation,Quincy,Massachusetts,August18,2000.
70




4. HEAT-RECOVERYEQUIPMENT
Heat-recoveryequipmentisusedinCHPsystemstocapturethermalenergyrejectedfromprime
moversandotherheatingsourcesandtomaketherecoveredheatavailableforusefulpurposes.By
extractingthermalenergyfromexhaustgasstreamsandliquidcoolantcircuits,heat-recoveryunitsreduce
fuelconsumptionandtherebyincreaseoverallenergyefficiency.
Simpleheat-recoveryunitsfunctionasheatexchangersbytransferringthermalenergyfromone
systemtoanother.Theseunitsarecharacterizedasunfiredheat-recoveryunitsbecausetheyreceive
thermalenergyfromanindependentheatingsourceandhavenoabilitytogenerateadditionalheat.More
complexunitsarecharacterizedassupplementaryfiredheat-recoveryunitsbecausetheyincludebothheat
transfersurfacesandfuel-firingequipment.Theseunitsaredesignedtosupplementtheheatprovidedby
theprimaryheatingsourcewiththermalenergygeneratedbycombustionofadditionalfuel.Depending
onthedesignoftheinstallationandtheprocessheatingandpowerrequirements,itmaybenecessaryto
usebothfiredandunfiredheat-recoveryunitsinthesameCHPsystem.Codesandstandardsforthe
design,construction,installation,inspection,performance,andtestingofvarioustypesofheat-recovery
equipmentarelistedinTable4.1.
4.1 UNFIREDUNITS
Unfiredheat-recoveryunitsareusedinCHPapplicationstoextractheatrejectedfromreciprocating
engines,gasturbines,microturbines,andfuelcells.Thewasteheatiscontainedinexhaustgasstreams
andliquidcoolantcircuits.Namesthatdescribeunfiredheat-recoveryunitscommonlyusedinCHP
systemsinclude
unfiredHRSG,
heat-recoverymuffler,
regenerator,
recuperator,
ebullientcoolingsystem,
forcedcirculationsystem,
aftercooler,and
heatexchanger.
Thesimplestunfiredheat-recoveryunitsusedinCHPapplicationsareliquid-to-liquidheat
exchangersthatuserejectedheatfromreciprocatingenginejacketcoolantorfuelcellstoincreasethe
temperatureofboilerfeedwater.
1
LargerandmorecomplexHRSGsandheat-recoverymufflersareused
torecoverheatfromgasturbineandreciprocatingengineexhausttoproducesteam.Becauseunfiredheat-
recoveryunitsdonotburnfueltoproduceheat,theyarenotasourceofregulatedairpollutants.
AsdiscussedinSect.3.4,approximately30%oftheenergyinputtoareciprocatingengineis
removedbythejacketcoolantcircuit.
2
Dependingonthedesignofthejacketcoolantsystem,thermal
energyavailablefromthissourcecanberecoveredaseitherhotwaterorlow-pressuresteam.An
additional10%oftheenergyinputtoareciprocatingengineisrejectedintothelubricatingoilsystem.
Muchofthisheatcanberecoveredashotwater.Heatintheformofhotwatercanalsoberecoveredfrom
reciprocatingenginesequippedwithturbochargers.Aturbochargerisanaircompressorthatispowered
byhot,high-velocityexhaustgasesleavingtheengine.Heatexchangersdesignedtocoolthedischargeair
fromturbochargersarecommonlyknownasaftercoolersorintercoolers.Thermalenergyrecoveredfrom
71

Table4.1.Codesandstandardsforheat-recoveryequipment
Designation Title Publisher
APIPublication534,1sted.
APIRecommended
Practice556,1sted.
APIRecommended
Practice572,2nded.
APIRecommended
Practice573,2nded.
ASMEPTC4-1998
ASMEPTC4.3(Reaffirmed
1991)
ASMEPTC4.4-1981
(Reaffirmed2003)
ASMEPTC12.2-1998
ASMEPTC23-1986,
(Reaffirmed1997)
SectionI,2001ASMEBoiler
andPressureVesselCode
SectionIV,2001ASMEBoiler
andPressureVesselCode
SectionVI,2001ASMEBoiler
andPressureVesselCode
SectionVII,2001ASMEBoiler
andPressureVesselCode
ASMEB31.1-2001
ASMEB31.3-2002
ASMEB31.8-2000
ASTMDesignation:D388-99
ASTMDesignation:D396-02
HeatRecoverySteamGenerators
InstrumentationandControlSystemsfor
FiredHeatersandSteamGenerators
InspectionofPressureVessels(Towers,
Drums,Reactors,HeatExchangers,and
Condensers)
InspectionofFiredBoilersandHeaters
PerformanceTestCodeonFiredSteam
Generators
PerformanceTestCodeonAirHeaters
PerformanceTestCodeonGasTurbineHeat
RecoverySteamGenerators
PerformanceTestCodeonSteamSurface
Condensers
PerformanceTestCodeonAtmospheric
WaterCoolingEquipment
PowerBoilers
HeatingBoilers
RecommendedRulesfortheCareand
OperationofHeatingBoilers
RecommendedGuidelinesfortheCareof
PowerBoilers
PowerPiping
ProcessPiping
GasTransmissionandDistributionPiping
Systems
StandardClassificationofCoalsbyRank
StandardSpecificationforFuelOils
AmericanPetroleumInstitute,
Washington,D.C.
3
AmericanPetroleumInstitute,
Washington,D.C.
4
AmericanPetroleumInstitute,
Washington,D.C.
5
AmericanPetroleumInstitute,
Washington,D.C.
6
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
7
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
8
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
9
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
10
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
11
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
12
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
13
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
14
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
15
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
16
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
17
AmericanSocietyofMechanical
Engineers,NewYork
18
AmericanSocietyofTestingand
Materials,West
Conshohocken,
Pennsylvania
19
AmericanSocietyofTestingand
Materials,West
Conshohocken,
Pennsylvania
20
72

Table4.1.(continued)
Designation Title Publisher
NFPA54 NationalFuelGasCode NationalFireProtection
Association,Quincy,
Massachusetts
21
NFPA85 BoilerandCombustionSystemsHazards
Code
NationalFireProtection
Association,Quincy,
Massachusetts
22
NB23 NationalBoardInspectionCode,2001
Edition
TheNationalBoardofBoilerand
PressureVesselInspectors,
Columbus,Ohio
23
reciprocatingengineexhaustgases,whichtypicallyrangefrom700to1,000F,canbeusedtoproduce
high-orlow-pressuresteamorhotwater.Exhaustheat-recoveryunitsforreciprocatingenginescanbe
independentoftheenginecoolingsystemorcombinedintoasingleheat-recoverysystem.Byeffectively
usingheat-recoveryequipment,itispossibletorecoverapproximately70to80%ofthefuelenergyfrom
areciprocatingenginetopping-cycleCHPsystemanduseittoproducepowerandusefulthermal
energy.
24
Exhaustfromgasturbinesandreciprocatingenginescontainssignificantquantitiesofrecoverable
heat,butthehigh-temperatureserviceenvironmentcancreatesignificantdesignchallengesinmaterial
selection,structuralperformance,constructability,andreliability.Heat-recoveryequipmentthatis
suitableforhigh-temperatureexposureisoftenrelativelyexpensive,andmaintenance,repair,and
replacementcostsshouldbeassessedwhenconsideringheat-recoveryequipmentoptions.Althoughthe
overallefficiencyofaCHPsystemisinfluencedbytheeffectivenessofheat-recoveryequipment,some
oftheheatcannotberecoveredforseveralreasons.
Foreffectiveheattransfer,thetemperatureoftheexhaustgasesmustremainabovethetemperatureof
thefluidtobeheated.TemperaturedifferencesorpinchpointsusedtodesignHRSGstypicallyrange
between40and50F,butwhentheHRSGhassufficientheattransfersurfacearea,itispossibleto
reducethepinchpointtoaslowas15F(Ref.25).Pinchpointisdefinedastheminimumdifference
betweentheexhaustgastemperatureandthesaturatedsteamtemperatureintotheHRSGevaporator.
2
Toensureproperflowofexhaustgasesunderallweatherconditions,thetemperatureoftheexhaust
gasstreammustremainsufficientlyhightoallowthegasestorisefromthepointofdischargeintothe
surroundingatmosphere.
Forsulfur-bearingfuels,theexhaustgastemperatureneedstoremainsufficientlyhightoavoid
condensationandthusminimizethepotentialforcorrosion.Stackgasexittemperaturesaregenerally
maintainedat300Formore,buttemperaturesaslowas150Fmaybeappropriateforsome
applicationsandfuels.
2,26
Thelatentheatofthewatervaporintheexhaustgasescanonlyberecoveredbyreducingtheexhaust
gastemperaturetobelow212F.Althoughheat-recoveryunitscanbedesignedtoaccomplishthis
levelofheattransfer,thethreepreviousconstraintsstillapply.
Thefollowingdiscussionsprovideadditionalinformationaboutvarioustypesofunfiredheat-
recoveryequipmentusedinindustrialCHPapplications.
73

4.1.1 UnfiredHeat-RecoverySteamGenerators
UnfiredHRSGsfunctionasheatexchangersbyusingthethermalenergyinhotexhaustgasesto
producesteamandhotwater.Becausehotexhaustgaseseffectivelyserveasfuelfortheseunits,theyare
sometimescalledwasteheat-recoveryboilers(WHRBs).ThemainapplicationofaHRSGiswasteheat
recoveryandsteamproductionfromgasturbineexhaust.
26
ExhaustgasflowthroughaHRSGcanbeeitherhorizontalorvertical.Horizontaldesignsoccupya
largerfootprintthanverticalunits,butverticaldesigns,whicharemorecommoninEurope,areless
vulnerabletothermalcyclingproblems.BothHRSGconfigurationscanbedesignedwithmultiplesteam-
watercircuitstoprovidesteamatdifferentpressures.Theconstructionofthesecircuitsdetermines
whetheraunitisclassifiedasafiretubeorawatertubeHRSG.Othercomponentsincludedinanunfired
HRSGaretheductwork,steamdrum,andstack.WhencommunicatingwithHRSGmanufacturers,itis
importanttodefinewhethertheoperatingmodewillbesteadystateorcyclicbecausethemodeof
operationcanaffectthetypeofequipmentselectedandthedesignofindividualcomponents(Ref.27).
BothofthesefactorscanpotentiallyimpactHRSGmanufacturingcosts.
InwatertubeHRSGs,waterandsteamareconfinedinsidetubesthatareexposedtohotexhaust
gases.Becausethesegasesarenormallyatornearatmosphericpressure,thestructurethatsupportsthe
tubesandconfinestheexhaustgasesdoesnotneedtobedesignedasapressurevessel.Awatertube
HRSGmayhaveasmanyasthreeprimarysteam-watercircuits.Thesecircuitsareknownasthe
evaporator,superheat,andeconomizer.
1. Theevaporatoristhemostimportantcircuit.Aswaterflowsthroughtheevaporator,itisheatedtothe
saturationpointcorrespondingtotheoperatingpressure.Theshapeoftheevaporatortubesdefines
theoverallconfigurationoftheHRSG.CommonconfigurationsincludeD,O,A,I,and
horizontaltubelayoutsthatmaybeassembledtocreatealmostanysizeHRSG.Althoughitis
possibletofabricatesomewatertubeHRSGsinashopandtransportthemtothesiteasacomplete
assembly,largerHRSGsmustbefabricatedassubassemblies,transportedtothesite,andthenfield
erected.
2. Thesuperheaterisusedtoheatthesaturatedvaporthatisproducedinthesteamdrum.Itisnormally
installedinfrontoftheevaporatorwherethehottestpartofthegasstreamislocated.
3. Theeconomizerisusedtopreheatthefeedwaterbeingintroducedtothesystem.Itisnormallylocated
downstreamfromtheevaporatorwheretheexhaustgastemperatureislower.
TominimizepotentialcorrosiondamagetoHRSGcomponents,theeconomizerinlettemperature
andthegasexitorstacktemperatureneedtobecontrolled.Ifsulfurispresentintheexhaustgasstream,
thetemperatureoftheexhaustgasshouldbemaintainedabovetheaciddewpointtokeepacidfrom
condensingandcausingcorrosionofvulnerablematerials.Thistemperaturerangesfromabout150Ffor
sulfur-freenaturalgasto260Fforhigh-sulfurcontentfuels.
26
InfiretubeHRSGs,hotexhaustgasesflowthroughtubesthataresurroundedbyhotwaterand
steam.Thewaterandsteamareconfinedbyaleaktighthousingthatisdesignedasapressurevessel.To
minimizethematerialthicknessofthispressure-retaininghousingandtherebycontrolmaterialand
fabricationcosts,firetubeHRSGsaregenerallyphysicallysmallerthanwatertubeHRSGs.
AlthoughHRSGsandboilersfunctionasheatexchangers,thesizeofaHRSGisoftenlargerthana
conventionalfuel-firedboilerbecausethelowerexhaustgastemperaturesrequireagreaterheattransfer
area,andtherearepracticallimitationsonflowrestrictionproducedbyaHRSG.Excessiveflow
resistanceorback-pressureintheexhaustgasstreamshouldbeavoidedbecausethiscanadverselyaffect
gasturbineoperation.
AHRSGisnormallynotanoff-the-shelfitem.Itsdesigndependsonfactorssuchastheexhaustgas
inlettemperatureandthespecifiedheatoutput.TheselectionandsizingofaHRSGusuallyinvolves
74

providingtheHRSGmanufacturerwithdetailsoftheexhaustgasflowandwiththerequiredtemperature
andpressureconditionsoftheheatoutput.Usingthisinformation,theHRSGmanufactureristhenableto
determinethequantityofheatthatcanberecoveredandtoestimatethedischargetemperatureofthe
exhaustgases.
Boilerownersandoperatorsinterestedingeneratingelectricityandadditionalsteamwithagas
turbinemaywanttoconsideraddinganunfiredHRSGtotheCHPsystem.However,itshouldbenoted
thatanunfiredHRSGcannotproducesteamunlessthegasturbineisoperating.Wherethisoperational
constraintisaconcern,asupplementaryburnerthatoperatesindependentlyfromthegasturbinecanbe
added.UnitswiththisfeatureareknownasfiredHRSGs.InaCHPsystemwithagasturbineandafired
HRSG,analternativesourceofcombustionairmustbesuppliedtotheHRSGwhenthegasturbineisnot
operating.Figure4.1showstheconfigurationofaHRSGthatincludesasupplementaryductburner.
AdditionalinformationaboutsupplementaryfiredHRSGsisprovidedinSect.4.2.1.
4.1.2 Heat-RecoveryMufflers
AlthoughaHRSGcanbeusedtorecoverheatfromreciprocatingengineexhaust,anexhaustgas
heatexchangerknownasaheat-recoverymufflerisgenerallyusedforthispurpose.LikeHRSGs,heat-
recoverymufflersarecapableofgeneratinghotwaterorlow-orhigh-pressuresteamfromthehotexhaust
gasesthattypicallyrangefrom700Fto1,000F,buttheyarealsodesignedtoreduceexhaustgasnoise.
2
Fig.4.1. HRSG.Source:ReprintedfromRef.26.
75

Exhaustgasesfromreciprocatingenginescanvaryintemperatureandcomposition.Consequently,
heatexchangerandstackmanufacturersneedtobeconsultedtodeterminetheminimumstackexit
temperature.Thistemperature,whichmaybe300Formore,influencestheamountofheatthatcanbe
recoveredandusedforprocessapplications.
Duringoperation,heat-recoverymufflersshouldnotcreateexcessiveback-pressureonthe
reciprocatingenginebecausehighback-pressurereducesenginecapacityandincreasestheexhaustgas
temperature.Inselectingthelocationforareciprocatingengine,itisimportanttorealizethatsharpbends
intheexhaustsystempipingcancreateexcessiveback-pressureandshouldbeavoided.
Maintenanceandcleaningofheat-recoverymufflersisimportantforeffectiveheatrecovery.Clean-
outplugs,drains,andbypassesareoftenincludedtomakemaintenanceeasier.Whenusedwithoil-fired
reciprocatingengines,themufflershouldincludeasootblowertoallowperiodiccleaningtoavoidsoot
builduponexhaustgasheatexchangersurfaces.
2
4.1.3 Recuperators
Arecuperatorisagas-to-gasheatexchangerdesignedtoextractheatfromanexhaustgasstreamand
useittoincreasethetemperatureofincomingcombustionair.Termsusedtodescribespecifictypesof
recuperatorsinclude
castironairheaters,
heatpipeairheaters,
plateairheaters,
steamcoilairheaters,and
tubularairheaters.
25,26
Allrecuperatorsrelyontubesorplatestocontinuouslytransferheatfromtheoutgoingexhaustgas
totheincomingcombustionair.Thesecomponentsarearrangedtokeepthetwogasstreamsfrommixing.
Recuperatorsareavailableinawidevarietyofsizesandconfigurations,butmaterialsusedintheir
constructionmustbecarefullyselectedtoavoidproblemsduetocorrosion,erosion,fatigue,andhigh-
temperatureexposure.RecuperatorsareusedinsomegasturbineandmostmicroturbineCHPsystems.
Theyusehotexhaustgasesthatexittheturbinetopreheatthecompressedairgoingtothecombustion
chambertherebyreducingtheamountoffuelneededtoheatthecompressedairtotheturbineinlet
temperature.Dependingontheoperatingparameters,recuperatorscanmorethandoubleefficiency.
Recuperatorsareexpensive,andtheircostsarenormallynotjustifiedunlesstheturbineoperatesfor
alargenumberoffull-powerhoursperyearandthecostoffuelisrelativelyhigh.Oneofthereasons
recuperatorsareexpensiveisbecausetheymustbedesignedtooperateinahigh-temperatureenvironment
wherelargetemperaturedifferencescreatesignificantthermalstresses.Cyclicoperationcanalsoleadto
jointfatigueandleakageresultinginlossofpowerandeffectiveness.
Tominimizepossibleconfusion,notethatrecuperatorsarenotthesameasregenerators,whichare
discussedinSect.4.1.4.Arecuperatorisagas-to-gasheatexchangerthatseparatesthehotandcoldflow
streamsusingsolidheattransfersurfaces.Althougharegeneratorisalsoagas-to-gasheatexchanger,it
includesaninsulatedcontainerfilledwithmetalorceramicshapescapableofabsorbingandstoring
relativelylargeamountsofthermalenergy.Recuperatorshavenothermalenergystoragecapability.
Dependingontheoperatingparameters,recuperatorscansignificantlyimproveenergyefficiency.
76

4.1.4 Regenerators
Aregeneratorisagas-to-gasheatexchangerinwhichheatistransferredindirectlyasaheatstorage
mediumisalternatelyexposedtohotandcoldflowstreams.Periodicexposuretohotandcoldflow
streamscanbeaccomplishedeitherbyrotaryorvalve-switchingdevices.Duringoperation,asmallbut
significantamountofairleakageoccursfromonegasstreamtotheother.
Inprinciple,combustionairsuppliedtoagasturbinecanbepreheatedinaregeneratorusingheat
recoveredfromthehotexhaustgases,butsignificanttechnicalandeconomicissuesareassociatedwith
thisapplication.Difficultiesindesigningaregeneratorthatcanreliablyfunctioninthehigh-temperature
exhaustgasenvironmentandconstructingregeneratorsthatarereasonablypricedaremajorissuesthat
severelyrestrictwidespreaduseofregeneratorsingasturbineCHPapplications.
4.1.5 EbullientCoolingSystems
Ebullientcoolingsystemsareusedtocoolreciprocatingengines.
28
Theyusenaturalcirculationofa
boilingcoolantsuchastreatedwatertoremoveheat.Inoperation,pressurizedcoolantenterstheengine
nearthebottomwheretheheatcausespartofthecoolanttoboil,generatingtwo-phaseflow.Because
onlypartofthecoolantboils,heatrejectionoccursataconstanttemperaturewithlessthermalstressto
theengine.Theformationofbubbleslowersthedensityofthecoolantandcausesnaturalcirculationto
thetopoftheengine.Coolantattheengineoutletismaintainedatsaturatedsteamconditionsandis
usuallylimitedto250Fatamaximumpressureof15psig.Uponexitingtheengine,thetwo-phase
mixtureflowstoasteamseparatorwherethesteamismadeavailableforprocessapplications.Coolantis
returnedtotheenginenearsaturationconditionsandisgenerallyonly2to3Fbelowtheoutlet
temperature.Uniformtemperaturethroughoutthecoolantcircuitextendsenginelifeandcontributesto
improvedcombustionefficiency.
24
Anebullientcoolingsystemisarathersimpleenginecoolingconceptthateliminatestheneedfora
coolantpump,butwhenasystemleakresultsinlossofpressure,steambubblescreatedintheengine
expandrapidly,thecoolantflowisreduced,andtheengineoverheats.Rapidlossofpressurecanresultin
catastrophicenginefailure.
2
4.1.6 ForcedCirculationCoolingSystems
Forcedcirculationcoolingsystemsarecommonlyusedtocoolreciprocatingenginesbyincreasing
thetemperatureofthecirculatingcoolantwithnophasechange.Unlikeebullientcooling,forced
circulationusesacoolantpumptomovecoolantthroughtheclosed-loopcoolingsystem.Dependingon
theengine,forcedcirculationcoolingsystemscanoperateatcoolanttemperaturesfrom190to250F.
Heatrecoveredbythecoolantistransferredtoanothermediumineitheraliquid-to-airoraliquid-to-
liquidheatexchanger.Althoughsomewhatmorecomplex,aforcedcirculationcoolingsystemprovides
greaterengineovertemperatureprotectionthanasimplerebullientcoolingsystem.
4.1.7 Aftercoolers
Aftercoolersaregas-to-liquid(air-to-water)heatexchangersthatremoveheatfromreciprocating
engineturbochargers.Watersuppliedtoanaftercooleristypicallyintherangeof85Fto90F(Ref.2).
Asheatisremovedfromtheturbochargerdischarge,thetemperatureofthewaterflowingthroughthe
aftercoolerincreasestoamaximumofabout160F.Thislowerqualityheatisonlysuitableforincreasing
thetemperatureofboilerfeedwaterorforapplicationsthatrequirehotwater.
77

4.1.8 HeatExchangers
OthertypesofheatexchangersbesidesthosealreadydescribedaresometimesusedinCHPsystems
totransferheatfromgas-to-gas,gas-to-liquid,liquid-to-gas,andliquid-to-liquid.
1,29
Commonusesfor
heatexchangersinCHPsystemsincludetransferofheatfrom
hotwaterorsteamtoairforspaceheatingapplications,
chilledwaterorrefrigeranttoairforspacecoolingapplications,
gasturbinesorreciprocatingengineexhausttoboilerfeedwaterorcombustionair,
fuelcellstackcoolanttoboilerfeedwaterorcombustionair,and
industrialprocessestoboilerfeedwaterorcombustionair.
4.2 FIREDUNITS
Firedheat-recoveryequipmentservestwovitalrolesinCHPapplications.Asheatexchangers,the
equipmentextractsthermalenergyexhaustedfromaheatingsource,andascombustionsystems,the
equipmentuseschemicalenergyinfueltoproduceadditionalthermalenergyfortheprocess.Twotypes
offiredheat-recoveryunitsarecommonlyusedinindustrialCHPapplications.Theseunitsareknownas
supplementaryfiredHRSGsandICIboilers.OptionsforusingHRSGsandICIboilerstorecoverwaste
heatfromprimemoversinCHPsystemsaresummarizedinTable4.2.
Solid,liquid,andgaseousfuelsareroutinelyburnedinfiredheat-recoveryunitstoproducesteamor
hotwaterprovidedtheyareequippedwithappropriatefuelhandling,ashremoval,andemissioncontrol
equipment.DescriptionsoffossilandnonfossilfuelsthatareburnedinproperlyequippedICIboilersand
HRSGsaredescribedinTable4.3.Thetypeandamountofemissionsreleasedintotheatmosphereasa
resultoffuelcombustionvarysignificantlydependingonthetypeoffuelthatisburnedandthe
precombustion,combustion,andpostcombustionemissioncontroltechniquesthatareapplied.Emission
controltechniquesthatareeffectiveinreducingNO
x
,SO
2
,andPMemissionsareprovidedinTables4.4,
4.5,and4.6.
4.2.1 SupplementaryFiredHeat-RecoverySteamGenerators
High-temperatureexhaustgasesfromgasturbinescontainbothsensibleheatandanoxygencontent
of15%ormore.
2
Thisoxygen-richmixturecanbeusedeffectivelyascombustionairtoburnfuelina
supplementaryfiredHRSG.Combustionequipmentforfiringthesupplementaryfuelislocatedwithinthe
ductworkthatconnectsthegasturbinetotheHRSG.Thisequipment,whichiscommonlyreferredtoasa
ductburner,isdesignedtoraisethetemperatureofthegasturbineexhaustfromlessthan1,000Ftoas
highas1,800F(Ref.33).ThepositionofaductburnerinalargeHRSGisshowninFig.4.1.
InformationaboutvariousHRSGdesignsispresentedinSect.4.1.1.
Releaseofchemicalenergyinthesupplementaryfuelresultsinincreasedsteamproduction
comparedtounfiredunits.IncludingaductburnerinaHRSGmakesitpossibletovarytheamountof
steamthatisproducedbycontrollingthesupplementaryfuelsupplytotheburner.Thisflexibilityis
especiallyimportanttoindustrialprocessesthathavevariablesteamdemand.
78

Table4.2.OptionsforusingHRSGsandICIboilerstorecoverwasteheat
Increasetemperatureofboiler PreheatboilerorHRSG
CHPapplication
orHRSGfeedwater combustionair
Gasturbineand
microturbinetopping-
andcombined-cycle
systems
(SeeSects.7.1.2and
7.1.5)
Reciprocatingengine
toppingsystems
(SeeSect.7.1.3)
Fuelcelltoppingsystems
(SeeSect.7.1.4)
Bottoming-cyclesystems
(SeeSect.7.2)
Gas-turbine-based
trigenerationsystems
(SeeSect.7.4)
Connectfeedwaterpipingtogasturbine
exhaustheatexchangertousewaste
heatinexhaustgastoincreasethe
feedwatertemperature.
Connectfeedwaterpipingtoheat-
recoverymuffler,ebullientcooling
system,orforced-circulationcooling
systemtousewasteheatrejectedby
enginetoincreasethefeedwater
temperature.
Connectfeedwaterpipingtofuelcell
heatexchangertouseheatrejectedby
fuelcelltoincreasethefeedwater
temperature.
Connectfeedwaterpipingtoheat
exchangertousewasteheatrejected
bytheindustrialprocessheatsource
toincreasethefeedwatertemperature.
Modifyboilerheattransfersurfacesto
useheatfromtheindustrialprocess
heatsourcetoproducesteam.
Connectfeedwaterpipingtogasturbine
exhaustheatexchangertousewaste
heatinexhaustgastoincreasethe
feedwatertemperature.
Useheatexchangertotransferwasteheat
ingasturbineexhausttofresh
combustionair.
Mixfreshcombustionairwithgasturbine
exhaust,therebyusingwasteheatin
exhaustgasestopreheatcombustion
air.Gasturbineexhaustcontains15%
ormoreoxygenandcansupport
combustion.
Useheatexchangertotransferwasteheat
inreciprocatingengineexhausttofresh
combustionair.
Mixfreshcombustionairwith
reciprocatingengineexhaust,thereby
usingwasteheatinexhaustgasesto
preheatcombustionairprovided
reciprocatingengineexhaustdoesnot
inhibitcombustion.
Useheatinfuelcellexhausttopreheat
combustionair.
Usewasteheatfromindustrialprocess
heatsourcetopreheatcombustionair.
Useheatexchangertotransferwasteheat
ingasturbineexhausttofresh
combustionair.
Mixfreshcombustionairwithgasturbine
exhaust,therebyusingwasteheatin
exhaustgasestopreheatcombustion
air.Gasturbineexhaustcontains15%
ormoreoxygenandcansupport
combustion.
79


Table4.3.Fuelscommonlyburnedtogeneratehotwaterorsteam
Fuel Description
By-product/waste Anyliquidorgaseoussubstanceproducedatchemicalmanufacturingplantsorpetro-
leumrefineries(exceptnaturalgas,distillateoil,orresidualoil)andcombustedina
steamgeneratingunitforheatrecoveryorfordisposal
Biomass Organicmatterthatisusedasfueliscalledbiomass;biomassisanonfossilfuelthat
includesmaterialssuchaswood,bagasse,nuthulls,ricehulls,corncobs,coffee
grounds,andtobaccostems
Coal Coalisabrown-to-blackcombustiblesedimentaryrocklikematerialcomposedprinci-
pallyofconsolidatedandchemicallyalteredplantmaterialthatgrewinprehistoric
forests;itincludesallsolidfuelclassifiedasanthracite,bituminous,subbituminous,
orlignitecoal,coalrefuse,orpetroleumcoke.
Coalrefuse Wasteproductsofcoalmining,physicalcoalcleaning,andcoalpreparationoperations
containingcoal,matrixmaterial,clay,andotherorganicandinorganicmaterials.
Distillateoil Fueloilsthatcontain0.05wt%nitrogenorlessandcomplywiththespecificationsfor
fueloilNos.1and2asdefinedinASTMD396(Ref.20)
MSWandRDF Refuse,morethan50%ofwhichiswastecontainingamixtureofpaper,wood,yard
waste,foodwastes,plastics,leather,rubber,andothernoncombustiblematerialssuch
asmetal,glass,androck,whichareusuallyremovedpriortocombustion
Naturalgas Anaturallyoccurringmixtureofhydrocarbongasesfoundingeologicformations
beneaththeearthssurface,ofwhichtheprincipalconstituentismethane,orLPgas
asdefinedinASTMD1835(Ref.30)
Oil Crudeoilorpetroleumoraliquidfuelderivedfromcrudeoilorpetroleum,including
distillateandresidualoil
Propane Propaneisaheavygaseousfossilfuelprocessedfromcrudepetroleumandnaturalgas
Residualoil CrudeoilandfueloilNos.1and2thathavenitrogencontentgreaterthan0.05wt%,
andallfueloilNos.4,5,and6asdefinedinASTMD396(Ref.20)
Solvent-derivedfuel Anysolid,liquid,orgaseousfuelderivedfromsolidfuelforthepurposeofcreating
usefulheatandincludes,butisnotlimitedto,solvent-refinedcoal,liquefiedcoal,
andgasifiedcoal
TDF TDF,asdescribedinASTMD6700(Ref.31),consistsofwholescraptiresina
chippedformforuseasfuel
Verylowsulfuroil Oilthatcontainsnomorethan0.5wt%sulfurandthat,whencombustedwithoutSO
2
emissioncontrol,hasaSO
2
emissionsrateequaltoorlessthan215-ng/J
(0.5-lb/MMBtu)heatoutput
Wood Wood,woodresidue,bark,oranyderivativefuelorresiduethereof,inanyform,
including,butnotlimitedto,sawdust,sanderdust,woodchips,scraps,slabs,
millings,shavings,andprocessedpelletsmadefromwoodorotherforestproducts
Woodresidue Bark,sawdust,slabs,chips,shavings,milltrim,andotherwoodproductsderivedfrom
woodprocessingandforestmanagementoperations
Source:Ref.32.
80

Table4.4.Techniquesforcontrollingemissionsbeforecombustion
Emission Controltechnique Description
NO
x
Switchtofuelwithalow-
nitrogencontent
Removingnitrogenfromfuelpriortocombustionisgenerallynot
practical,butswitchingtofuelwithalow-nitrogencontentisan
effectivetechniqueforreducingNO
x
emissions.Thelevelofnitrogen
innaturalgasisgenerallylow,andfueloiltypicallyhasalower
nitrogencontentthancoal.
SO
2
Switchtofuelwithalow-
sulfurcontent
Switchingfromhigh-tolow-sulfurfuelisaneffectivetechniquefor
reducingSO
2
emissions.
Performbeneficiation Cleaningsolidfuelsuchascoalbymechanical,chemical,orothermeans
isaneffectivetechniqueformaximizingthequalityofthefuel.
Eliminatingnoncombustiblesulfur-bearingmaterialslikepyritesand
sulfatespriortocombustioncanreduceSO
2
emissions.
Refiningpetroleumtoproducedistillateoilisaneffectiveprocessing
techniquethatdecreasesthesulfurcontentofthefuel.Removingsulfur-
bearingcompoundspriortocombustionisaneffectivetechniquefor
reducingSO
2
emissions.
Processingnaturalgasbyremovinghydrogensulfideeliminatesthe
possibilityofSO
2
emissionsduringcombustion.
PM Switchtofuelwithalow-
ashcontent
Switchingfromsolidfuelsuchascoal,whichhasahigh-ashcontent,to
oilornaturalgasisaneffectivetechniqueforreducingPMemissions.
Performbeneficiation Cleaningsolidfuelsuchascoalbymechanical,chemical,orothermeans
isaneffectivetechniqueformaximizingthequalityofthefuel.
Eliminatingnoncombustible,ash-producingmaterialslikemetals,sand,
glass,androckpriortocombustioncanbeaveryeffectivetechnique
forreducingPMemissions.
Refiningpetroleumintodistillateoilisaneffectiveprocessingtechnique
thatdecreasestheashcontentofthefuel.Removingashpriorto
combustionisaneffectivetechniqueforreducingPMemissions.
Table4.5.Techniquesforcontrollingemissionsduringcombustion
Emission Controltechnique Description
NO
x
Operationalmodifications
Oxygentrim(OT)
Burnertuning(BT)
Lowexcessair(LEA)
Stagedcombustionair(SCA)
Burnersoutofservice
(BOOS)
Biasedfiring(BF)
Overfireair(OFA)
Steamorwaterinjection
(SI/WI)
Minimizingtheamountofexcessoxygensuppliedtotheboilercan
reducethermalNO
x
formation.OT,BT,andLEAcansometimesbe
usedtosuccessfullyoptimizetheoperationofburnersby
minimizingexcessairwithoutexcessivelyincreasingunburnedfuel.
Stagingtheamountofcombustionairthatisintroducedintothe
burnerzonecanreducetheflametemperatureandtherebyreduce
thermalNO
x
formation.Formultiburnerunits,takingcertainBOOS
canbeaneffectivetechniqueforstagingcombustion.Biasingthe
fuelflowtodifferentburnerscanalsobeaneffectivetechnique.
InjectingairintotheboilerabovethetopburnerlevelthroughOFA
portscandecreasetheprimaryflamezoneoxygenleveland
produceanair-richsecondaryzonewherecombustioniscompleted.
QuenchingthecombustionprocesswithWIorSIcanlowerthepeak
flametemperatureandresultinreducedthermalNO
x
production.
81

Table4.5.(continued)
Emission Controltechnique Description
Fluegasrecirculation(FGR) Recirculatingaportionofthefluegastothecombustionzonecan
lowerthepeakflametemperatureandresultinreducedthermal
NO
x
production.
Reducingairpreheat(RAP) Reducingtheairpreheattemperaturewhenpreheatisusedcanlower
thepeakflametemperatureandresultinreducedthermalNO
x
production.
Low-NO
x
burner(LNB) UsingLNBscanreduceNO
x
formationthroughcarefulcontrolofthe
fuel-airmixtureduringcombustion.Controltechniquesusedin
LNBsincludestagedair,stagedfuel,andFGR,aswellasother
methodsthateffectivelylowertheflametemperature.
Fuel-inducedrecirculation
(FIR)
AnNO
x
reductiontechniqueapplicabletoboilersthatburngaseous
fuels.FIRissimilartoFGRexceptaportionofthefluegasis
mixedwithnaturalgasinsteadofcombustionair.Theeffectofthis
mixtureonthecombustionprocessistoreducethepeakflame
temperature.
Naturalgasreburning(NGR) Introducingnaturalgasdownstreamofthemainfuelcombustionzone
canreduceNO
x
emissions.Thenaturalgascombustionproducts
stripoxygenfromNO
x
moleculesproducedbycombustionofthe
primaryfuel,therebycreatingharmlessmolecularnitrogen.
SO
2
Limestoneordolomitecanbe
introducedintofluidized
bedcombustion(FBC)
boilerstoserveasasulfur-
capturesorbent
ControllingSO
2
emissionsduringcombustioninanFBCboilercanbe
accomplishedbyfeedinglimestoneordolomiteintothebedwhere
calciumoxidereactswithSO
2
forasulfur-ladensorbentthatis
removedaseitherbottomorflyash.
ExceptforFBCboilers,no
techniquesareavailableto
effectivelyremoveSO
2
duringcombustion
ReducingSO
2
emissionscanbeaccomplishedbyeitherremoving
sulfurcompoundsfromthefuelpriortocombustionoremploying
fluegasdesulfurization(FGD)techniquesaftercombustion(see
Tables4.4and4.6).
PM Operationalmodifications Unburnedcarbonparticlescansometimesbereducedbyadjustingthe
combustionprocessorchangingcertainfuelpropertiessuchas
fineness.
Notechniquesareavailableto
effectivelyremovenon-
combustiblePMduring
combustion
ControllingnoncombustiblePMemissionsismosteffectively
accomplishedaftercombustionbyremovingfineparticlesdispersed
inthefluegas(seeTable4.6).
82

Table4.6.Techniquesforcontrollingemissionsaftercombustion
Emission Controltechnique Description
NO
x
Selectivecatalyticreduction ReducingNO
x
emissionscanbeaccomplishedusingtheSCR
(SCR) techniqueinwhichareductant(ammoniagas)isinjectedinthe
flue-gasstreambeforeitpassesthroughacatalystbed.This
techniquedisassociatesNO
x
tonitrogengasandwatervapor.
Selectivenoncatalytic ReducingNO
x
emissionscanalsobeaccomplishedusingthe
reduction(SNCR) SNCRtechniqueinwhichareagentisinjectedintheflue-gas
streamwhereNO
x
isreducedtonitrogengasandwatervapor.
Ammoniagasandaqueousureaarethetworeagentsmostoften
usedforthispurpose.
SCONOX ReducingNO
x
emissionsisnowpossibleusingtheSCONOX
CatalyticAbsorptionSystemdevelopedbyGoalLine
EnvironmentalTechnologies,LLC.Thissystemusesa
potassiumcarbonate(K
2
CO
3
)coatedcatalysttoreduceoxideof
nitrogenemissions.ThecatalystoxidizesCOtoCO
2
andNOto
NO
2
.TheCO
2
isexhausted,whiletheNO
2
absorbsontothe
catalysttoformpotassiumnitrites(KNO
2
)andpotassium
nitrates(KNO
3
).Dilutehydrogengasispassedperiodically
acrossthesurfaceofthecatalysttoregeneratetheK
2
CO
3
coating.TheregenerationcycleconvertstheKNO
2
andKNO
3
toK
2
CO
3
,water,andelementalnitrogen.TheK
2
CO
3
isthereby
madeavailableforfurtherabsorption,andthewaterand
nitrogenareexhausted.
SO
2
FGDusing RemovingSO
2
fromfluegasismostoftenaccomplishedinawet
scrubberwherethefluegasiscontactedwithanaqueousslurry
nonregenerable
oflimeorlimestone.Reactionsbetweenthelimeorlimestone
(throwaway)processes
andtheSO
2
produceacalciumsaltwasteproduct.
regenerable(recovery)
processes
Circulatingasodium-basedcompoundthroughascrubberwill
alsoreduceSO
2
emissions.Effluentfromthescrubberisthen
mixedwithlimeorlimestonetoproduceacalcium-sulfurwaste
product.
Injectingacalcium-basedsorbentsuchaslimeintotheflue-gas
steamisalsoaneffectivetechniqueforreducingSO
2
emissions.Methodssuchassprayabsorption,spraydrying,or
semiwetscrubbingproduceadrywasteproductthatiscollected
alongwiththePM.
RemovingSO
2
dispersedinfluegascanbeaccomplishedbyvari-
ousadvancedFGDtechniques.Resultingsulfurcompounds
thathavevalueincludegypsum(wallboard),sulfur,andsulfuric
acid.
PM Cycloneseparator SeparatingPMdispersedinfluegascanbeaccomplishedusinga
mechanicalcollectorknownasacyclone.Separationis
achievedastheparticlesaresubjectedtocentrifugalandgravi-
tationalforces.Insidethecyclone,solidparticlesexitthrough
anopeninginthebottom,andthecleanedfluegasexitsthrough
anopeninginthetop.
83

Table4.6.(continued)
Emission Controltechnique Description
Wetscrubber RemovingPMdispersedinfluegascanbeaccomplishedusinga
wetscrubberinwhichtheparticlesimpactwaterdroplets.A
spraytowerisonetypeoflow-pressure-dropwetscrubber,and
aventuri-typescrubberisahigh-pressure-dropwetscrubber.
Electrostaticprecipitator Chargingparticlesthataredispersedinfluegaswithelectrical
(ESP) energyisaneffectivetechniqueforreducingPMemissions.In
adryESP,theparticlesareelectricallychargedandthen
attractedtoacollectingsurfaceratherthandischargedintothe
atmosphere.Particlesthataccumulateonthecollectingsurfaces
areperiodicallyremovedbysonichornsormechanicalrappers
thatdislodgethedustcakeandallowittofallintoahopper
locatedatthebottomoftheESP. InawetESP,aliquidisused
tocleanthecollectingsurfaces.WetESPsfindtheirgreatest
useinapplicationswherecollectionofsubmicronparticlesis
desirable(Ref.34).
Fabricfilter(baghouse) CollectingPMdispersedinfluegascanbeaccomplishedby
allowingtheparticle-ladengastoflowthroughafabricfilter.
Thesefine-meshfiltersarelocatedinsideagas-tightstructure
knownasabaghouse.
Electrostaticallystimulated RemovingPMdispersedinfluegascanalsobeaccomplished
fabricfilter(ESFF) usingESFFtechnology.Thistechnique,whichhasbeen
patentedbyEPA,useshigh-voltagedischargeelectrodesin
combinationwithfabricfilters.Itisfundamentallyan
electrostaticprecipitatorthatusesfabricfiltersinsteadof
collectingplates.Thistechniqueresultsincollection
efficienciesthatarehigherthanthoseachievedbyeithercurrent
fabricfilterorelectrostaticprecipitatortechnology.
MostsupplementaryfiredHRSGsburnnaturalgas,butdesignsareavailableforburningother
gaseousorliquidfuels.TominimizeNO
x
emissions,lowNO
x
burnerswithguaranteedemissionslevels
aslowas0.08lb/MMBtuNO
x
canbeusedasductburners.
33
Unlikegasturbines,reciprocatingenginesdonotoperatewithlargequantitiesofexcessair,sothe
oxygencontentoftheexhaustgasesgenerallydoesnotexceed8%.Withanoxygencontentthislow,
recoveringheatfromreciprocatingengineexhaustgasesinasupplementaryfiredHRSGisgenerallynot
possiblebecausetheexhaustgasesareincapableofsupportingadditionalcombustion.
2
Heatrecovery
fromreciprocatingenginescanbeachievedusingaheat-recoverymufflerthatfunctionsasanunfired
heatexchangerdescribedinSect.4.1.2.
4.2.2 Industrial,Commercial,andInstitutionalBoilers
BoilersforICIusearedesignedprimarilytousethechemicalenergyinfueltoraisethetemperature
ofwatersothatitcanbeusedforprocessandheatingapplications.
35
InCHPapplications,ICIboilerscan
alsofunctionasfiredheat-recoveryunitsdesignedtouseheatrejectedfromprimemoversandother
heatingsourcestoproducemoresteamwithlessfuel.Whenusedinthiscapacity,ICIboilersareoften
characterizedaswasteheat-recoveryboilers.
Ingeneral,ICIboilersaresmallerandmoreversatilethanmostpowerboilersusedbyutilitiesto
produceelectricity.Theyaremanufacturedinawiderangeofsizestoburncoal,oil,naturalgas,and
84

biomassaswellasotherfuelsandfuelcombinations.MostICIboilersareclassifiedaseitherwatertube
orfiretubeboilers,butotherdesignssuchascastiron,coil-type,andtubeless(steelshell)boilersarealso
produced.
32
Firetubeboilersconsistofaseriesofstraighttubesthatarehousedinsideawater-filledoutershell.
Thetubesarearrangedsothathotcombustiongasesflowthroughthetubes.Ashotgasesflowthrough
thetubes,theyheatthewaterthatsurroundsthetubes.Thewaterisconfinedbytheoutershellofthe
boilerthatisdesignedasapressurevessel.Toavoidtheneedforexcessivelythickmaterials,firetube
boilersareusedforlower-pressureapplications.Firetubeboilersaresubdividedintothreegroups.
Horizontalreturntubular(HRT)boilerstypicallyhavehorizontal,self-containedfiretubeswithaseparate
combustionchamber.Scotch,Scotchmarine,orshellboilershavethefiretubesandcombustionchamber
housedwithinthesameshell.Fireboxboilershaveawater-jacketedfireboxandemploy,atmost,three
passesofcombustiongases.BoilerconfigurationsforeachtypeareshowninFigs.4.2to4.4,
respectively.
Watertubeboilersaredesignedtocirculatehotcombustiongasesaroundtheoutsideofalarge
numberofwater-filledtubes.Thetubesextendbetweenanupperheader,calledasteamdrum,andoneor
morelowerheadersordrums.Inolderdesigns,thetubesareeitherstraightorbentintosimpleshapes.
Newerboilershavetubeswithcomplexanddiversebends.Becausethepressureisconfinedinsidethe
tubes,watertubeboilerscanbefabricatedinlargersizesandusedforhigher-pressureapplications.Small
watertubeboilers,whichhaveoneandsometimestwoburners,aregenerallyfabricatedandsuppliedas
packagedunits.Becauseoftheirsizeandweight,largewatertubeboilersareoftenfabricatedinpieces
andassembledinthefield.Configurationsforpackagedandfield-erectedwatertubeboilersareshownin
Figs.4.5and4.6,respectively.
Heatrejectedbyaprimemovercanbeusedtoincreasethetemperatureoftheboilerfeedwateror
preheatthecombustionairthatissuppliedtotheboiler.WhenanICIboilerisusedinaCHPsystem,itis
importanttorecognizethatchangestotheboilerdesign,pipingandductworksystems,boilercontrol
scheme,oremissioncontrolandmonitoringsystemsmaybenecessaryforittofunctioneffectivelyasa
firedheat-recoveryunit.OptionsforusingICIboilersforwasteheatrecoveryaresummarizedin
Table4.2.
Fig.4.2. ConfigurationofHRTfiretubeboiler.
85

Fig.4.3. ConfigurationofScotchpackagefiretubeboiler.Source:ReprintedfromRef.36.
Fig.4.4. Configurationoffireboxfiretubeboiler.Source:ReprintedfromRef.36.
86

Fig.4.5. Configurationofpackagewatertubeboiler.Source:ReprintedfromRef.36.
Fig.4.6. Configurationoffield-erectedwatertubeboiler.Source:ReprintedfromRef.36.
ComplexchangesinsteamsupplyandboilerfeedwaterreturnsystemsmayberequiredforanICI
boilertoeffectivelyuseheatrejectedfromaprimemover.Forexample,speciallydesignedductworkmay
berequiredtousegasturbineexhaustascombustionairfortheboiler,andadditionalpipingmayneedto
beconstructedtousehotwaterfromafuelcelltoincreasethetemperatureofboilerfeedwater.Insome
cases,itmaynotbetechnicallyoreconomicallyfeasibletochangetheconfigurationofanexistingboiler
sothatitcanfunctionasafiredheat-recoveryunit.Thisisespeciallytruewhenadditionalheattransfer
surfacesmustbeaddedinsideaboilertocreateindependentloopsforclosed-cycleoperations.
87


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Equipment,AmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-ConditioningEngineers,Inc.,Atlanta,
Georgia,July6,2000.
29. EnergyEfficiencyHandbook,CouncilofIndustrialBoilerOwners,Burke,Virginia,November
1997.
30. IndustrialSteamSystemHeat-TransferSolutions,DOE/GO-102003-1738,U.S.Departmentof
Energy,Washington,D.C.,June2003.
31. StandardSpecificationforLiquefiedPetroleum(LP)Gases,ASTMDesignation:D1835-03,
AmericanSocietyofTestingandMaterials,WestConshohocken,Pennsylvania,2003.
32. StandardPracticeforUseofScrapTire-DerivedFuel,ASTMDesignation:D6700-01,
AmericanSocietyofTestingandMaterials,WestConshohocken,Pennsylvania,2001.
33. C.B.Oland,GuidetoLow-EmissionBoilerandCombustionEquipmentSelection,
ORNL/TM-2002/19,OakRidgeNationalLaboratory,OakRidge,Tennessee,April2002.
34. TechnologyCharacterization:GasTurbines,preparedbyEnergyNexusGroupfortheU.S.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,Washington,D.C.,February2002.
35. WetElectrostaticPrecipitationDemonstratingPromiseforFineParticulateControl,Power
Engineering,PennWellCorp,Tulsa,Oklahoma,January2001.
36. ImprovingSteamSystemPerformance:ASourcebookforIndustry,DOE/GO-102002-1557,
preparedbyLawrenceBerkeleyNationalLaboratoryfortheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,
D.C.,June2002.
37. GuidelineforGasandOilEmissionFactorsforIndustrial,Commercial,andInstitutional(ICI)
Boilers,AmericanBoilerManufacturersAssociation,Arlington,Virginia,1997.
89

90


5. ELECTRICPOWERGENERATION
PowerproducedbyaCHPsystemisalmostalwaysintheformofelectricalenergy.Theelectricity
maybeusedonsitetoreducepowerpurchasesorexportedtothegridforresale.EvenforCHPsystems
thatproducemorepowerthantheyconsume,connectiontotheelectricalgridisgenerallynecessaryfor
eithersupplementaryoremergencypower.SmallerCHPsystemscanoftenbedesignedsopoweronly
flowsinonedirectionfromtheutilitytothesite.AlthoughCHPsystemscanbedevelopedandoperated
withoutrelyingonutilitypower,connectionoftheCHPsystemtotheelectricalgridisgenerallypreferred
becauseitprovidesincreasedreliabilityandoperatingflexibility.Thefollowingtextdiscusseselectrical
generatorsandinverterscommonlyusedtoproduceelectricityanddescribesissuesassociatedwith
connectingtheelectricalgridtothesiteelectricaldistributionsystem.
5.1 ELECTRICALGENERATORS
Anelectricalgeneratorisanelectromagneticdevicethatconvertsmechanicalorshaftpowerinto
electricalenergy.Mechanicalpowerisgenerallyprovidedbyaturbineorenginethatisconnectedtothe
generatorshaft.Agearboxissometimesincludedaspartoftheconnection,sothegeneratorandprime
movercanrotateatadifferentspeeds.
Allelectricalgeneratorsproduceelectromotiveforceorvoltagedifferentialbymovingaconductor
throughamagneticfield.Thevoltagedifferenceisproportionaltothestrengthofthemagneticfieldand
thespeedwithwhichtheconductormovesrelativetothefield.Dependingonthedesign,ageneratorcan
produceeitheralternatingcurrent(ac)ordirectcurrent(dc)power. IntheUnitedStates,thestandard
frequencyforacis60Hertz(Hz),sorotationalspeedofelectricalgeneratorsisamultipleof60,typically
1,200,1,800,or3,600revolutionsperminute(rpm).Thedcpowerproducedbyanelectricalgenerator
canbeconvertedtoacpowerusingadeviceknownasaninverter.
Mostofthepowerproducedbyanelectricalgeneratorisusedtoproducerealwork;however,notall
energyinacircuitisusedproductively.Someoftheenergymaybestoredinvariouscomponentssuchas
motorsandtransformerswithinthecircuit.Realpowerisanindicationoftheamountofenergythat
performsrealworkandistypicallymeasuredinunitsofwattsorkilowatts(kW).Insimpleresistive
circuits,realpowerisdefinedastheproductofcurrentflowingthroughthecircuitandthevoltageacross
thecircuit.Reactivepowerisameasureoftheamountofenergystoredinanelectricalcircuitthat
performsnorealwork.Thisenergy,whichmaybestoredinmagneticfieldsoftransformersandmotors
orinelectromotivefieldsincapacitors,isexpressedinunitsofkilovolt-amperes-reactive(kVAR).The
totalpowerproducedbyanelectricalgeneratorisreferredtoasapparentpowerandismeasuredinunits
ofkilovolt-amperes(kVA).
Mathematically,apparentpoweristhevectorsumoftherealandreactivepowercomponents.
PowertrianglessuchastheoneshowninFig.5.1aretypicallyusedtorepresentthisrelationship.The
ratiobetweenrealpowerandapparentpowerisreferredtoaspowerfactor.Itisameasureofthe
efficiencywithwhichthetotalpowerdeliveredbyasourceisusedforrealwork.Thenumericalvalueof
powerfactorequalsthecosineoftheanglebetweenrealandapparentpower.So,asreactivepower
increasesforagivenamountofrealpower,thepowerfactordecreases.Powerfactorscanrangefrom0
to1andcanbeeitherinductive(lagging)orcapacitive(leading),dependingonwhetherthecurrentthat
flowsthroughacircuitlagsorleadsthevoltage.Mostindustrialfacilitieshaveinductiveloadssuchas
electricinductionmotorswithwindingsthatactasinductorsandthustypicallyhavelaggingpower
factors.
Whenthepowerfactorforacircuitequals1,thecurrentandvoltageareinphaseandallpoweris
beingusedforrealwork.Inmostothercircuitswherereactiveloadsarepresent,thecurrentandvoltage
areoutofphaseasshowninFig.5.2,andthepowerfactordecreasesasmuchofthesourcecapacityis
beingusedforenergythatisstoredratherthanbeingusedforrealwork.Becausethemostusefulpower
91

RealPower
ApparentPower
(kVA)
ReactivePower
(kVAR)
(kW)
Fig.5.1. Powertriangle.
Current
Voltage
Fig.5.2. Phasedifferencebetweencurrent
andvoltagecausedbyreactiveload.
isdeliveredwhenvoltageandcurrentareinphase,itisimportanttokeepthepowerfactorascloseto1as
possible.
1
Inaddition,someutilitiesdiscouragelowpowerfactorseitherbyrequiringaminimumpower
factororapplyingacostpenaltytoconsumerswithlowpowerfactors.Itiscommontocorrectpower
factorproblemscausedbymotors,transformers,andinductiveheatersbyaddingcapacitancetothe
electricalcircuit.
2
Whenageneratorratingisspecifiedbyitsrealpoweroutput,twofactorsarerequired:(1)thetotal
realpowerexpressedinkilowatts,and(2)thepowerfactorexpressedasafraction.Ageneratorsreal
poweroutputiscommonlyspecifiedinkilowattsatan80%powerfactor,butotherpowerfactorscanalso
beused.Generatorsthatproduceacpowerarecategorizedaseithersynchronousorinductiongenerators,
dependingonthesourceofthereactivepowerthatisrequiredtocreatethemagneticfield.
5.1.1 SynchronousGenerators
Synchronousgeneratorsprovidetheirownsourceofreactivepower.Consequently,theyarecapable
ofgeneratingelectricitywithoutrelyingonanexternalsourceofpowersuchastheelectricalgrid.This
characteristicmakessynchronousgeneratorswellsuitedforemergencypowerapplicationsandforCHP
systemsthatneedtooperateeveniftheelectricalgridisdisconnected.
Therearetwobasictypesofsynchronousgenerators.Themostcommontypeistheself-excitedor
brushlesssynchronousgenerator.Thesegeneratorshavetwoseparategeneratorsthatperformdifferent
functions.Thesmallergeneratorproducesadcmagneticfield,whilethelargergeneratorproducesac
electricpower.Voltageoutputfromaself-excitedgeneratoriscontrolledbyvaryingthevoltagethat
92

producesthemagneticfield.Separatelyexcitedsynchronousgeneratorsuseapermanentmagnetrather
thanelectricitytoproducethemagneticfield.
2
Inpractice,permanentmagnetsynchronousgeneratorsare
notusedveryoftenbecausepermanentmagnetstendtobecomedemagnetizedbyworkinginthepowerful
magneticfieldsinsideagenerator,andpowerfulmagnetsmadeofrareearthmetals(e.g.,neodynium)are
relativelyexpensive.
Whenasynchronousgeneratorisconnectedtotheelectricalgrid,thefrequency,voltage,andphase
anglearedeterminedbythegrid.Consequently,CHPsystemswithsynchronousgeneratorsneeda
mechanismforsafelysynchronizingtothegrid.Whenasynchronousgeneratorisnotconnectedtothe
grid,theCHPsystemneedsequipmentforpreciselycontrollingfrequencyandvoltage.
3
Besides
producingelectricity,synchronousgeneratorscanbeoperatedinamodethatwillcompensateforalow
sitepowerfactor.
5.1.2 InductionGenerators
Inductiongeneratorsaresimplymotorsthataredrivenabovetheirsynchronousspeed.Inoperation,
aninductiongeneratordrawspowerfromanexternalpowersourcesuchastheelectricalgridtocreatea
magneticfield.Theinteractionofthemagneticfieldsproducesatorqueonthemotorshaftandcausesthe
generatortooperateasamotor.Powerdeliveredbythemotordependsonthedifferencebetweenthe
motorsrotationalspeedanditssynchronousspeed.Whenmechanicalpowerflowsintothemotor,the
speedexceedsthesynchronousspeed,andthemotoroperatesasagenerator.Becauseaninduction
generatorrequiresanexternalpowersource,themagneticfielddisappears,andthedevicenolonger
functionsasageneratorassoonasreactivepowerfromthesourceisinterrupted.Inductiongeneratorsare
generallyfoundinsmallerCHPsystemsbecausetheyarerelativelyinexpensiveandtheirsynchronization
withtheelectricalgridonlyrequiresaminimumofprotectiverelaying.Theyareusedmostoftenin
packageCHPsystemsof300kWorless.
2
Althoughinductiongeneratorscannotoperateeffectivelywithoutexternalpower,thegenerator
inductancecaninteractwithnearbycapacitancetocreateanoscillatingcircuitwheneverexternalpoweris
interrupted.Thisinteractionallowsthegeneratortoself-exciteforaperiodoftimebeforedecayingaway.
Whilethistypeofoperationcanproducesignificantvoltages,ingeneralthegeneratordoesnotoperateat
thesynchronousspeed,andfrequencyorreversepowerrelaysarerequiredtokeepthegeneratorfrom
operatingasamotor.
Thepowerfactorofloadsservedbytheelectricalgridwillworsenwhenaninductiongeneratoris
connectedtothegridandthepowerfromtheCHPsystemisusedonsite.Thisconditionoccursbecause
theinductiongeneratorincreasesthereactiveloadservedbythegrid,anditreducestherealpowerdrawn
fromthegrid.Correctingthistypeofpowerfactorproblemoftenrequiresinstallingcapacitors.Theneed
forthesecapacitorsisanissuethatshouldbeconsideredwhenassessingthetechnicalandeconomic
viabilityofcogenerationtechnology.
5.2 INVERTERS
Aninverterisanelectricaldevicethatconvertsdcpowertoacpower.Mostinvertersoperateby
cuttingthedcpowerintoaseriesofblocksorsquarewavesatanumberofdifferentfrequencies.These
blocksarethenelectricallysummedtocreateavoltagewaveformthatapproximatestherequiredac.
Voltageandfrequencyoutputfromaninverterarecontrolledbythevoltageandfrequencyofthe
electricalgrid.
3
FuelcellsforindustrialCHPsystems,whichareonlycapableofproducingdcpower,normally
includeappropriatelysizedinvertersforconditioningthegeneratedpower.Invertersarealsousedwith
single-shaftmicroturbinesthatoperateathighspeeds(morethan60,000rpm)andgenerateelectricpower
withvariablefrequency.Thispowerisrectifiedtodcandtheninvertedtostandard60-Hzac.
93

5.3 CONTROLSYSTEMS
ControlsystemsarerequiredinmostCHPapplicationstosynchronizetheoperationoftwoormore
sourcesofpowerservingacommonload.Thismayinvolvesynchronizingtwogeneratorsatasite,a
generatortotheelectricalgrid,ormultiplegeneratorstoeachotherandtheelectricalgrid.Electrical
devicesusedincontrolsystemsincludecircuitbreakersandfuses,relays,transferswitches,transformers,
andmicroprocessors.
Circuitbreakersandfusesautomaticallyopenorbreakanelectricalcircuitwhenspecifiedconditions
suchashighcurrentoccurforaprescribedperiod.Relaysmonitorelectricalconditionsinacircuit
includingvoltage,current,power,frequency,phaseimbalance,anddirectionofpowerflowandsignala
circuitbreakertoopenwhenprescribedconditionsarenotsatisfied.Transferswitchesareusedtotransfer
aloadfromonesourcetoanotherasinemergencieswhenthesiteloadistransferredfromtheelectrical
gridtoanemergencygenerator.TransformersservevitalrolesinmatchingCHPgeneratedvoltagetothe
electricalgrid,changingvoltageconfigurations,providingelectricalisolationbetweentheCHPsystem
andelectricalgrid,andimprovingpowerqualitybyreducingharmonicsandvoltagedisturbances.
Microprocessor-basedmonitorsandcontroldevicesareusedforrelayingfunctions;tomonitorCHP
systemperformance;andtomanageoperationsincludingstart-up,steady-state,shutdown,andemergency
conditions.ThisequipmentiscriticaltothesafeandefficientoperationofaCHPsystem.Additional
informationaboutCHPsystemcontrolsisavailablefromtheAmericanSocietyofHeating,Refrigerating
andAir-ConditioningEngineers(ASHRAE),Inc.
4
5.4 SAFETY
Safetyisamajorconcernwithinterconnectionofdispersedgeneratorsbecauseworkersperforming
routinemaintenanceorrepairstofaultytransmissionordistributionlinescanbeexposedtoanelectrical
hazardknownasislanding.
3
Thisphenomenoncanpotentiallyoccurwhenautilitybreakeropensand
deenergizesaportionoftheelectricalgridthatisbeingservicedbyaCHPsystem.Toensureworker
safety,lineworkersmustdisconnectallgenerationsourcesfromtheserviceareaandestablishavisibly
opencircuit.Beforestartinganyrepairs,theymustalsogroundthelineandtestittoensurethatthereis
nopowerflowingintheline.
1
Disconnectingandgroundingthelinesisrelativelysimplewhenthegenerationsystemiscentralized
andtherearefewsourcesofsupply.However,withnumeroussourcesofpowersupplythedisconnect
procedurebecomesmorecomplicated,anditisimportantfortheutilitytoknowwhatdispersed
equipmentisconnectedtothesystem,wherethatequipmentislocated,whattransmissionlinesand
distributionsubstationsituses,andwherethedisconnectingswitchesarelocated.Tosimplifythis
procedure,manyutilitiesrequireinstallationofdisconnectswitchesatspecifiedlocationsinthevicinity
ofaCHPsystem.
AnotherpotentialsafetyissueassociatedwithdisconnectingaCHPsystemfromtheelectricalgridis
self-excitationoftheelectricalgenerators.Whenaninductiongeneratorisisolatedfromtherestofthe
grid,theabsenceofagridpowersignalusuallywillshutdownthegenerators.However,ifthereis
sufficientcapacitanceinthenearbycircuitstowhichthegeneratorisconnected(e.g.,powerfactor
correctingcapacitors),theinductiongeneratormaycontinuetooperateindependentlyofanypower
suppliedtothegrid.Thepowersignalproducedbytheisolatedself-excitedinductiongeneratorwillnot
beregulatedbythegridspowersignalandthecustomerselectricity-usingequipmentmaybedamaged.
Moreimportantly,anisolatedinductionorsynchronouscogeneratorthatreenergizedonthecustomers
sideofadownedtransmissionordistributionline,couldendangerutilityworkers.Self-excitationisless
ofaproblemwithsynchronousgeneratorsbecausetheycontinuetooperateindependentlyofthegrid.
Therearetwowaystopreventself-excitationproblems.First,theutilitycanputthecorrective
94


capacitorsinacentrallocation,inwhichcasedisconnectingacogeneratoralsowilldisconnectthe
capacitorsandreducethepossibilityofself-excitation.Alternatively,voltageandfrequencyrelaysand
automaticdisconnectcircuitbreakerscanbeusedtoprotectboththecustomersequipmentandutility
workers.
1
5.5 LIABILITY
AlthoughprotectiverelaysandautomaticdisconnectswitchgearmaybearequiredpartoftheCHP
systeminstallation,thisequipmentmaynotalwaysfunctionproperly.Malfunctioningelectricaldevices
orcontrolsystemscandamageequipmentorendangerthelivesofutilityworkers.Asaresultofpossible
liability,boilerownersandoperatorswithCHPsystemsmayberequiredbyautilitytocarryspecial
liabilityinsurancetolimittheresponsibilityoftheutilityoritscustomers.
1
Often,thelimitsofthis
insurancearesufficientlyhightocoveraworst-casescenarioofpersonalandpropertydamagedueto
energizedlines.Thecostofliabilityinsuranceshouldbefactoredintoanyeconomicassessmentof
cogenerationviability.
5.6 INTERCONNECTIONISSUES
Interconnectionreferstothetechnical,contractual,rate,andmeteringissuesthatmustbesettled
betweenaCHPsystemowner,utility,andlocalpermittingauthoritiesbeforethesystemcanbeconnected
totheelectricalgrid.Currently,interconnectionrequirementsvaryfromstatetostateandfromutilityto
utilitybecausenationalconsensuscodesandstandardsforCHPsystemsareeitherunavailableoronly
provideguidanceoncertaintypesofelectricalcomponents.Interconnectionissuestendtorevolvearound
theproceduresthatmaybenecessarytoobtaininterconnection,andtheuncertaintyabouttheamountand
typeofequipmentthatisnecessarytoprotectutilitylineworkersandtheutilitysystemingeneral.Key
utilityinterconnectionconcernsthefollowing:
3
PowerqualityUtilitiesareconcernedthataninterconnectedon-sitegeneratornotdegradethe
qualityofpowersuppliedbytheutilityasmeasuredbyvoltageandfrequencystability,powerfactor,
andharmoniccontent.Ingeneral,withtheexceptionofinductiongeneratorsandinverters,thequality
ofpoweravailablefromanon-sitegeneratorwillexceedthequalityofpowerthatisavailablefrom
thegrid.
PowersafetyUtilitiesareconcernedthataninterconnectedgeneratorhasthepotentialtoenergizea
utilitycircuitthatisnotbeingpoweredbytheutility.Thisconditioncanresultinasafetyhazardto
utilitypersonnelworkingonthatcircuit.Mostutilitieswillrequireinstallationofanexternal
disconnectswitchthatisaccessiblebyutilitypersonnelandthatcanbeusedtodisconnectandlock
outtheCHPsystem.
GridoperationsUtilityoperationofthegridcanbequitecomplex,includingthecoordinationof
relays,switches,andfaultcontrols.TheinterconnectionofaCHPsystemoranyotheractivesource
ofpowerwithintheelectricalgridshouldbereviewedtoavoidjeopardizingtheutilitysabilityto
managegridoperations.Forexample,mostnewformsofon-sitepowergenerationuseprotective
relayingfunctionsthatareprogrammedintothecontrolsystem.Thiscancreateaproblemforutilities
becausemosthaveguidelinesrequiringthatthesefunctionsbetestedonaperiodicbasistoprovethat
theywillfunctionproperlyintheeventofasystemdisturbance.Becausemanufacturersdonot
routinelydesigntheirunitstoallowfortestingofprotectiverelayingfunctions,utilitiesseldomallow
thesetypesofon-sitepowergeneratingsystemtoconnecttothegridwithoutadditionaltestingor
supplementaryrelaying.ThisinstallationrequirementaddstotheoverallcostoftheCHPsystem.
DispatchabilityUtilitiesrequiretherighttorequestthataCHPsystembeisolatedfromthe
electricalgridduringperiodsofemergencyorforgridsafety.Thisdispatchabilityistechnicaland
95

distinctlydifferentfromautilitysrequestorcontractualrequirementthataCHPsystemceasepower
deliveriesduetooperatingeconomies.
Standardizedrequirementsforinverters,converters,chargecontrollers,andoutputcontrollershave
beenadoptedbyUnderwritersLaboratories,Inc.(UL)andareprovidedinUL1741.
5
Equipmentcovered
bythisstandardisusedinstand-alone(notgridconnected)orutility-interactive(grid-connected)power
systems.Theutility-interactiveinvertersandconvertersdiscussedinthestandardareintendedtobe
installedinparallelwithanelectricsupplysystemoranelectricutilitytosupplycommonloads.
InterconnectionguidelinesfordistributedgeneratingsystemsinTexaswereadoptedonFebruary4,
1999,bythePublicUtilityofTexas.
6
Thepurposefortheseguidelinesistoprovideastartingpointfor
negotiationsbetweentheowneroroperatorofthegeneratingunitsandanelectricutilityrepresentative.
Informationintheseguidelinesmaybehelpfultoboilerownersandoperatorsinotherstateswhen
consideringsafetystandards,systemstabilityrequirements,protectionrequirements,switchgear
requirements,meteringrequirements,generationcontrol,testingandrecordkeeping,insurance,andother
relatedissues.
InMarch1999,theInstituteofElectricalandElectronicsEngineers(IEEE)StandardsAssociation
Boardvotedtoundertakethedevelopmentofuniformstandardsforinterconnectingdistributedresources
withelectricpowersystems.Sincethen,theIEEEStandardsCoordinatingCommittee21hascompleted
workonthedevelopmentoftheIEEE1547StandardforDistributedResourcesInterconnectedwith
ElectricPowerSystems.
7
Thisconsensusstandardcontainsspecificrequirementsrelatedtoperformance,
operation,testing,safety,andmaintenanceofinterconnectionsbetweendistributedresourcesandother
electricpowersystems.
8
5.7 REFERENCES
1. IndustrialandCommercialCogeneration,OfficeofTechnologyAssessment,Congressional
Boardofthe98thCongress,Washington,D.C.,February1983.
2. J.A.Orlando,CogenerationPlannersHandbook,TheFairmontPress,Inc.,Lilburn,Georgia,
1991.
3. J.A.Orlando,CogenerationDesignGuide,AmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-
ConditioningEngineers,Inc.,Atlanta,Georgia,1996.
4. CogenerationSystemsandEngineandTurbineDrives,Chapter7,ASHRAEHandbookHVAC
SystemsandEquipment,AmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-ConditioningEngineers,
Inc.,Atlanta,Georgia,July6,2000.
5. Inverters,Converters,andControllersforUseinIndependentPowerSystems,UL1741,
UnderwritersLaboratories,Inc.,Northbrook,Illinois,January17,2001.
6. 1999InterconnectionGuidelinesforDistributedGenerationinTexas,PublicUtilityCommission
ofTexas,February4,1999.http://www.puc.state.tx.us/electric/projects/20363/guidlns.cfm
7. StandardforInterconnectingDistributedResourceswithElectricPowerSystems,IEEEStandard
No.1547-2003,InstituteofElectricalandElectronicsEngineers,NewYork,2003.
8. T.S.BassoandR.DeBlasio,IEEEP1547SeriesofStandardsforInterconnection,
NREL/CP-560-34003,NationalRenewableEnergyLaboratory,Golden,Colorado,May2003.
96

6. COOLINGEQUIPMENTANDROTATINGMACHINERY
MostCHPsystemsusemechanicalenergytogenerateelectricityandthermalenergytosatisfy
processheatingrequirements,butthesetwotypesofenergycanbeusedforotherpurposes.Forexample,
thermalenergycanbeusedbyabsorptionchillersanddesiccantdehumidifierstoproduceacoolingrather
thanaheatingeffect,andmechanicalenergycanbeusedtodrivefans,pumps,andcompressorsrather
thangenerateelectricity.
1,2
UseofcoolingequipmentandrotatingmachineryinCHPapplications
providesanalternativetoconventionalelectricmotordrivesystemsandoffersflexibilityinmeeting
operationalrequirements.
6.1 ABSORPTIONCHILLERS
Absorptionchillersarecoolingmachinesthatuseheatastheprimarysourceofenergyfordrivingan
absorptionrefrigerationcycle.Theyareclassifiedasindirect-fired,heat-recovery,ordirect-firedunits.
Indirect-firedabsorptionchillersusesteamorhotwatertoproduceacoolingeffect.Heat-recovery
absorptionchillersrepresentanothertypeofindirect-firedabsorptionchiller.Theseunitsusehotexhaust
gasesratherthansteamorhotwaterasaheatsource.Direct-firedabsorptionchillershaveburnersthat
combustfossilfuelstogeneratetheheatneededtoproduceacoolingeffect.Indirect-firedabsorption
chillersthatusesteamorhotwaterarewellsuitedforCHPapplicationsthatalsorequirecooling.Low-
pressure,steam-drivenabsorptionchillersareavailableincapacitiesrangingfrom100to1,500tons
(Ref.1).
Single-stageabsorptionchillerscanoperateonhotwateraslowas240Forlow-pressuresteamin
therangeof12to15psig.Therequiredsteamflowratevariesfromabout10to20lb/tonh.Atypical
single-stageabsorptioncycleuseswaterastherefrigerantandlithiumbromide(LiBr)astheabsorbent.
Althoughtheseunitsaresuitableformanychilledwaterapplications,theycannotoperatebelow32F
becausethewaterfreezes.Whenlowertemperaturesarerequired,ammoniacanbeusedastherefrigerant
andwaterastheabsorbent.Moreefficienttwo-stageabsorptionchillersrequiresteamatpressuresof
approximately115psig,buttheycanalsouseheatinreciprocatingengineexhaustgasesasanenergy
source.ChillersoperatingonLiBrrequirecoolingtowerswhileammonia-waterchillerscanbeairor
watercooled.AdditionalinformationaboutabsorptionchillersisprovidedintheASHRAEhandbook
3
andotherreferencesources.
4,5
Comparedtosingle-stageabsorptionchillers,thecapitalcostofmultiple-stageabsorptionchillersis
higher,buttheyaremoreenergyefficientandthuslessexpensivetooperate.Therequiredsteamflowrate
isabout10lb/tonh.Overalleconomicattractivenessofanabsorptionchillerdependsonmanyfactors,
includingthecostofcapitalandthecostofenergy.Iftheadditionofanabsorptionchillerisbeing
considered,itisimportanttoperformaneconomicanalysisoftheabsorptionchillercomparedtochillers
thatoperateonotherpowersources.Thisanalysisisnecessarytoestablishthepropervalueforthe
recoveredheat.
6
6.2 DESICCANTDEHUMIDIFIERS
Solidsandliquidsthatarecapableofattractingandholdingmoistureareknownasdesiccants.Some
commondesiccantsincludesilicagel,activatedalumina,aluminaoxide,anddeliquescentabsorbentssuch
aslithiumchloride(LiCl)andcalciumchloride(CaCl
2
).Althoughremovingmoisturefromairusinga
desiccantslightlyincreasestheairtemperature,lessenergyisrequiredbyachillertocoolthe
dehumidifiedair.Humiditycontrolisanotherimportantaspectofspaceconditioningforcomfortcooling.
Maintainingthehumidityofaconditionedspacebelow60%relativehumidityminimizesthegrowthof
mold,bacteria,andotherharmfulmicroorganisms.
97

Desiccantdehumidifiersuseheattoachieveacoolingeffectbyremovingwatervaporfromanair
streamandtherebydecreasethelatentcoolingload.Whendesiccantsbecomesaturated,theylosetheir
abilitytoremovemoistureandmustbeeitherreplacedorrecharged.Rechargingadesiccantinvolves
increasingitstemperaturetoexpelthecapturedmoisture.Therechargeddesiccantisthencapableof
attractingandholdingadditionalmoisture.
7
HeatrecoveredfromCHPsystemsissuitableforrecharging
mostdesiccants.
Therearefivebasictypesofdesiccantdehumidificationequipment.
5
1. Liquidspraytowersusealithiumchloridesolutiontocontinuouslyremovemoisturefromaprocess
airstream.Inthesetowersystems,airisbothcooledanddehumidifiedasitcontactsthedesiccant
spray.
2. Solidtowersremovemoisturebypassingairoveracolumnofsolidpackeddesiccantsuchassilica
gel.Whenthedesiccantbecomessaturatedwithmoisture,airflowisdivertedtoasecondtower,so
thefirsttowercanberegenerated.
3. Rotarydehumidifierssimultaneouslyremovemoisturefromoneairsteamwhileregeneratingthe
desiccantwithanother.Asealbetweentheprocessairandtheregenerativeairstreamspreventsthe
twofrommixing.Rotatingwheelsystemsarebecomingincreasinglymorecommonastheyserveall
conditionsdownto60Fdewpoint.
4. Multipleverticalbedsystemsaresomewhatofahybridbetweensolidtowerandrotatingbed
systems.Theyuseacircularcarouselwithmanygranulardesiccantverticalbedsthatrotatebetween
theprocessandregenerativeairstreams.
5. Desiccantwheelsfunctionlikearotatingbedthatusesawheelofpackedgranulardesiccant.
8
Inpractice,desiccantdehumidifiersaredesignedtooperateeitherindependentlyofthechillerorin
serieswiththechiller.ForCHPsystems,itisoftendesirabletoreducemoisturefromtheairusinga
desiccantdehumidifierandthencoolthedehumidifiedairusingconventionalcoolingequipment.
Alternatively,adesiccantdehumidifiercanbeusedtofurtherdehumidifyandpartiallyreheatcool,
saturatedairthatleavesaconventionalcoolingcoil.Bypositioningthedesiccantdehumidifierafterthe
coolingcoil,dehumidificationperformanceofthedesiccantisenhanced.Thisoperatingmodeiswell
suitedforusewithCHPsystemsbecauseitrequiresmoderateorlowertemperaturesforregeneratingthe
desiccant.
6.3 ROTATINGMACHINERY
Rotatingmachineryusedinindustrialapplicationsisnormallypoweredbyelectricmotors,butthe
mechanicalenergyneededtopowerthismachinerycanalsobeprovidedbyRICEsandsteamandgas
turbinesthatarepartofCHPsystems.
9
Rotatingmachinerythatcanbepoweredbytheseprimemovers
includes
aircompressors,
pumps(centrifugalandpositive-displacementincludingreciprocatingandrotary),
fans(axial-flowandradialorcentrifugal),and
refrigerationcompressors(rotary,scroll,reciprocating,screw,andcentrifugal).
98

6.3.1 AirCompressors
Compressedairisusedinmanyindustrialprocessestooperatetools,powerequipment,andprovide
processcontrol.Becausetheannualoperatingcostofacompressedairsystemcanaccountfora
significantportionofafacilitysoperatingenergybudget,properuseofcompressortechnologyisvery
important.Aircompressorscommonlyusedinindustryinclude
reciprocating(single-stageormultistage),
rotary(rotaryscrew,slidingvane,orrotarylobe),
centrifugal(single-stageormultistage),and
axial-flow.
5
Mechanicalenergyneededtopoweraircompressorsisgenerallysuppliedbyelectricmotors,butit
canalsobesuppliedbysteamturbines,gasturbines,orRICEs.Steamturbinesareoftenusedtopower
largescreworcentrifugalaircompressors,whileback-pressuresteamturbineshavethepotentialfor
drivingaircompressorsatextremelylowoperatingcosts.Gasturbinescanbeusedeffectivelytopower
verylargecentrifugalandradialcompressors,especiallyinCHPsystemsthathavelarge,constanthigh-
pressuresteamrequirements.Reciprocatinginternalcombustionengineshavebeenpoweringscrew
compressorsformanyyears.Theyaregenerallypackagedwithreciprocatingcompressorsandarenotas
commonlyusedwithcentrifugalcompressors.
6.3.2 Pumps
Pumpsareessentialtoalmosteveryindustrialprocessapplicationthatrequiresfluidflowagainst
resistance.Althoughtherearemanydifferentpumps,theyareclassifiedsaseitherpositive-displacement
orcentrifugaltypes.Besideselectricmotors,steamturbinescanbeusedtodrivemosttypesofpumps.
UseofgasturbinesandRICEsasprimemoversforpumpingsystemsislimitedprimarilytoremotefield
applicationssuchasirrigationandpipelinepumpingservice.
6.3.3 Fans
Fansaredesignedtomoveairorothergasesandaresimilarinmanyrespectstopumpsandair
compressors.Theyareclassifiedaseitheraxial-flow,radial-flow,mixed-flow,orresistance.
5
Electric
motorsarethepredominatedriversforfans.However,back-pressuresteamturbinescanbeusedfora
varietyofindustrialfanapplications,includingdrivesforlargecapacityboilerfans.Becauseboilerfans
areessentialforboileroperation,itisnotuncommonforthesefanstobepoweredbyahybridsystem
consistingofasteamturbineandanelectricmotorasshowninFig.6.1.Thesehybridfansareneeded
duringstartupoperationswhennosteamisavailable.Insomecases,RICEscanbeusedtopowerfansfor
industrialprocesses,buttheyareusedprimarilyinremotelocationsorwhenanonelectricpowersourceis
needed.Fanspoweredbygasturbinesarenotverycommon.
Steam
Turbine
Fan
Electric
Motor
Fig.6.1. Hybridfansystem.
99

6.3.4 RefrigerationCompressors
Refrigerationsystemsremoveheatfromasourceandtherebyproduceacoolingeffect.The
mechanicalchillersinthesesystemsoperateonthevapor-compressioncycleanduseeithera
reciprocating,centrifugal,orscrew-typecompressortocompresstheworkingfluidtoproducethe
requiredhigh-pressurevapor.Thesecompressorsarerotatingdevicesthataregenerallydrivenbyelectric
motors,reciprocatingengines,orsteamturbines.Althoughreciprocatingenginesareeffectivepower
sourcesformechanicalchillers,theyaretypicallynotusedforthispurposeinCHPapplications.
However,reciprocatingenginescanbecoupledtoanelectricalgeneratorandamechanicalchillerina
dual-servicearrangementasshowninFig.6.2.Inthisconfiguration,thereciprocatingengineproducesa
coolingeffectduringnormaloperationandelectricityduringanemergency.Dual-servicearrangements
havelowercapitalinvestmentthantwoseparateenginesinsingleservice,andtheyaremorereliableinan
emergencybecausetheyoperatecontinuouslyoronaregularbasis.Mechanicalchillerspoweredbygas
turbinesarenotverycommon.
Mechanical
Chiller
Electrical
Generator
Reciprocating
Engine
Clutchor
Coupling
Coupling
ElectricalGeneratorConnectedto
ReciprocatingEngineandMechanicalChiller
Clutchor
Mechanical
Chiller
Electrical
Generator
Reciprocating
Engine
Coupling Coupling
Double-EndedReciprocatingEngine
Fig.6.2. Dual-servicereciprocating
engineapplications.
6.4 REFERENCES
1. UseLow-GradeWasteSteamtoPowerAbsorptionChillers,DOE/GO-102001-1277,Steam
TipSheet14,U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,D.C.,May2001.
2. ConsiderSteamTurbineDrivesforRotatingEquipment,DOE/GO-102002-1475,SteamTip
Sheet21,U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,D.C.,January2002.
3. AbsorptionCooling,Heating,andRefrigerationEquipment,Chapter41,ASHRAEHandbook
Refrigeration,AmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-ConditioningEngineers,Inc.,Atlanta,
Georgia,1998.
4. J.A.Orlando,CogenerationPlannersHandbook,TheFairmontPress,Inc.,Lilburn,Georgia,
1991.
5. N.Petchers,CombinedHeating,CoolingandPowerHandbook:TechnologiesandApplications,
TheFairmontPress,Inc.,Lilburn,Georgia,2003.
6. J.A.Orlando,CogenerationDesignGuide,AmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-
ConditioningEngineers,Inc.,Atlanta,Georgia,1996.
100

7. DesiccantDehumidificationandPressureDryingEquipment,Chapter22,ASHRAE
HandbookHVACSystemsandEquipment,AmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-
ConditioningEngineers,Inc.,Atlanta,Georgia,July6,2000.
8. EnergyEfficiencyHandbook,CouncilofIndustrialBoilerOwners,Burke,Virginia,November
1997.
101

102

7. COMBINEDHEATANDPOWERSYSTEMS
IntegratingcogenerationtechnologyintoneworexistingICIboilerinstallationscanbechallenging
becauseCHPsystemsareunlimitedintheirthermodynamicpossibilities,andthusintheconfiguration
andsizingofthevariouscomponents.Inaddition,thedesign,arrangement,andcostofcomponentsare
ofteninfluencedbyprocesstemperaturerequirements,pressurelimits,andelectricpowerneeds.
Implementingcogenerationtechnologyisamatterofcycleselectionanddesignofpipingandvalving
arrangements,andnotofbasicdifferencesinboilers,turbines,heatexchangers,andelectricalgenerators.
1
Achievingoptimumenergyefficiencyinvolvesmaximizingtheworkoutputforagivenamountof
fuelandminimizingheatrejectionfromthesystem.Thisisaccomplishedbyselectivelyarrangingaseries
ofthermodynamicprocessesintoacyclewhereheatiscontinuouslyconvertedtowork.
2
Forcogeneration
projects,heat-recoveryschemesareclassifiedaseithertopping-cycleorbottoming-cyclesystems
3
dependingonthesequencethefuelenergyisused.DescriptionsofaCHPsystembasedonthesecycles
arepresentedinthefollowingsections.Alsoincludedaresystemsknownascombined-cyclesystemsthat
integratebothtopping-andbottoming-cyclethermodynamicprocessesintothesamesystems.Details
aboutprimemoversandothercomponentsusedintopping-andbottoming-cyclesystemsarediscussedin
Chaps.36.ComparisonsoftypicalsizeandoutputcharacteristicsforvariousCHPsystemsarepresented
inTable7.1.
Uniformtestmethodsandproceduresfordeterminingthethermalperformanceandelectricaloutput
ofheat-cycleelectricpowerplantsandcogenerationfacilitieshavebeenissuedbytheAmericanSociety
ofMechanicalEngineersinthePerformanceTestCodeonOverallPlantPerformance,ASMEPTC46
(Ref.4).Thisstandardprovidesexplicitproceduresforthedeterminationofcorrectednetpower,heat
rate,andheatinputfortopping-cycleandcombined-cycleplantsundernormaloperatingconditions.
Importantusesforthetestresultsincludecomparingactualperformancetodesignvaluesandmonitoring
time-dependentchangesinoverallplantperformance.
7.1 TOPPING-CYCLESYSTEMS
Intopping-cycleCHPsystems,energyisfirstusedtogenerateelectricity.Therejectedheatisthen
usedforprocessheatingapplications.Thermalenergyexhaustedfromtheelectricitygenerating
equipmentiscapturedandusedforavarietyofusefulpurposes,suchasmanufacturing,spaceheatingand
cooling,waterheating,anddrying.Topping-cycleCHPsystemsaremorecommonthanbottoming-cycle
systems,whicharediscussedinSect.7.2.
Thethreeprimemoversmostoftenusedintopping-cycleCHPsystemsincludesteamturbines,gas
turbines,andreciprocatingengines.Fuelcellsandmicroturbinescanalsobeusedtogenerateelectricity,
butthesetechnologiesarenotaswellsuitedforindustrialboilerapplications.
7.1.1 SteamTurbineToppingSystems
MuchoftheelectricityproducedintheUnitedStatesisgeneratedbysteamturbinesinconventional
fossil-fuel-firedpowerplantsarrangedintheconfigurationshowninFig.7.1.Intheseplants,high-
pressuresteamproducedineitherapowerboileroraHRSGexpandsthroughaturbinethatdrivesan
electricalgenerator.Fortypicalcoal-firedpowerplants,lessthan40%oftheenergyinthefuelis
convertedtoelectricity.Althoughstepsaretakentoreduceenergylosses,thermalenergyremainingafter
electricityisgeneratedisdischargedtothesurroundingairorwateraswasteheatinordertosatisfy
thermodynamicrequirements.Becauseconventionalpowerplantsonlyusefuelenergytoproduce
electricity,theyarenotclassifiedascogenerationfacilities.
103

T
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7
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1
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5
.

Steam
Turbine
Generator
Electric
Power
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
Power
Boiler
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Feedwater
Condenser
Steam
Fig.7.1. Configurationofasteamturbinetopping-
cyclesystemusedinaconventionalpowerplantfor
electricpowerproduction.
Theprimarydifferencebetweenaconventionalpowerplantandasteamturbinetopping-cycleCHP
systemisthemannerinwhichwasteheatishandled.Ratherthandischargingresidualheattothe
environment,steamturbineCHPsystemsusethethermalenergythatleavesthesteamturbineforuseful
processapplications.Byproducingbothelectricityandthermalenergy,thesesystemsusemoreofthe
energyavailableinthefuelthanconventionalpowerplants.Dependingontherelativeamountof
electricitythatisgenerated,steamturbineCHPsystemsaregenerallyabletousebetween65%and85%
oftheenergyinthefuel.
5
ComponentsusedinsteamturbineCHPsystemsaretypicallyarrangedintheconfigurationshownin
Fig.7.2.Thesecomponentscanbesuccessfullyintegratedintoalmostanyneworexistingboiler
installationprovidedtheboilerproducesasufficientquantityofsteamattherequiredpressureand
temperature.Althoughprojectsuccessdoesnotdependonthedesignoftheboilerorthetypeoffuelit
burns,overallfuelconsumptionwillincreaseasmorefuelisneededtoproducesteamforbothelectric
powergenerationandprocessheatingapplications.Fromanenvironmentalpermittingviewpoint,itis
importanttorecognizethatincreasedfuelconsumptionresultsinincreasedemissionsattheCHPsite.
OverallefficiencyofsteamturbineCHPsystemsisgenerallynotaffectedbyturbineinlet
temperaturesorpart-loadoperationwhenlessthanthemaximumpossibleamountofelectricityisbeing
generated.However,electricpowergeneratingefficiencyincreaseswithincreasinginlettemperatureand
pressureratioandwithsizeuptoabout30MW.ThecostofinstallingsteamturbineCHPsystems
dependsonfactorssuchasthesizeofthesystem,thekindoffuelthatisfired,andthetypeofboiler
selected.EconomiesofscaleareevidentforsteamturbineCHPsystemslargerthanabout10MW
(Ref.5).
Steamturbinesusedintopping-cycleCHPsystemsareusuallyeitherback-pressuresystemsor
extraction-condensingsystemsasshowninFigs.7.3and7.4,respectively.Extracting-condensing
turbineshavehigherelectricalefficienciesthanback-pressureturbinesbutaremorecomplextodesign.
6
Heatextractedfromthesteaminextraction-condensingsystemsisoptimizedbyexhaustingthesteam
fromtheturbineatlessthanatmosphericpressures.Back-pressure(noncondensing)turbinesexhaust
steamatoraboveatmosphericpressure.Inthesesystems,allcondensationoccursdownstreamfromthe
105

Steam
Turbine
Generator
Electric
Power
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Steamfor
ProcessApplications
FeedwaterReturn
fromProcess
Steam
Fig.7.2. Generalconfigurationofasteamturbine
topping-cycleCHPsystem.
Back-Pressure
SteamTurbine
Generator
Electric
Power
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Process
Fig.7.3. Configurationofaback-pressuresteam
turbinetopping-cycleCHPsystemforICIboiler
applications.
106

Generator
Electric
Power
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Process
Condenser
Extraction-Condensing
SteamTurbine
Fig.7.4. Configurationofanextraction-condensing
steamturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystemforICIboiler
applications.
turbineintheprocess.
7
Usedinthisway,back-pressuresteamturbinescanfunctionassubstitutesfor
pressure-reducingvalves.Inthisapplication,back-pressuresteamturbinesprovidepressureregulation
andgenerateusefulpower.Thesesystemshavethebestmarginalheatrateforelectricgeneration.The
complexityofindividualCHPprojectsdictatesthetypeofsteamturbinetoemploytoachieveoptimal
performance.
6
DiscussionsaboutthetypesofsteamturbinesthatareavailablearepresentedinSect.4.1.
Steamturbinesalsohaverelativelylowratiosofelectric-to-thermalpowerproductionbecausethey
haverelativelylowupper-temperaturelimits.Itisthistemperaturelimitthat,incombinationwiththe
desiredsteamtemperature,determinestheamountofelectricitythatcanbegenerated.Ofthe85%useful
energyobtainableinsteamturbineCHPsystems,typically14%isusedforelectricpowerproduction,and
71%isusedforprocessheat.However,thepower-to-heatratiowillvaryaccordingtotheamountof
high-pressuresteamthatisdirectedfromtheboilertoprocessheatingapplications.Thus,anincreasein
processsteamtemperaturecorrespondstoadeclineinelectricpowerproductionandanincreaseinheat
production.Overallfuelutilization(powerplusheat)remainsrelativelyconstantatavarietyofprocess
temperatures.Allthatchangesistheproportionoftotalfuelusedevotedtoelectricpowergenerationand
processheat.
5
7.1.2 GasTurbineToppingSystems
Gasturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystemsareusedthroughouttheworldasaneffectivewayto
simultaneouslyproducepowerandheatfromasinglefuelsource.Ranginginsizefrom500kWto
hundredsofmegawatts,gasturbines(alsoreferredtoascombustionturbines)turngeneratorstoproduce
electricitywhileprovidingusefulthermalenergy.
6
Althoughnaturalgasiscommonlyfiredinthese
systems,somegasturbinescanburnfueloilandothergaseousfuels.Solidfuelssuchascoal,municipal
waste,andbiomasscanalsobegasifiedtoproducegaseousfuelsuitableforgasturbines.Dependingon
theirdesign,gasturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystemsoperateineitheropen-cycleorclosed-cycle
configurationswithorwithoutregeneration.
5
107

7.1.2.1 Open-cyclegasturbinetoppingsystems
Componentsforopen-cyclegasturbineCHPsystemsarearrangedintoeithersimpleorregenerative
configurations.Insimpleopen-cyclesystems,exhaustgasesfromthegasturbinecombustionchamberare
supplieddirectlytotheboilerorHRSGasshowninFig.7.5.Asanalternative,heatavailableinthe
exhaustgasesisrecoveredandusedtopreheatthefeedwaterortoproducesteamforprocessapplications.
Regenerativeopen-cyclegasturbineCHPsystemsarearrangedsomewhatdifferently.Theyincludeaheat
exchangerknownasarecuperatorthattransfersheatfromtheexhaustgasstreamtotheincoming
compressedairasshowninFig.7.6.Regeneratorsincreasethemechanicalefficiencyofthecycleby
reducingtheamountoffuelrequiredtoproduceaspecifiedturbineinlettemperature,buttheyalsoreduce
thetemperatureoftheexhaustandtherebydecreasetheamountofheatthatisavailableforprocess
applications.Althoughregenerativeopen-cyclegasturbineCHPsystemsaretechnicallyfeasible,the
designofaneffectiveandreliableregeneratorcanbechallenging.Materialselection,heattransfer,
thermalstresses,andconstructabilityarekeyissuesthatmustbeconsideredindesigningaregenerator
thatcanrecoverwasteheatfromtheexhaustgasstreamwhilebeingexposedtothehigh-temperature
exhaustgasesthataretypicallyaround1,200F.
Mostopen-cyclegasturbineCHPsystemsburnrelativelycleanfuelslikenaturalgasorNo.2fuel
oiltoreduceturbineproblemsresultingfromexposuretohigh-temperatureexhaustgasesandcombustion
products.High-temperatureexhaustgasthatcontainsimpurities(e.g.,sodium,potassium,calcium,
vanadium,iron,sulfur,andparticulates)cancorrodesomemetalsusedinturbineconstruction,andcertain
residualsolidsintheexhaustgascanerodetheturbineblades.Othertypesoffuelsuchasresidualoilor
liquidorgaseousfuelsderivedfromcoalorbiomasstypicallycannotbefiredinopen-cyclegasturbines
withoutanauxiliaryfuelcleaningsystem.
Gas
Turbine
Compressor Generator
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Electric
Power
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Process
Fig.7.5. Configurationofanopen-cyclegasturbine
topping-cycleCHPsystem(withoutrecuperator)forICI
boilerapplications.
108

Generator
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Electric
Power
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Recuperator
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Process
Fig.7.6. Configurationofanopen-cyclegas
turbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(withrecuperator)
forICIboilerapplications.
Heat-recoveryunitsforopen-cyclegasturbinesystemsservetwofunctions.Theyrecoverwasteheat
fromthegasturbineexhaustandprovideadditionalheatneededtomeetprocessdemands.Although
boilersandsupplementaryfiredHRSGsofalmostanydesignthatburnliquidorgaseousfuelcanbeused
inopen-cyclegasturbineCHPsystems,unitsthataresuppliedwithamixtureofcombustionairandgas
turbineexhaustmustbecapableofhandlingthehigh-temperaturecombustionproductsexhaustedfrom
thegasturbine.Dependingonthecompositionofthefuelburnedinthegasturbine,theexhaustmay
containoxygen,NO
x
,CO
2
,andCOaswellasunburnedhydrocarbonsandVOCs.Becausetheexhaust
contains15%ormoreoxygen,itwillsupportadditionalcombustion.
7
Duetopotentialcombustion
controlandoperatingproblems,effectsofthesegasesonperformanceandemissionsneedtobeassessed
onacase-by-casebasis.
Open-cyclegasturbineCHPsystemstendtohaveslightlyloweroverallfuelefficiencythansteam
turbineCHPsystems,butthemostefficientgasturbinescanhaveahigheroverallefficiencythanthe
leastefficientsteamturbines.Ontheotherhand,open-cyclegasturbineshavemuchhigherE/Sratios
thansteamturbines,andahigherelectricgeneratingefficiencyatbothfull-andpart-loadoperation.
Unlikesteamturbines,theelectricefficiencyforgasturbinesisreducedsignificantlybypart-load
operation.Moreover,theefficiencyofopen-cyclegasturbinesvarieswiththeadditionofaregenerator,
becauseregenerativecyclesproduceadditionalelectricityattheexpenseofrecoverablethermalenergy
andoverallefficiency.Therefore,forcogenerationapplications,overallfuelefficiencyishigherwith
simpleopen-cyclegasturbines,butelectricgeneratingefficiency(bothfull-andpart-load)ishigherwith
regenerativeopencycles.Aswithsteamturbines,theefficiencyofopen-cyclegasturbinestendsto
increasewithsizeuptoabout30MW,andremainsrelativelyconstantinlargersystems.
5
Open-cyclegas
turbinesaregenerallyusedinCHPsystemswithgenerationcapacitieslessthan25MW(Ref.6).
109

7.1.2.2 Closed-cyclegasturbinetoppingsystems
Likeopen-cyclesystems,componentsforclosed-cyclegasturbineCHPsystemscanalsobe
arrangedintoeithersimpleorregenerativeconfigurations.Theprimarydifferencebetweenthetwo
systemsistheworkingfluidthatexpandsthroughthegasturbine.Inopen-cyclesystems,theworking
fluidistheexhaustgasfromthecombustionchamber,butinclosed-cyclesystems,theworkingfluidis
anothergassuchasairorheliumthatcirculatesthroughaclosedcircuit.Theworkingfluidreceivesits
heatfromaheatexchangerthatusesheatfromtheexhaustgastoincreasetheworkingfluidtothe
requiredinlettemperature.Thisarrangementensuresthatboththeworkingfluidandtheturbine
machineryareisolatedfromthehigh-temperatureexhaustgasandtheproductsofcombustion.By
eliminatingerosionandcorrosionproblemsintheturbine,closed-cyclesystemspermitgreaterfuel
flexibility.Properlydesignedclosed-cyclesystemscanburncoal,industrialormunicipalwastes,
biomass,andalmostanytypesofliquidandgaseousfuels,includingnaturalgasandfueloil.The
arrangementofaclosed-cyclegasturbineCHPsysteminwhichtheworkingfluidissupplieddirectlyto
theboilerisshowninFig.7.7.Whenaregeneratorisaddedtothesystemtopreheatcombustionair,a
slightlydifferentconfigurationsuchastheoneshowninFig.7.8isrequired.
Althoughanygascanserveastheworkingfluidinclosed-cyclegasturbineCHPsystems,airhasthe
advantageofreducingsealingrequirementsandmechanicalcomplications.Heavymolecularweightgases
(suchasargon)reducethesizeoftheturbinemachinerybutincreasethatoftheheattransfercomponents.
Lightermolecularweightgases(suchashelium)requiremoreextensiveturbinemachinerybutminimize
thesizeofheattransferequipment.
Generator
Combustion
Chamber
Exhaust
Electric
Power
Fuel
Boiler
Exhaust
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Air
Fuel
Process
Working
Fluid
Feedwater
Fig.7.7. Configurationofaclosed-cyclegasturbine
topping-cycleCHPsystem(withoutregenerator)forICI
boilerapplications.
110

Generator
Combustion
Chamber
Exhaust
Electric
Power
Fuel
Boiler
Exhaust
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Air
Regenerator
Fuel
Process
Feedwater
Working
Fluid
Fig.7.8. Configurationofaclosed-cyclegas
turbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(withregenerator)
forICIboilerapplications.
Closed-cyclegasturbinesarephysicallysmallerthanthoseforcomparablesizeopen-cyclesystems,
butrequiremorepipingandheatexchangers.Inaddition,thesmallphysicalsizeoftheturbinemachinery
limitsthepowerofclosed-cycleturbines.Forthesereasons,CHPsystemsthatarebasedonthis
technologyandhavecapacitiesbelow500kWmaynotbeeconomicallyattractive.Electricgenerating
capacityformostclosed-cyclegasturbineCHPsystemsrangesfrom2to50MW(Ref.5).
Heat-recoveryunitsusedinclosed-cyclegasturbineCHPsystemsalsoservetwofunctionsby
recoveringwasteheatfromtheworkingfluidandprovidingadditionalheatneededtomeetprocess
demands.Althoughalmostanytypeoffiredheat-recoveryunitthatburnssolid,liquid,orgaseousfuels
canbeuseinclosed-cyclegasturbineCHPsystems,twootherimportantissuesneedtobeconsidered
whenintegratingclosed-cyclegasturbineCHPequipmentintoexistinginstallations.
1. Recoveringwasteheatfromaclosed-cyclegasturbinemayrequirechangingtheboilerorHRSG
configurationtoallowheattransferfromtheworkingfluid.Modificationscouldinvolveadding
additionalheattransfersurfacesorconvertingsomeoftheexistingheattransfersurfacestothe
workingfluidcircuit.Assessingthefeasibilityofthesechanges,identifyingdesignoptionsand
modificationalternatives,andunderstandingtheimpactsofchangeonperformancemayrequire
separateengineeringstudies.
2. BoilersandHRSGsthataresuppliedwithamixtureofcombustionairandgasturbineexhaustmust
becapableofhandlingthehigh-temperaturecombustionproductspresentintheexhaust.Depending
onthecompositionofthefuelburnedinthegasturbine,theexhaustgasmaycontainoxygen,NO
x
,
CO
2
,andCOaswellasunburnedhydrocarbonsandVOCs.Duetopotentialcombustioncontroland
operatingproblems,effectsofthesegasesonperformanceandemissionsneedtobeassessedona
case-by-casebasis.Itshouldalsoberecognizedthatexposuretohigh-temperatureexhaustgasesmust
111

beconsideredinthedesignandconstructionofregeneratorsandcombustionchambersusedin
closed-cyclegasturbinesystems.
Fromanoperationalviewpoint,theoverallfuelefficiencyofclosed-cyclegasturbineCHPsystems
iscomparabletothatofopen-cyclesystems.Inaddition,theclosed-cycleconfigurationreduceswearand
tearontheturbineblades.Consequently,reliabilityandaverageannualavailabilityofclosed-cyclegas
turbinesshouldbeatleastasgoodasthatforopen-cyclesystems.Beforeseriousconsiderationisgivento
closed-cyclegasturbinetechnology,boilerownersandoperatorsneedtobeawarethattherearecurrently
nocommercialsuppliersofclosed-cyclegasturbinesystemsintheUnitedStates.Experiencewiththese
systemsisprimarilybasedinseveralEuropeancountries.
5
7.1.3 ReciprocatingEngineToppingSystems
Principalcomponentsinreciprocatingenginetopping-cycleCHPsystemsincludethereciprocating
internalcombustionengine,heat-recoveryequipment,andelectricalgenerator.Inoperation,theengine
turnsageneratorthatproduceselectricpower,whiletheheat-recoveryequipmentcaptureswasteheat
fromtheengine.Internalcombustionenginesrejectheatfromthefollowingsources:radiationfromthe
engineblockandotherhotsurfaces,exhaustgases,lubricatingoil,jacketwater,and,forturbochargedand
aftercooledengines,theengineaftercooler.Byrecoveringheatrejectedfromtheexhaustandcooling
systems,approximately70to80%oftheenergyinthefuelcanberecoveredandusedforpower
productionorprocessheatingapplications.
8
Engineexhaustupto1,000Forhigherrepresentsfrom30to50%oftheavailablewasteheatthat
canbeusedtoproducehotwater,andlow-orhigh-pressuresteam.Thisheatissometimesrecovered
usingaheatexchangerknownasaheat-recoverymuffler.Thesemufflersaredesignedtoreducenoise
transmittedintheexhaustgasesandtogeneratehotwaterorsteamupto150psig.InICIboiler
applications,heatrecoveredbythemufflercanbeusedtoincreasethetemperatureoftheboilerfeedwater
orforotherprocessapplications.Becausereciprocatingenginesdonotoperatewithlargequantitiesof
excessair,theoxygencontentoftheexhaustisrelativelylow(typically7%to8%)comparedtothe
oxygencontentofcombustionturbineexhaust.
7
Consequently,mixingengineexhaustgaseswithboiler
combustionairasawaytorecoverwasteheatmaynotbepractical,especiallywhenthecombustion
systemcreatesexcessiveback-pressureontheengine.
Heatintheenginecoolantsystemaccountsforupto30%oftheenergyinput.Muchofthisheatcan
berecoveredusingeitheraforcedcoolantcirculationsystemoranebullientcoolingsystemthatrecovers
heatfromtheenginecoolingwatertoproducehotwaterorsteamatamaximumpressureof15psig.In
addition,separateheatexchangersaresometimesusedtorecoverlowertemperatureheat(usuallyless
than160F)rejectedfromtheenginebythelubricatingoilsystemandaftercoolers.
Theconfigurationofatypicalreciprocatingenginetopping-cycleCHPsystemforboilerapplications
isshowninFig.7.9.Dependingontheapplication,itmaybepossibletointegratethewasteheat-recovery
equipmentintoasinglesystemthatusesexhaustandcoolantheatforsteamproduction.Additional
informationaboutheat-recoveryunitsforCHPapplicationsispresentedinSect.2.1.2.
TheCIdiesel-cycleenginesandSIOtto-cyclearethetwoprimaryreciprocatingenginedesigns
commonlyusedforstationarypowergenerationapplications.Theirsizestypicallyrangefromabout
20kWtomorethan10MW(Ref.5).AlthoughCIdieselenginesareamongthemostefficientsimple-
cyclepowergenerationoptions,theiruseintheUnitedStatesisincreasinglyrestrictedtoemergency
standbyorlimited-dutyservicebecauseofairemissionconcerns.Natural-gas-fueledSIenginesarenow
thepreferredchoiceforthehigher-duty-cyclepowergenerationapplications.
112

Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
Emission
Control
Equipment
Generator
Engine
Exhaust
Electric
Power
ReciprocatingEngine
Turbocharger Water Oil
Engine
Coolant
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Process
Process
Heat
Recovery
Muffler
Air
Feedwater
Fig.7.9. Configurationofareciprocatingengine
topping-cycleCHPsystemforICIboilerapplications.
Dieselengines,whichrepresentfullydevelopedandmaturetechnology,aresometimesusedas
primemoversinmanyreciprocatingenginetopping-cycleCHPsystems.Theseenginesnormallyburn
lightfueloil,butsomedieselenginesaredesignedtoburneitherheavyfueloil,naturalgas,ornaturalgas
withasmallpercentageofdieseloilaspilotfuel.SIenginesusedinelectricpowergenerationandCHP
applicationsgenerallyburnnaturalgas,butothergaseousandvolatileliquidfuelsrangingfromlandfill
gastopropanetogasolinecanbeusedwiththeproperfuelsystem,enginecompressionratio,and
controls.Additionalinformationaboutthevarioustypesofreciprocatingenginesthatareavailablefor
CHPapplicationsispresentedinSect.3.4.
7.1.4 FuelCellToppingSystems
Afuelcellisanelectrochemicaldevicethatconvertsthechemicalenergyofafuelintoelectricity
withnointermediatecombustioncycle.Hydrogenandoxygenreacttoproducewaterinthepresenceof
anelectrolyteand,indoingso,generateanelectrochemicalpotentialthatdrivesacurrentthroughan
externalcircuit.Inaddition,thereactionproduceswasteheat.Hydrogenusedbythecellisobtainedfrom
fossilfuels,usuallymethane.Becausemethaneoccursnaturallyonlyinnaturalgas,fuelconversionis
necessaryifcoalorbiomassaretheultimatesourcesofthehydrogen.
FuelcellsmaybeattractiveforindustrialandcommercialCHPapplicationsorforutilitypeaking
applicationsbecauseoftheirmodularconstruction,goodelectricloadfollowingcapabilitieswithouta
lossinefficiency,lowemissions,andquietoperation.Anindividualfuelcellhasanelectricpotentialof
slightlylessthan1V(determinedbytheelectrochemicalpotentialofthehydrogenandoxygenreaction),
butsinglecellscanbeassembledinseriestogeneratepracticallyanydesiredvoltage,andthese
113

assemblies,inturn,canbeconnectedinparalleltoprovideavarietyofpowerlevels(e.g.,40kWto
25MW).Afuelcellpowerplantincludesthecellstack,aninvertertoconvertdctoac,andafuelprocess
toremoveimpuritiesfromthehydrocarbonfuelandconvertittopurehydrogen.Thermalenergy
recoveredfromafuelcellcanbeeitherallhotwater,orpartsteamandparthotwaterdependingonthe
pressure.InICIboilerapplications,therecoveredheatcanbeusedtoincreasethetemperatureofthe
feedwaterthatreturnsfromtheprocess.Theconfigurationofafuelcelltopping-cycleCHPsystemforan
ICIboilerapplicationisshowninFig.7.10.
Inverter
Alternating
Current
Electric
Power
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Fuel
Reformer
Direct
Current
Electric
Power
Processed
Fuel
Fuel
Air
Process
Steam
Feedwater
Exhaust
Gas
FuelCell
Stack
Heat
Exchanger
Fig.7.10.Configurationofafuelcelltopping-
cycleCHPsystemforICIboilerapplications.
7.1.5 MicroturbineToppingSystems
Amicroturbineisacompactgasturbineconsistingofacompressor,recuperator,combustion
chamberorcombustor,andturbine.Microturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystemsoperateonthesame
thermodynamiccycleaslargeropen-cyclegasturbinetoppingsystemsdescribedinSect.7.1.2.1.Inthis
cycle,atmosphericairiscompressed,heated,andthenexpanded,withthenetpowerproducedbythe
turbineusedforpowergeneration.Thepowerproducedbyanexpansionturbineandconsumedbya
compressorisproportionaltotheabsolutetemperatureofthegaspassingthroughthosedevices.
Consequently,itisadvantageoustooperatetheexpansionturbineatthehighestpracticaltemperature
consistentwitheconomicmaterialsandtooperatethecompressorwithinletairflowataslowa
temperatureaspossible.Astechnologyadvancespermithigherturbineinlettemperature,theoptimum
pressureratioalsoincreases.Highertemperatureandpressureratiosresultinhigherefficiencyand
specificpower.Thus,thegeneraltrendingasturbineadvancementhasbeentowardacombinationof
highertemperaturesandpressures.However,microturbineinlettemperaturesaregenerallylimitedto
114

1,800Forbelowtoenabletheuseofrelativelyinexpensivematerialsfortheturbinewheelandto
maintainpressureratiosatacomparativelylow3.5to4.0(Ref.9).
Likelargegasturbines,microturbinesrunathighspeedsandcanbeusedinpower-onlygeneration
orinCHPsystems.Electricityisproducedbyeitherahigh-speedgeneratorthatrotatesonasingleturbo-
compressorshaftatupto96,000rpmorwithaseparatepowerturbinethatdrivesagearboxconnectedto
aconventional3,600-rpmgenerator.High-speedgeneratorsproducehigh-frequencyacoutputthatmust
beconvertedto60Hzforgeneraluse.Thispowerconditioninginvolvesrectifyingthehigh-frequencyac
todc,andtheninvertingthedcto60-Hzac.
Microturbinesareabletooperateonavarietyoffuels,includingnaturalgas,sourgases(highsulfur,
lowBtucontent),andliquidfuels,suchasgasoline,kerosene,anddieselfuel/distillateheatingoil.In
resourcerecoveryapplications,theyburnwastegasesthatwouldotherwisebeflaredorreleaseddirectly
intotheatmosphere.Thesizeformicroturbinesrangesfrom30toabout350kW.
Recuperatorsinmicroturbinesserveasheatexchangersthatusetheenergyinthehotexhaustgases
topreheatthecompressedairbeforeitentersthecombustor.Byreducingthefuelneededtoheatthe
compressedairtotheturbineinlettemperature,recuperatorscanmorethandoubletheefficiency.
Althoughrecuperatorseffectivelyimproveefficiency,theylowerthetemperatureofthemicroturbine
exhaust,therebyreducingtheamountofheatavailableforprocessapplications,andtheyincreasethe
pressuredropinboththecompressedairandturbineexhaustsidesoftherecuperator,resultingina10%
to15%decreaseinpoweroutputcomparedtomicroturbineswithoutrecuperators.
Thermaloutputfrommicroturbinesrangesfrom400to600F.Thisheatcanbeusedtoproducehot
waterorsteamforprocessapplicationsortopreheatboilerfeedwater.ForICIboilerapplications,the
exhaustgasescanbemixedwithcombustionairandsuppliedtotheboilerwheretherecoveredheatis
usedtoproduceadditionalhotwaterorsteamforprocessapplications.Figure7.11showsthe
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Recuperator
Process
Gas
Turbine
Conventional
Generator
Electric
Power
Fig.7.11.Configurationofamicroturbinetopping-
cycleCHPsystem(withconventionalgenerator)forICI
boilerapplications.
115

configurationofamicroturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystemforICIboilerapplicationswithagearboxand
conventionalgeneratorforproducing60-Hzacpower.AnalternativeconfigurationisshowninFig.7.12
foramicroturbinewithahigh-speedgenerator.Thissystemincludespowerelectronicsforconverting
high-frequencypowerto60-Hzacpowerforgeneraluse.
High-Speed
Generator
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Electric
Power
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Recuperator
Rectifier Inverter
Process
Fig.7.12.Configurationofamicroturbinetopping-
cycleCHPsystem(withhigh-speedgenerator)forICI
boilerapplications.
7.2 BOTTOMING-CYCLESYSTEMS
Forbottoming-cycleCHPsystems,energyisfirstusedinathermalprocesssuchasasmelting
furnacethatderivesheatfromelectricheatingelements,combustionoffossilfuels,landfillgas,RDF,or
anotherenergysource.WasteheatfromthethermalprocessbecomestheheatsourcefortheCHPsystem.
Inatypicalbottoming-cycleCHPsystem,heatrecoveryfromthethermalprocessisaccomplishedina
HRSGasshowninFig.7.13.SteamproducedintheHRSGflowstoasteamturbinethatturnsan
electricalgeneratororanothertypeofrotatingmachinery.Heatrejectedfromthesteamturbineisthen
madeavailableforotherprocessheatingapplications.Likesteamturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystems
discussedinSect.7.1.1,back-pressureandextraction-condensingsteamturbinescanbeusedin
bottoming-cycleapplications.Thebottoming-cycleCHPsystemshowninFig.7.13representsonlyone
ofmanypossiblebottoming-cycleconfigurationsthatcanbedeveloped.
Bottoming-cycleCHPsystemsaregenerallyonlysuitableforindustrieswherehigh-temperature
wasteheatisreadilyavailable.Consequently,mostCHPsystemsarebasedoneitherthetoppingcycleor
116

Steam
Turbine
Generator
Electric
Power
Exhaust
Gas
Emission
Control
Equipment
Process
HRSG
Industrial
Process
Heat
Source
ProcessExhaustGas
Fig.7.13.Configurationofabottoming-cycleCHP
systemforICIboilerapplications.
combinedcycle,whichusesheatfromatoppingcycleastheenergysourceforabottomingcycle.
Informationaboutcombined-cyclesystemsispresentedinSect.7.3.
Thecostofabottoming-cycleCHPsystemusingasteamturbineisroughlycomparabletothecost
foracomparablesizetopping-cycleCHPsystembecausemostofthecomponentsarethesameforboth
systems.
5
Maintenancerequirementsandreliabilityforthesteamturbinebottomingsystemsare
comparabletothoseofsteamturbinetoppingsystemswithaverageannualavailabilityofuptoabout
90%,butthisvalueisdirectlyinfluencedbytheavailabilityofheatfromthethermalprocess.Although
thereareotherbottoming-cyclesystems,suchasorganicbottomingcyclesthatusedifferentworking
fluids,thesesystemsarebeyondthescopeofthisguide.
7.3 COMBINED-CYCLESYSTEMS
Combined-cycleCHPsystemshavetwointerconnectedcyclesoperatingatdifferenttemperatures.
Thehighertemperaturetoppingcyclerejectsheatthatisrecoveredandusedinthelowertemperature
bottomingcycletoproduceadditionalpowerandimproveoverallconversionefficiency.Major
componentsofacombined-cycleCHPsystemarethegasturbineanditselectricalgenerator,theICI
boilerorHRSG,andthesteamturbineanditselectricalgenerator.
Heatrecoveryfromthegasturbineexhaustisaccomplishedeitherbymixingtheexhaustgaseswith
freshcombustionairorbyusingtheenergyinthehotexhausttoincreasethetemperatureofboileror
HRSGfeedwater.Twopossibleconfigurationsofcombined-cycleCHPsystemsthatuseanopen-cycle
117


gasturbinetoppingsystemandasteamturbinebottomingsystemareshowninFigs.7.14and7.15.Note
thatthesesystemsaresimilartotheopen-cyclegasturbineCHPsystemdiscussedinSect.7.1.2.1except
thatsteamfromtheboilerorHRSGisusedfirsttogenerateelectricityandthenexhaustedforprocess
heatingapplications.
Whenarecuperatorisaddedtothetoppingcycle,thesystemhasaslightlydifferentconfigurationas
showninFig.7.16.Combined-cycleCHPsystemscanalsobeassembledusingclosed-cyclegasturbine
toppingsystemsandsteamturbinebottomingsystems.Eitheroftheclosed-cyclesystemsshownin
Figs7.7and7.8couldbeusedfortheseapplications.
Inmostcombined-cycleCHPsystems,extrafuelisburnedintheboilerorHRSGtosupplementthe
heatinthegasturbineexhaust.Thehighpercentageofoxygen(normally15%)inthegasturbineexhaust
enablesefficientsupplementalcombustion.Supplementalfiringgenerallyimprovesthermalefficiencyat
part-loadoperation,butitmakescombined-cycleplantoperationcontrolmorecomplex.Fuelssuitablefor
useincombined-cycleCHPsystemsarethesameasthoseusedforcommercialgasturbinesnaturalgas,
lightdistillateoil,andotherfuelsthatarefreefromcontaminants.Heavyfuels,suchasresidualoil,heavy
distillates,andcoal-derivedfuelsthatarecontaminatedwithtracemetalscanbeusedprovidedtheyare
firstcleaned.Systemsthatuseindirectfiringandheatexchangers(i.e.,closedcycles)canoperateona
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Emission
Control
Equipment
Electric
Power
Steam
Turbine
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Air
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Electric
Power
Generator
Generator
Process
Fig.7.14.Configurationofacombined-cycleCHP
system(withfeedwaterpreheat)forICIboiler
applications.
118


Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Emission
Control
Equipment
Electric
Power
Steam
Turbine
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Air
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Electric
Power
Generator
Generator
Process
Fig.7.15.Configurationofacombined-cycleCHP
system(withexhaustgasheatrecovery)forICIboiler
applications.
119

Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Emission
Control
Equipment
Electric
Power
Steam
Turbine
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Air
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Electric
Power
Generator
Generator
Process
Recuperator
Fig.7.16.Configurationofacombined-cycleCHP
system(withrecuperator)forICIboilerapplications.
widervarietyoffuels,becausethegasturbinebladesareisolatedfromthecorrosiveinfluenceofthe
combustionproducts.Combined-cyclesystemsthatincorporatefluidizedbedcombustorsareabletoburn
coaloralmostanyotherfuel.
Combined-cycleCHPsystemsaretypicallyavailableinsizesrangingfrom22toabout400MWand
oftenrequirelessfloorspacethanseparatecombustionandsteamturbinesproducingcomparable
amountsofelectricpower.ReducedspacerequirementscanbeanadvantageinintegratingCHP
technologyintoexistingboilerinstallations.
5
Theelectricgeneratingefficiencyofcombined-cycleCHPsystemsisgreaterthanforsimplegas
turbineCHPsystemsbecauseoftheadditionalelectricitygeneratedbythesteamturbine.Current
combined-cyclesystemsachieveelectricgeneratingefficienciesbetween34and40%,with37%being
typical.
5
Gasturbinesequippedwithwasteheatboilerstypicallyachievenetthermalfuelefficiencies
higherthan80%byrecoveringenergyinthegasturbineexhaust.Aswithopen-cyclegasturbineCHP
systems,part-loadoperationreducestheefficiencyofcombined-cycleCHPsystems.Whengasturbine
generatingefficiencydrops,morewasteheatissuppliedtothesteamturbineanditspercentageofelectric
loadincreases.However,theoverallefficiencydeclinesbecauseoftheincreasingamountofwasteheat
frompart-loadoperationthatcannotberecovered.
120

Typicalelectricity-to-steamratiosforcombinedcyclesrangefrom175to320kWh/MMBtu.Thisis
significantlyhigherthanthoseforsteamturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystemsthatrangefrom30to
75kWh/MMBtuandcomparabletoorslightlyhigherthanopen-cyclegasturbineCHPsystemsthat
rangefrom140to225kWh/MMBtu.However,astheE/Sratioinacombined-cyclesystemincreases,the
overallfuelefficiencydecreases.
5
Gasturbinesrepresentalargerpercentageoftheprimemoverinstalledcoststhandothesteam
turbinesinthesesystems.Maintenancecostsforthecombined-cyclesystemareinfluencedbythetypeof
fuelused.Thelowestmaintenancecostsareassociatedwithnaturalgasuse,whileusingresidualoilinthe
gasturbinewillresultinthehighestmaintenancecosts,primarilybecauseofthenecessitytocleanthe
fuel.Maintenancerequirementsforacombined-cyclesystemaresimilartothosefortheseparateturbines,
andaverageannualavailabilityislowerthanforeithertechnologyalone(77to85%).Reliabilityis
around80to85%.Economicservicelifeisbetween15and25years.However,aswithopen-cyclegas
turbines,poormaintenance,lowerqualityfuels,andintermittentoperationwilldecreasetheavailability,
reliability,andservicelife.
7.4 TRIGENERATION
Trigenerationistheconceptofderivingthreedifferentformsofenergyfromtheprimaryfuelsource,
namely,heating,cooling,andelectricpowergeneration.Systemsbasedonthisconceptareparticularly
relevantatfacilitiesthatneedair-conditioningandforindustriesthatrequireprocesscooling.Atypical
trigenerationfacilityconsistsofacogenerationplantandavaporabsorptionchillerthatusesheat
recoveredfromtheCHPsystemtoproducechilledwaterforcoolingapplications.Theconfigurationofa
trigenerationsystemthatintegratesavaporabsorptionchillerintoagasturbinetopping-cycleCHP
systemisshowninFig.7.17.Usingasimilarapproach,itispossibletodevelopdifferenttrigeneration
configurationssuchastheoneshowninFig.7.18basedonotherCHPsystems.
Althoughcoolingcanbeprovidedbyconventionalvaporcompressionchillersdrivenbyelectric
motors,low-qualityheat(i.e.,lowtemperature,lowpressure)exhaustedfromCHPsystemscanpower
absorptionchillerssothattheoverallprimaryenergyconsumptionisreduced.Absorptionchillersare
designedtoextractheatintheevaporator,whichisplacedinthespacetobecooled,andrejectthisheatin
thecondenser.Vaporabsorptionchillers,whicharewidelyusedinJapanandChina,aregradually
gainingacceptanceintheUnitedStatesandarebeingintegratedintoCHPsystems.Ingeneral,theyare
largerandmoreexpensivethanelectric-drivenchillers,anddirect-firedchillersaremoreexpensiveto
operatewhenelectricityratesarerelativelylow.However,theyaregainingacceptanceasameansfor
controllingelectricitydemandcharges,anditisexpectedthatthisusewillbecomemorewidespreadon
waste-heatfiredsystemsascogenerationtechnologygainsacceptance.
121


Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Emission
Control
Equipment
Electric
Power
Steam
Turbine
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Air
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Electric
Power
Chilled
Water
Generator
Generator
Process
Absorption
Chiller
Fig.7.17.Configurationofatrigenerationsystemfor
ICIboilerapplications.
122

Gas
Turbine
Compressor Generator
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Electric
Power
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
ICIBoiler
orHRSG
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Process
Chilled
Water
Absorption
Chiller
Fig.7.18.Alternativeconfigurationofatrigeneration
systemforICIboilerapplications.
7.5 REFERENCES
1. CombustionFossilPower,4thed.,ed.J.G.Singer,CombustionEngineering,Inc.,Windsor,
Connecticut,1991.
2. Steam,ItsGenerationandUse,40thed.,eds.S.C.StultzandJ.B.Kitto,BabcockandWilcox,
Barberton,Ohio,1992.
3. R.Hite,Cogeneration/CombinedHeatandPower:AnOverview,CogenerationandCompetitive
PowerJournal,ed.,F.W.Payne,Vol.17,No.3,Summer2002,pp.6479.
4. PerformanceTestCodeonOverallPlantPerformance,ASMEPTC46-1996,AmericanSociety
ofMechanicalEngineers,NewYork,1996.
5. IndustrialandCommercialCogeneration,OfficeofTechnologyAssessment,Congressional
Boardofthe98thCongress,Washington,D.C.,February1983.
6. CombinedHeatandPower:AFederalManagersResourceGuide,preparedbyAspenSystems
Corp.fortheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,D.C.,March2000.
7. J.A.Orlando,CogenerationDesignGuide,AmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-
ConditioningEngineers,Inc.,Atlanta,Georgia,1996.
8. TechnologyCharacterization:ReciprocatingEngines,preparedbyEnergyNexusGroupforthe
U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,Washington,D.C.,February2002.
9. TechnologyCharacterization:Microturbines,preparedbyEnergyNexusGroupfortheU.S.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,Washington,D.C.,March2002.
123

124

8. PRELIMINARYDESIGNCONSIDERATIONS
Boilerownersandoperatorsinterestedinincorporatingcogenerationtechnologyintoneworexisting
ICIboilerinstallationsmustfirstdevelopapreliminarydesignofthesystem.Thisdesignshouldinclude
CHPequipmentthatiscompatiblewiththephysicalcharacteristicsandoperatingobjectivesofthe
facility.DevelopingpreliminarydesignsforCHPsystemsthatsatisfythesecriteriarequiresconsideration
ofthermodynamiccycles,primemovers,fuels,andheat-recoveryequipmentoptions.Thefollowing
discussionsprovideboilerownersandoperatorswithtechnicaloptionsfordevelopingpreliminary
designs.
8.1 THERMODYNAMICCYCLES
AsdiscussedinChap.7,heat-recoveryschemesarecategorizedaseithertopping- orbottoming-
cyclesystems,dependingonthesequenceinwhichthefuelisused.Topping-cyclesystemstypicallyuse
heattoproduceelectricityandthenforprocessapplications.Bottoming-cyclesystemsuseenergyinthe
oppositesequence.Whentopping-andbottoming-cyclesystemsarecombined,theycreateadual-cycle
systemknownasacombinedcycle.Mostcombined-cyclesystemshavetheabilitytogenerateelectricity
andheat;butwhenotherequipmentisaddedtothesystemthatproducesacoolingeffect,atrigeneration
systemiscreated.Selectinganappropriatethermodynamiccycleorcyclecombinationisthefirststepin
thepreliminarydesignprocess.InformationpresentedinTable8.1identifiessomeofthemoreimportant
factorstoconsiderwhenchoosingtheappropriatethermodynamiccycleorcyclecombination.
8.2 PRIMEMOVERSELECTION
Steamturbines,gasturbines,microturbines,andreciprocatingenginesarecommonlyusedasprime
moversinCHPapplicationstoconvertenergyintowork.Thesemachinesalongwithfuelcellsareusedto
createtopping-cycle,combined-cycle,andtrigenerationCHPsystems.Acomparisonofprimemover
designandperformancecharacteristicsispresentedinTable3.1.
ThegoalofanyCHPsystemistorecoverasmuchheatfromtheprimemoveraspossibleandmake
itavailableforusefulpurposes.Althoughtherecoveredheatisoftenusedforsteamandhotwater
production,theheatcanalsobeusedforprocessheating,spaceheating,anddirectheatingapplications.
Whenacoolingeffectisneeded,recoveredheatcanbeusedbyabsorptionchillersanddesiccant
dehumidifiersasdiscussedinSects.6.1,and6.2,respectively.
Mechanicalenergyproducedbysteamturbines,gasturbines,andreciprocatingenginesinCHP
applicationsisgenerallyusedtopoweranelectricalgenerator.However,thisenergycanalsobeusedto
powerfans,pumps,aircompressors,andrefrigerationcompressors.Additionalinformationaboutthese
rotatingmachinesandtheirpotentialforuseinCHPapplicationsispresentedinSect.6.3.
SelectingaprimemoverforaparticularCHPapplicationgenerallyinvolvesconsiderationofmany
factors.
1,2
Someofthemoreimportantissuestoconsiderinclude:
thefacilitysthermalandelectricalloadprofile,
primaryandsecondaryfuelsources,
airqualityandemissioncontrolrequirements,
physicalspacelimitations,
acceptablenoiselevels,
theabilityoftheprimemovertomatchtheheatandpowerrequirementsofthefacility,
thedecisionwhethertoparallelwiththeelectricalgridorbetotallyindependent,
125

Table8.1.Factorstoconsiderinchoosinganappropriatethermodynamiccycle
Thermodynamiccycle Newinstallations Existinginstallations
Topping NewICIboilerorfiredHRSG
installationsthatproducehigh-pressure
steamareideallysuitedforintegration
intoasteamturbinetopping-cycleCHP
system.
ExistingICIboilerandHRSG
installationsthatusepressure-reducing
valvesareidealcandidatesfor
integrationintoasteamturbine
topping-cycleCHPsystem.
NewICIboilerorfiredHRSG
installationsthatcanbeusedtorecover
heatfromgasturbines,microturbines,
reciprocatingengines,orfuelcellsare
candidatesforuseintopping-cycle
CHPsystems.
ExistingICIboilerandHRSG
installationsthatneedtoproduce
additionalsteamorhotwater,should
considersupplementingexisting
capacitywitheitheragasturbine,
microturbine,reciprocatingengine,or
fuelcelltopping-cycleCHPsystem.
InstallationswithexistingICIboilersor
firedHRSGsthatcanbemodifiedto
recoverheatfromgasturbines,
microturbines,reciprocatingengines,or
fuelcellsarecandidatesforintegration
intoCHPtopping-cyclesystems.
Bottoming Ifanewinstallationincludesan
independentheatsourcesuchasa
furnaceorkiln,considerintegratingthe
heatsourceintoasteamturbine
bottoming-cycleCHPsystem.Heat
recoveredfromtheprocesscanbeused
toproducesteam,increasethe
temperatureoffeedwater,orpreheat
combustionair.
Iftheinstallationhasanindependentheat
sourcesuchasafurnaceorkilnthat
produceshigh-temperatureexhaust
gasesanditispossibletorecoverheat
fromtheexhaustgasstreaminaheat-
recoverydevicesuchasanunfired
HRSGorheatexchanger,consider
integratingtheheatsourceintoasteam
turbinebottoming-cycleCHPsystem.
Combined NewICIboilerorfiredHRSG
installationsthatarecapableofusing
themechanicalandthermalenergy
generatedbygasturbines,
microturbines,orreciprocatingengines
arecandidatesforuseincombined-
cycleCHPsystems.
ExistingICIboilerorfiredHRSG
installationsthatarecapableofusing
themechanicalandthermalenergy
generatedbygasturbines,
microturbines,orreciprocatingengines
arecandidatesforintegrationinto
combined-cycleCHPsystems.
Trigeneration Ifacombined-cyclesystemisaviable
optionandacoolingeffectisrequired,
consideratrigenerationCHPsystem.
Ifacombined-cyclesystemisaviable
optionandacoolingeffectisrequired,
consideratrigenerationCHPsystem.
thedecisionwhethertosellexcesspowertothelocalutility,
thepreferredandalternativeoperatingstrategiesfortheCHPsystem(seeSect.2.4.1),
theimportanceofsizingtheprimemovertothethermalbaseload,
theavailabilityandreliabilityrequirementsofthesystem.
126

Whenconsideringgeneratingcapacity,itisimportanttorecognizethatanyimbalanceinheat
requirementsresultsinburningsupplementalfuelsorwastingsurplusrecoveredheatthroughtheheat-
rejectionsystem.Tominimizewasteofthermalenergy,theCHPsystemcanbesizedtotrackthe
electricalloadprofileuptothegeneratorcapacity,whichisselectedforathermaloutputthatmatchesthe
valleyofthethermalprofile.Undertheseconditions,whenthethermalloadexceedsthegenerators
profilevalley,supplementalelectricitycanbepurchasedfromtheutility,orthermalenergycanbe
producedbyothermeans.
Forboilerownersandoperatorswithhigh-pressuresteamsystems,avarietyofapplicationsfavor
steamturbinesovergasturbinesandreciprocatingengines.Intopping-cycleapplications,itmaybemore
cost-effectivetousesteamturbinesasareplacementsforpressure-reducingvalvesascomparedto
installinganothertypeofprimemover.Iffacilitiesthathavelow-pressuresteamdistributionsystems,
back-pressureorextractionturbinescanbeapplied.Steamturbinescanalsobeusedquiteeffectivelyin
combined-cycleapplications.
2
Useoflow-costfuelstogeneratethesteamneededtopowersteamturbines
oftengivessteamturbineseconomicadvantagesoverrivalgasturbineandreciprocatingenginesystems.
Comparedtoreciprocatingengines,theeconomicperformanceofgasturbinesimprovewhenpower
isproducedcontinuouslyatfullload,high-temperaturethermalenergyisneededatthesite,andsystem
capacityishigh.Conversely,economicperformanceofreciprocatingenginesimproveswhenoperations
arenotcontinuousorloadsvary,lowertemperaturethermalenergyisneededatthesite,andcapacity
requirementsdecrease.Althoughmoreexpensivetoinstall,fuelcellsmayhaveadvantagesovergas
turbineandreciprocatingenginesystemsinareaswithstringentemissioncontrolrequirements.
8.3 FUELANDEMISSIONCONTROLISSUES
Fuelavailabilityisakeyissuethatcansignificantlyinfluencethermodynamiccycleandprime
moverselectiondecisions.Forexample,installationsthatonlyhaveaccesstosolidfuelaregenerally
limitedtotopping-andbottoming-cyclesteamturbineCHPsystems,butwhenliquidfuelsareavailable,
topping-cycleandcombined-cycleCHPsystemsbasedongasturbine,microturbine,andreciprocating
enginetechnologybecomepossible.Althoughaccesstoliquidfuelsincreasesthenumberofavailable
options,otherfuelissuessuchastransportationandon-sitestorageneedtobeconsidered.Gaseousfuels
representthemostversatilefueloption.Theycanbesuppliedtothesiteondemand,theydonotrequire
on-sitestorage,theyburncleanly,andtheyproducerelativelylowlevelsofregulatedairpollutants.
Gaseousfuelsareavailableinmost,butnotall,areasoftheUnitedStates.Naturalgas,whichisasuitable
gaseousfuelforalltypesofprimemoversusedinanythermodynamiccycle,isthepreferredfuelchoice
formostnewCHPapplications.
Thetypeandamountofemissionsreleasedintotheatmospherewhenfuelisburneddepend
primarilyonthechemicalcompositionofthefuelandthewaythefuelisburned.Ingeneral,combustion
ofsolidfuelsandresidualoilstendstoproducemoretypesofemissionsthancombustionofdistillateoils
andgaseousfuels.EmissionsofprimaryconcerntoCHPsystemownersandoperatorsinclude
NO
x
,
SO
2
,
PM,
CO,
HAP,and
VOC.
Discussionsaboutenvironmentalregulationsandemissionstandardsforairandwaterpollutantsare
presentedinSect.2.3.1.Understandingtheseregulationsandknowingwhichtechniquesareavailablefor
127


controllingemissionlevelsisanimportantpartofthepreliminarydesignprocess,andenvironmental
complianceiskeytoobtainingconstructionandoperatingpermitsfromfederal,state,orlocal
environmentalregulatoryauthorities.
Techniquesavailableforreducingairemissionsaresubdividedintothefollowingcategories.
Precombustion,
Combustion,and
Postcombustion.
EmissioncontroltechniquesthatcanbeappliedtoICIboilersandfiredHRSGsarepresentedin
Tables4.44.6.Correspondinginformationaboutemissioncontroloptionsforgasturbines,
microturbines,reciprocatingengines,andfuelscellarepresentedinSects.3.2.2.6,3.3.2.6,3.4.2.6,and
3.5.2.6,respectively.
ThecostofCHPfuel,whichcanbeasmuchas60%to80%ofthesystemsoperatingcost,
3
isthe
predominantfactorinestablishingCHPeconomicviability.Fuelpriceanditsfluctuationsarealso
importantbecausetheyhaveadirectimpactontheproductioncostofelectricity.Inexpensivefuelssuch
aswoodwastemakeidealfuelsforCHPapplicationsiftheyarereadilyavailablenearthesiteanddonot
requiretreatmentpriortocombustion.Theunitcostofelectricitygeneratedbytheircombustionisoften
muchlessthantheunitcostofelectricitypurchasedfromtheutility.Asthedifferencebetweenthe
generatedandpurchasedcostofelectricityincreases,themorelikelytheCHPwillbeeconomically
viable.Ausefultoolforscreeningeconomicviabilityofnatural-gas-poweredCHPsystemsisavailablein
theCombinedHeatandPower(CHP)ResourceGuide.
4
Thisspreadsheettoolcomparestheaveragecost
differencebetweenelectricityandnaturalgastoidentifyCHPsystemswithfavorablepaybackpotential.
AsthecostoffuelfortheCHPsystemincreases,thepaybackperiodlengthens,and,atsomepoint,
cogenerationbecomesuneconomical.Estimatedsimplepaybackperiodsfornatural-gas-poweredCHP
systemswithdifferentinstallationcostsarepresentedinTables8.2and8.3.Correspondingpayback
periodsforoil-poweredCHPsystemsarepresentedinTables8.4and8.5.Trendsforotherfuelsandother
installationcostsfollowasimilarpattern.
ReviewofdatainTables8.2through8.5suggeststhatapaybackperiodof2yearsorlessisonly
possiblewhen(1)theaveragecostofelectricitypurchasedfromtheutilityiscomparativelyhighor
(2)theaveragecostoffuelfortheCHPsystemiscomparativelylow.Thedataalsoindicatethatfuelcost
andelectricitypricecombinationsproducenocostsavings.Theseundesirableconditionstendtooccur
wheneverfuelcostsarehighorelectricitycostsarelow.Usingthistypeofasimplepaybackanalysiscan
helpidentifywhethereconomicbenefitscanbederivedbyinstallingaCHPsystem.Insituationswhere
noeconomicbenefitcanbederived,continuationofCHPplanningneedstobebasedonreasonsother
thaneconomics.
8.4 HEAT-RECOVERYSCHEMES
HeatrecoveryisanessentialpartofaCHPsystem.Theroleoftheheat-recoveryequipmentisto
makeheatthatwouldotherwisebewasteavailableforusefulwork.Rejectedheatfromprimemoversand
otherheatsourcescanberecoveredineitherunfiredorfiredheat-recoveryequipment.Thesevarious
typesofheat-recoveryequipmentarecommonlyusedinCHPapplications:
unfiredHRSG,
heat-recoverymuffler,
regenerator,
recuperator,
ebullientcoolingsystem,
128

129
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forcedcirculationsystem,
aftercooler,
heatexchanger,
supplementaryfiredheatrecoverysteamgenerator,and
ICIboiler.
Additionalinformationabouttheseheat-recoverydevicesispresentedinChap.4.
8.5 CHPOPTIONS
PreliminarydesignsforCHPsystemscanbedevelopedbyfirstselectingathermodynamiccycleand
aprimemoverandthenchoosingappropriateheat-recoveryequipment.Tohelpidentifythevarious
factorsthatshouldbeconsideredandtheequipmentoptionsthatareavailablefordevelopingpreliminary
designs,aseriesofdiagramshasbeenprepared.Thesediagramslisttheheat-recoveryequipmentoptions,
fueloptions,optionsforusingmechanicalandthermalenergy,potentialairemissions,andemission
controloptionsforthefollowing12CHPsystems:
Topping-cycleCHPsystems
9 Back-pressuresteamturbineCHPsystem(Fig.8.1)
9 Extraction-condensingsteamturbineCHPsystem(Fig.8.2)
9 Open-cyclegasturbineCHPsystemwithoutrecuperator(Fig.8.3)
9 Open-cyclegasturbineCHPsystemwithrecuperator(Fig.8.4)
9 MicroturbineCHPsystemwithconventionalgenerator(Fig.8.5)
9 MicroturbineCHPsystemwithhigh-speedgenerator(Fig.8.6)
9 ReciprocatingengineCHPsystem(Fig.8.7)
9 FuelcellCHPsystem(Fig.8.8)
Bottoming-cycleCHPsystem(Fig.8.9)
Combined-cycleCHPsystems
9 CHPsystem(Fig.8.10)
9 CHPsystemwithfeedwaterheating(Fig.8.11)
TrigenerationCHPsystem(Fig.8.12)
Becausethesediagramsweredevelopedprimarilyforboilerownersandoperators,alloftheCHP
systemsincludeeitheranICIboilerorafiredorunfiredHRSG.DiagramsforCHPsystemsbasedon
closed-cyclegasturbinetechnology,discussedinSect.7.1.2.2,werenotpreparedbecausethesesystems
arecurrentlynotavailableintheUnitedStates.ManyotherCHPsystemconfigurationscouldbe
developed,ifnecessary,butthese12systemsrepresentthosemostlikelytobeconsideredbyboiler
ownersandoperatorsforneworexistinginstallations.
133

High-
Pressure
Steam
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
Steam
Generator
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Thermal
Energy
Medium-orLow-
PressureSteam
Back-Pressure
SteamTurbine
Mechanical
Energy
Steam Steam Optionsfor Optionsfor Potential Emission
Generator GeneratorFuel UsingMechanical UsingThermal Air Control
Options Options Energy Energy Emissions Options
ICIBoiler SolidFuel Electrical ProcessHeating NOx Pre-Combustion
FiredHRSG Coal
Biomass
Tire-derived
MunicipalSolid
Waste
LiquidFuel
DistillateOil
ResidualOil
GaseousFuel
NaturalGas
Propane
RefineryGas
(SeeTable4.3)
Generator
Fan
Pump
Compressor
Air
Refrigeration
SpaceHeating
SteamProduction
HotWater
Production
Absorption
Chilling
Desiccant
Dehumidification
SO
2
PM
CO
CO
2
HAP
VOC
Combustion
Post-Combustion
(SeeTables4.4,
4.5,and4.6)
Fig.8.1.Back-pressuresteamturbinetopping-cycle
CHPsystemoptions.
134


Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Steam
Generator
Mechanical
Energy
Thermal
Energy Condenser
Extraction-Condensing
SteamTurbine
Medium-Pressure
Steam
High-
Pressure
Steam
Low-
Pressure
Steam
Steam Steam Optionsfor Optionsfor Potential Emission
Generator GeneratorFuel UsingMechanical UsingThermal Air Control
Options Options Energy Energy Emissions Options
ICIBoiler SolidFuel Electrical ProcessHeating NOx Pre-Combustion
FiredHRSG Coal
Biomass
Tire-derived
MunicipalSolid
Waste
LiquidFuel
DistillateOil
ResidualOil
GaseousFuel
NaturalGas
Propane
RefineryGas
(SeeTable4.3)
Generator
Fan
Pump
Compressor
Air
Refrigeration
SpaceHeating
SteamProduction
HotWater
Production
Absorption
Chilling
Desiccant
Dehumidification
SO
2
PM
CO
CO
2
HAP
VOC
Combustion
Post-Combustion
(SeeTables4.4,
4.5,and4.6)
Fig.8.2. Extraction-condensingsteamturbinetopping-
cycleCHPsystemoptions.
135

Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Mechanical
Energy
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
Heat-
Recovery
Device
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Thermal
Energy
High-,Medium-,orLow-
PressureSteam
HotWater
Heat- GasTurbine Optionsfor Optionsfor Potential Emission
Recovery Fuel UsingMechanical UsingThermal Air Control
Options Options Energy Energy Emissions Options
ICIBoiler LiquidFuel Electrical ProcessHeating NOx Combustion
FiredHRSG DistillateOil Generator SpaceHeating SO
2
Post-
UnfiredHRSG ResidualOil Fan* DirectHeating
PM
Combustion
Recuperator Pump* FeedwaterHeating
CO
(SeeTables
(notshown) GaseousFuel Compressor* SteamProduction
CO
2
4.4and4.5)
Gas-to-Liquid NaturalGas Air HotWater
HeatExchanger RefineryGas Refrigeration Production
HAP
(feedwater Biogas AbsorptionChilling
VOC
heating,not LPG Desiccant
shown) *Limitedapplications
(SeeSect.6.3)
Dehumidification
Fig.8.3. Open-cyclegasturbinetopping-cycleCHP
system(withoutrecuperator)options.
136

Air
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Recuperator
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
Emission
Control
Equipment
Gas
Turbine
Thermal
Energy
Mechanical
Energy
Heat-
Recovery
Device
High-,Medium-,orLow-
PressureSteam
HotWater
Heat- GasTurbine Optionsfor Optionsfor Potential Emission
Recovery Fuel UsingMechanical UsingThermal Air Control
Options Options Energy Energy Emissions Options
ICIBoiler LiquidFuel Electrical ProcessHeating NOx Combustion
FiredHRSG DistillateOil Generator SpaceHeating SO
2
Post-
UnfiredHRSG ResidualOil Fan* DirectHeating
PM
Combustion
Recuperator Pump* FeedwaterHeating
CO
(SeeTables
Gas-to-Liquid GaseousFuel Compressor* SteamProduction
CO
2
4.4and4.5)
HeatExchanger NaturalGas Air HotWater
(feedwater RefineryGas Refrigeration Production
HAP
heating,not Biogas AbsorptionChilling
VOC
shown) LPG
*Limitedapplications
(SeeSect.6.3)
Desiccant
Dehumidification
Fig.8.4. Open-cyclegasturbinetopping-cycleCHP
system(withrecuperator)options.
137

Compressor
Air
Air
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Recuperator
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
Emission
Control
Equipment
Gas
Turbine
Heat-
Recovery
Device
Thermal
Energy
Low-PressureSteam
HotWater
Conventional
Generator
Electric
Power
Heat- Microturbine Optionsfor Optionsfor Potential Emission
Recovery Fuel UsingMechanical UsingThermal Air Control
Options Options Energy Energy Emissions Options
ICIBoiler LiquidFuel Electrical ProcessHeating NOx Combustion
FiredHRSG Fueloil Generator(AC) SpaceHeating SO
2
Post-
UnfiredHRSG DieselFuel DirectHeating
PM
Combustion
Recuperator Gasoline FeedwaterHeating
CO
(SeeTable4.4
Gas-to-Liquid Kerosene SteamProduction
CO
2
and4.5)
HeatExchanger HotWater
(feedwater GaseousFuel Production
HAP
heating,not NaturalGas AbsorptionChilling
VOC
shown) RefineryGas
Biogas
LPG
Desiccant
Dehumidification
Fig.8.5. Microturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(with
conventionalgenerator)options.
138

Compressor
Air
Air
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Recuperator
High-Speed
Generator
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Electric
Power
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
Emission
Control
Equipment
Gas
Turbine
Rectifier Inverter
Heat-
Recovery
Device
Thermal
Energy
Low-PressureSteam
HotWater
Heat- Microturbine Optionsfor Optionsfor Potential Emission
Recovery Fuel UsingMechanical UsingThermal Air Control
Options Options Energy Energy Emissions Options
ICIBoiler LiquidFuel Electrical ProcessHeating NOx Combustion
FiredHRSG Fueloil Generator(DC) SpaceHeating SO
2
Post-
UnfiredHRSG DieselFuel DirectHeating
PM
Combustion
Recuperator Gasoline FeedwaterHeating
CO
(SeeTable4.4
Gas-to-Liquid Kerosene SteamProduction
CO
2
and4.5)
HeatExchanger HotWater
(feedwater GaseousFuel Production
HAP
heating,not NaturalGas AbsorptionChilling
VOC
shown) RefineryGas
Biogas
LPG
Desiccant
Dehumidification
Fig.8.6. Microturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystem(with
high-speedgenerator)options.
139

Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
Emission
Control
Equipment
Mechanical
Energy
ReciprocatingEngine
Turbocharger Water Oil
Low-Pressure
Steam
Heat-
Recovery
Device
Thermal
Energy
Thermal
Energy
Heat
Recovery
Muffler
Air
Feedwater
HotWater
Engine
Exhaust
Heat- Reciprocating Optionsfor Optionsfor Potential Emission
Recovery EngineFuel UsingMechanical UsingThermal Air Control
Options Options Energy Energy Emissions Options
ICIBoiler LiquidFuel Electrical ProcessHeating NOx Combustion
FiredHRSG Fueloil Generator DirectHeating SO
2
Post-
Heat-Recovery DieselFuel Fan SpaceHeating
PM
Combustion
Muffler Pump FeedwaterHeating
CO
(SeeTable4.4
EngineCooling GaseousFuel Compressor SteamProduction
CO
2
and4.5)
System
Ebullient
Forced
NaturalGas
RefineryGas
LPG
Air
Refrigeration
HotWater
Production
AbsorptionChilling
HAP
VOC
Circulation Desiccant
Aftercooler Dehumidification
Fig.8.7. Reciprocatingenginetopping-cycleCHP
systemoptions.
140

FuelCell
Fuel
Options
GaseousFuel
NaturalGas
SyntheticGas
Biogas
LPG
Hydrogen
Potential
Air
Emissions
Almostno
regulated
pollutants
Heat-
Recovery
Options
ICIBoiler
FiredHRSG
Liquid-to-Liquid
HeatExchanger
(feedwater
heating)
Optionsfor
UsingMechanical
Energy
None
Optionsfor
UsingThermal
Energy
ProcessHeating
SpaceHeating
FeedwaterHeating
SteamProduction
HotWater
Production
AbsorptionChilling
Desiccant
Dehumidification
Emission
Control
Options
Usuallynot
required
Inverter
Alternating
Current
Electric
Power
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
Heat-
Recovery
Device
Air
Emission
Control
Equipment
Fuel
Reformer
Direct
Current
Electric
Power
Processed
Fuel
Fuel
Air
Thermal
Energy
Steam
Feedwater
Exhaust
Gas
FuelCell
Stack
Heat
Exchanger
Fig.8.8. Fuelcelltopping-cycleCHPsystemoptions.
141

Steam
Turbine
Mechanical
Energy
Exhaust
Gas
Emission
Control
Equipment
Thermal
Energy
Heat-
Recovery
Device
Industrial
Process
Heat
Source
ProcessExhaustGas
Medium-orLow-
PressureSteam
High-
Pressure
Steam
Heat-Recovery Fuel Optionsfor Optionsfor Potential Emission
Options Options UsingMechanical
Energy
UsingThermal
Energy
Air
Emissions
Control
Options
UnfiredHRSG Industrial Electrical DirectDrying Industrial Industrial
Gas-to-Liquid Process Generator ProcessHeating Process Process
HeatExchanger Dependent Fan SpaceHeating Dependent Dependent
(feedwater Pump Feedwater
heating,not Compressor Heating
shown) Air SteamProduction
Gas-to-GasHeat Refrigeration HotWater
Exchange Production
(combustionair Absorption
heating,not Chilling
shown) Desiccant
Dehumidification
Fig.8.9. Bottoming-cycleCHPsystemoptions.
142

Fuel
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Air
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Medium-orLow-
PressureSteam
Gas
Turbine
Steam
Turbine
Compressor
Exhaust
Gas
Heat-
Recovery
Device
Thermal
Energy
Mechanical
Energy
Mechanical
Energy
Emission
Control
Equipment
High-
Pressure
Steam
Heat- GasTurbine Optionsfor Optionsfor Potential Emission
Recovery Fuel UsingMechanical UsingThermal Air Control
Options Options Energy Energy Emissions Options
ICIBoiler LiquidFuel GasTurbine ProcessHeating NOx Combustion
FiredHRSG DistillateOil Electrical SpaceHeating SO
2
Post-
UnfiredHRSG ResidualOil Generator DirectHeating
PM
Combustion
Recuperator Fan* FeedwaterHeating
CO
(SeeTable4.4
(notshown) GaseousFuel
NaturalGas
RefineryGas
Biogas
LPG
Pump*
Compressor*
Air
Refrigeration
SteamTurbine
Electrical
Generator
Fan
Pump
Compressor
Air
Refrigeration
*Limitedapplications
(SeeSect.6.3)
SteamProduction
HotWater
Production
AbsorptionChilling
Desiccant
Dehumidification
CO
2
HAP
VOC
and4.5)
Fig.8.10.Combined-cycleCHPsystemoptions.
143

Fuel
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Air
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Medium-orLow-
PressureSteam
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Heat
Exchanger
Steam
Turbine
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Exhaust
Gas
Heat-
Recovery
Device
Thermal
Energy
Mechanical
Energy
Mechanical
Energy
Emission
Control
Equipment
High-
Pressure
Steam
Heat- GasTurbine Optionsfor Optionsfor Potential Emission
Recovery Fuel UsingMechanical UsingThermal Air Control
Options Options Energy Energy Emissions Options
ICIBoiler LiquidFuel GasTurbine ProcessHeating NOx Combustion
FiredHRSG DistillateOil Electrical SpaceHeating SO
2
Post-
UnfiredHRSG ResidualOil Generator DirectHeating
PM
Combustion
Recuperator Fan* FeedwaterHeating
CO
(SeeTables
(notshown) GaseousFuel Pump* SteamProduction
CO
2
4.4and4.5)
Gas-to-Liquid NaturalGas Compressor* HotWater
HeatExchanger RefineryGas Air Production
HAP
(feedwater Biogas Refrigeration AbsorptionChilling
VOC
heating) LPG
SteamTurbine
Electrical
Generator
Fan
Pump
Compressor
Air
Refrigeration
*Limitedapplications
(SeeSect.6.3)
Desiccant
Dehumidification
Fig.8.11.Combined-cycleCHPsystem(withfeedwater
heating)options.
144

Mechanical
Power

Mechanical
Power

GasTurbine
Fuel
Options
LiquidFuel
DistillateOil
ResidualOil
GaseousFuel
NaturalGas
RefineryGas
Biogas
LPG
Potential
Air
Emissions
NOx
SO
2
PM
CO
CO
2
HAP
VOC
Heat-
Recovery
Options
ICIBoiler
FiredHRSG
UnfiredHRSG
Recuperator
(notshown)
Gas-to-Liquid
HeatExchanger
(feedwater
heating,not
shown)
Optionsfor
UsingMechanical
Energy
GasTurbine
Electrical
Generator
Fan*
Pump*
Compressor*
Air
Refrigeration
SteamTurbine
Electrical
Generator
Fan
Pump
Compressor
Air
Refrigeration
*Limitedapplications
(SeeSect.6.3)
Optionsfor
UsingThermal
Energy
ProcessHeating
SpaceHeating
DirectHeating
FeedwaterHeating
SteamProduction
HotWater
Production
AbsorptionChilling
Desiccant
Dehumidification
Emission
Control
Options
Combustion
Post-
Combustion
(SeeTables
4.4and4.5)
Thermal
Energy
High-
Pressure
Steam
Medium-orLow-
PressureSteam
Fuel
Exhaust
Gas
Emission
Control
Equipment
Steam
Turbine
Gas
Turbine
Exhaust
Air
Gas
Turbine
Compressor
Combustion
Chamber
Fuel
Air
Chilled
Water
Mechanical
Energy
Absorption
Chiller
Heat-
Recovery
Device
Mechanical
Energy
Fig.8.12.TrigenerationCHPsystemoptions.Source:Ref.1.
145

8.6 REFERENCES
1. CogenerationSystemsandEngineandTurbineDrives,Chapter7,ASHRAEHandbookHVAC
SystemsandEquipment,AmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-ConditioningEngineers,
Inc.,Atlanta,Georgia,July6,2000.
2. N.Petchers,CombinedHeating,CoolingandPowerHandbook:TechnologiesandApplications,
TheFairmontPress,Inc.,Lilburn,Georgia,2003.
3. J.A.Orlando,CogenerationDesignGuide,AmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-
ConditioningEngineers,Inc.,Atlanta,Georgia,1996.
4. CombinedHeatandPower(CHP)ResourcesGuide,MidwestCHPApplicationCenter,
UniversityofIllinoisatChicago,September2003.
146

9. FEASIBILITYEVALUATION
IntegratingcogenerationtechnologyintoaneworexistingICIboilerinstallationhasthepotentialto
savefuelresources.However,thereisnoassuranceofeconomicbenefitsduetofactorssuchasthe
varyingnatureoffuelandelectricityprices,financialenvironments,andregulatoryrequirementsthatare
beyondthecontrolofboilerownersandoperators.Siteswithreasonablyhighelectricalloadfactors,high
annualoperatinghours,andfairlyconstantandmatchingelectricalandthermalenergydemandprofiles
representgoodcandidatesforCHPprojectswithaboveaveragepotentialforeconomicsuccess.
InstallationswitheitherlowelectricityratesorhighCHPfuelcostsgenerallyhavehigherthanaverage
financialrisk.Tohelpassurepositiveeconomicbenefits,CHPprojectsneedtoincorporatetechnical
featuresthatareoptimizedtomeetbothheatandpowerdemandsofthesite.Developinganoptimal
solutionrequiresknowledgeofthesiteenergyrequirementsandanunderstandingofthevariousCHP
optionsthatarecapableofsatisfyingtheserequirements.
Cogenerationprojectsaregenerallycharacterizedasviablewhenthedifferentformsofenergy
producedonsitehaveahighervaluethantheinvestmentandoperatingcostsincurredbythefacility.
DeterminingwhetheraCHPprojectisviableinvolvesconsiderationofcomplexandinterrelatedissues.
BecausethecostofCHPfuelcanbeasmuchas60%to75%ofthesystemsoperatingcost,
1
theeffects
offuelpricefluctuationsoverthelifeoftheprojectmustnotbeignored.Insomecases,therevenue
generatedfromthesaleofexcesselectricityandheatorthecostofavailingstandbyconnectionmustalso
betakenintoconsideration.Moredifficulttoquantifyaretheindirectbenefitsthatmayaccruefromthe
CHPproject,suchasavoidanceofeconomiclossesassociatedwithadisruptionintheelectricalgridand
improvementsinproductivityandproductquality.Keyfactorsthatshouldbeconsideredwhenassessing
CHPprojecteconomicsinclude
initialinvestmentandcostofcapital,
operatingandmaintenancecosts,
purchasepriceoffuelandelectricity,and
salepriceofelectricityandheatsoldoffsite,ifapplicable.
Althougheconomicbenefitisoftentheprimaryconditionforprojectacceptance,otherfactorssuch
asthereliabilityoftheenergysupplymaybeequallyormoreimportant.Someindustrialprocessesare
extremelysensitivetoanydisruptionofenergysupplythatresultsinproductionlosses.Forthese
situations,thecostofgeneratingelectricityonsitemaybeasecondaryconcerncomparedtomaintaining
production.Successfulapplicationsofindustrialcogenerationtechnologygenerallyinvolve
maximizingtheuseofelectricitygeneratedonsite,
assuringcontinuousoperationoftheprocessesatnominalconditions,and
avoidingthegenerationofexcessthermalenergy.
ManydifferentapproacheshavebeenadoptedforevaluatingtheviabilityofcandidateCHP
systems.
25
Theseapproachesattempttoformalizethecomplexevaluationprocessusingaflowchart
withcriteriaformakingrationaldecisionsaboutwhethertoimplementcogenerationtechnology.The
simpleframeworkforevaluatingtheviabilityofaCHPprojectthatisshowninFig.9.1identifiessomeof
themoreimportantfactorsthatICIboilerownersandoperatorsshouldconsiderwhenevaluatingpotential
applicationsandbenefitsofcogenerationtechnologyattheirfacilities.Keyactionsrepresentedinthis
frameworkfollow:
147

CollectSite-SpecificData
andAssessTechnical
Feasibility
IsCHP
Technically
Feasible?
Yes
IdentifyCHPOptions
andDevelopPreliminary
CHPSystemDesigns
ConductEconomic
ScreeningAnalysisof
EachCHPSystem
IsCHP
Economically
Feasible?
Yes
EstablishStrategiesfor
Overcoming
ImplementationBarriers
Yes
ImplementCHP
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Terminate
CHP
Planning
No
No
Fig.9.1.Frameworkforevaluatingtheviabilityofa
CHPproject.
characterizingthermalandelectricalenergydemandpatternsbasedonsite-specificdata,
determiningifCHPistechnicallyfeasibility,
identifyingdifferentCHPoptionsanddevelopingpreliminaryCHPsystemdesigns,
conductinganeconomicscreeninganalysisofeachpreliminaryCHPsystemdesign,
selectingthepreferredCHPsystembasedonestablishedfinancialandtechnicalacceptancecriteria,
and
establishingstrategiesforovercomingbarrierstoimplementation.
148
IsCHPViable?


OnlywhenaCHPsystemisbothtechnicallyandeconomicallyfeasibleandstrategiesforaddressing
implementationbarriersareidentifiedisthereaneedtoproceedwithprojectplans.
6
9.1 EVALUATINGCOGENERATIONPOTENTIAL
Evaluatingcogenerationpotentialisamultistageprocessthatbeginswithanunderstandingofthe
infrastructureandoperatingrequirementsoftheICIboilerinstallation.Anotherstrategicelementisthe
identificationoffacilitygoalsandobjectivesthatcanbeusedasscreeningcriteriathroughoutthe
evaluationprocess.
7
Forsomeinstallations,theprimarygoalistoreducetheamountofpurchased
electricityandreplaceitwithlowercostelectricitygeneratedonsite.Thismayinvolveeither
generatingsomeoftheelectricityneededatthesiteandpurchasingtheremainderfromthelocal
utilityoranotherpowerprovider,or
generatingalloftheelectricityneededatthesiteandmakingtheexcess,ifany,availabletothe
electricalgridforresale.
Ifreliabilityisthemostimportantobjective,thencriticalloadsoroperatingconditionsmustbe
identified,sosufficienton-sitegeneratingcapacitycanbeavailablewhenneeded.Establishingtheproject
objectiveshelpsfocusthetechnicalandeconomicevaluationsonissuesthatarebothrelevantand
important.
Becausemanydecisionsarerequiredtoevaluatethefeasibilityofcogenerationtechnologyata
particularICIboilerinstallation,itisimportanttokeepinmindthediversenatureofthetechnicaland
economicissuesthatneedtobeconsideredinthedecision-makingprocess.Ingeneral,theseissuesfocus
on
site-specificdatacollectionincluding
9 identificationofenergy-savingopportunities
9 preliminaryscreeningtoidentifycandidateCHPsystemswithgoodpotentialforeconomic
success
preliminarydesignsfortechnicallyfeasibleCHPsystems
economicscreeninganalysistoeliminateCHPsystemsthatarenotpracticalandtoidentifyCHP
systemsworthfurtherconsideration
health,safety,andenvironmentalissuesincluding
9 noiseandvibration
9 engineeringbarriersandadministrativecontrols
9 electricalhazards
9 emissionscontrol
9 constructionandoperatingpermits
interfaceconsiderationsinvolvingtheelectricalgrid.
9.1.1 Walk-ThroughandDataCollection
InevaluatingthefeasibilityofaCHPprojectatanexistingICIboilerinstallation,itisimportantto
conductawalk-throughtocollectsite-specificdataaboutthefacilityanditsenergyrequirements.
2,3
Objectivesofthewalk-throughanddatacollectioneffortaretoacquiresufficientinformationto
determinewhethercogenerationisbothtechnicallyandeconomicallyfeasible.
6
Typesofinformationthat
maybeusefulinclude
149

_______________________________________

spaceavailabilityandinfrastructurecompatibility,
power-to-heatratio,
requiredqualityofthermalenergy,
electricalandthermalenergydemandpatterns,
fuelpriceandavailability,
requiredsystemreliability,
applicableenvironmentalregulationsandpermittingrequirements,
dependabilityoftheelectricalgrid,
optionsforsellingexcesselectricity,steam,orhotwatertothelocalutilityorathirdparty,and
acceptablepaybackperiod.
Fornewinstallations,itisimportantforboilerownersandoperatorstobeinvolvedinidentifying
CHPoptionsandalternativesatanearlystageintheplanningprocess.Muchoftheinformationneeded
forexistinginstallationsisalsorequiredtodeterminewhethercogenerationistechnicallyand
economicallyfeasiblefornewinstallations.
BecausethereisnoassurancethataCHPprojectwillproduceeconomicbenefits,walk-throughand
datacollectionactivitiesshouldbecompletedwithoutspendingasignificantamountoftimeormoney.
UsefulresourcessuchastheexampledatacollectionsheetshowninFig.9.2andawalk-throughchecklist
developedbytheMidwestCHPApplicationCenter(www.chpcentermw.org)areavailabletosimplifythe
taskofsurveyingthesiteandcollectingrelevantdata.
5
ElectricalRequirements
Averagedemandduringoperatinghours__________kW
Minimumdemandduringoperatinghours__________kW
Peakdemandduringoperatinghours__________kW
Annualelectricityconsumption__________kWh
ThermalRequirements
Formofthermalenergyuse__________steam__________hotwater
__________other(specify)
Whatistheprimaryapplicationforthermalenergyattheplant?
Averagedemandduringoperatinghours__________lbs/hr,Btu/hr,Btufuel/hr
(circlecorrectunits)
Minimumdemandduringoperatinghours__________lbs/hr,Btu/hr,Btufuel/hr
Peakdemandduringoperatinghours__________lbs/hr,Btu/hr,Btufuel/hr
Requiredconditions__________lbs/hr,Btu/hr,Btufuel/hr
OperatingConditions
Nominaloperatinghoursperyear__________hoursperyear
Numberofhoursperyearthatelectricalandthermalloadsaresimultaneouslyator
aboveaveragevalues__________hoursperyear
EnergyRates
Averageretailelectricrate__________cents/kWh
Peakdemandcharge(ifapplicable)__________$/kW/month
Fuelprice__________$/mmBtu,$/therm,$/gal(circleappropriateunits)
SiteConditions
Istheresufficientfloorspace(insideoroutsideforaCHPinstallation?
__________Yes__________No
Isadequatefuelaccessible/availableforaCHPinstallation?__________Yes
__________No
AretherespecificenvironmentalorzoningrestrictionsthatmayprecludeaCHP
installation?__________Yes__________No
Fig.9.2. Exampledatacollectionsheet.
150

9.1.1.1 Energysavingsopportunities
Thewalk-throughanddatacollectionphaseofthefeasibilityevaluationisanidealtimetoperforma
siteenergyaudit.Itspurposeistoidentifynon-CHPenergy-efficiencymeasureswithpotentialfor
reducingelectricityandfuelconsumption.Ifthermalandelectricalenergyconsumptioncanbereduced
throughotherenergy-efficiencymeasures,thenasmallerCHPsystemmaybeappropriate.
8
Althougha
smallerCHPsystemwilllikelycostless,thebenefitsmaynotbeespeciallysignificantbecause
economiesofscalemaybelost.
Energy-efficiencymeasuressuchasturningoffequipmentandlightsthatarenotbeingused,setting
backthermostatsduringnightsandweekends,andinformingemployeesaboutenergyawareness
representsimple,no-costmethodsforreducingenergyconsumption.Othermethods,likeinsulatingsteam
andchilledwaterpipes,cleaningheattransfersurfaces,andreplacingdefectivesteamtraps,generally
havepaybackperiodsof1yearorless.Inmanyindustrialfacilities,itisoftenpossiblethroughsystem
improvementsandnewtechnologiestoreducetheamountofenergyconsumedbycompressedair,pump,
motor,steam,andprocessheatingsystems.Energysavingsrealizedbyimplementingsystem
improvementsandnewtechnologyprojectsareoftencost-effective,andthepaybackperiodformanyof
theseprojectsis2yearsorless.
TheDOEIndustrialTechnologiesProgram(ITP)hasdevelopedavarietyofresourcestohelp
addressindustrialenergymanagementneeds(www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices/pubs.shtml).Softwaretools
anddatabasesareavailableforconductingself-assessmentsofinsulation,steam,compressedair,motor,
pump,andprocessheatingsystems.Thesesoftwaretools,whicharedescribedinTable9.1,arebeing
usedbyalltypesofindustriestoidentifyenergysavingsopportunities.Publications,intheformoftip
sheets,thatmaybeusefulinidentifyingwaystoreduceenergyconsumptionarealsoavailable.A
compilationoftipsheettitlesandenergysavingopportunitiesispresentedinTable9.2.Systemwide
andcomponent-specifictrainingsessionsarealsoofferedtohelpmaketheself-assessmentprocess
moreeffective(www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices/training/).Informationaboutspecificenergy-
savingsopportunitiesisdocumentedincasestudiesformanytypesofindustrialfacilities
(www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices/case_studies.shtml).Tohelppromoteenergyefficiency,ITPissues
EnergyMatters,aquarterlynewsletterthatisaresourcefornews,technicaltips,andcasestudies
(www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices/energymatters/energy_matters.shtml).
9.1.1.2 Preliminaryscreening
Beforeproceedingwiththefeasibilityevaluation,itisimportanttounderstandhowfueland
electricitypricescanaffectCHPeconomics.AsdiscussedinSect.2.1,aCHPsystemisgenerallynot
economicallyviableunlessthecostofgeneratingelectricityonsiteislessthanthecostofpurchasing
electricityfromthelocalutility.Anumberofscreeningtoolshavebeendevelopedspecificallytohelp
identifycandidateCHPsystemswithgoodpotentialforeconomicsuccess.
TheCHPWalk-throughPaybackEstimatorisasimpletoolforquicklyassessingtheeconomic
potentialofnatural-gasandoil-firedCHPsystems.Analysiscanbeperformedon-lineat
www.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/cgiwrap?user=chpcalc&script=CHP_payback.cgi.Afterenteringtheaverageprice
ofelectricity,theaveragepriceoffuel(naturalgasoroil),thenumberofoperatinghours,andthe
estimatedunitcostoftheinstalledCHPsystem,thesoftwarecalculatesannualcostsavingsandsimple
payback.
SampleresultsobtainedusingthissoftwarearepresentedinTables8.28.5forCHPsystemsthat
operatefor8,000h/yearwithaninstalledcostofeither$500or$2,000/kW.Similarparametricstudies
performedusingtheCHPWalk-throughPaybackEstimatorcanalsobeperformedtocharacterizethe
economicsignificanceoffuelandelectricitypricevariations.Althoughmeaningfulresultscanbe
151

Table9.1.Softwareforidentifyingenergysavingsopportunities
Energysavingsopportunity Software
a
Calculatetheeconomicthicknessofthermalinsulation 3EPlus

,Version3.2
Assesstheefficiencyofpumpingsystemoperations PumpingSystemAssessmentTool(PSAT)
Selectenergy-efficientmotors MotorMaster+4.0
Assesscompressedairsystems AIRMaster+1.0.9
Determinetheeconomicfeasibilityofanadjustable-speed
driveapplication
ASDMaster
Profileandgradesteamsystemoperationsandmanagement.
Thisspreadsheettoolwillassistyouinevaluatingyoursteam
systemoperationsagainstidentifiedbestpractices
SteamSystemScopingTool,1.0d
Assesspotentialsavingsfromindividualizedsteam-system
improvements.Thissoftwareusesinputdataaboutaplants
conditionstogenerateresultsdetailingtheenergy,cost,and
emissionssavingsthatvariousimprovementscouldachieve
SteamSystemAssessmentTool(SSAT1.0.0)
Surveyallprocessheatingequipmentwithinafacility,select
theequipmentthatusesthemostenergy,andidentifyways
toincreaseefficiency.Thissoftwarecanalsobeusedto
assessequipmentperformanceundervariousoperating
conditionsandwhat-ifscenarios
ProcessHeatingAssessmentandSurveyTool
(PHAST1.1.1)
Assistplantsinthepetroleumrefiningandchemicalindustries
assessandanalyzeNO
x
emissionsandapplicationofenergy
efficiencyimprovements.Thetoolcanbeusedtoinventory
emissionsfromequipmentthatgeneratesNO
x
,andthen
comparehowvarioustechnologyapplicationsandefficiency
measureaffectoverallcostsandreductionofNO
x
.This
softwarealsoperformswhat-ifanalysestooptimizeand
selectthemostcost-effectivemethodsforreducingNO
x
fromsystemssuchasfiredheaters,boilers,gasturbines,and
reciprocatingengines
NO
x
andEnergyAssessmentTool(NxEAT)
(www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices/steam/neat.html)
a
DecisionToolsforIndustry,DOE/GO-102003-1719,U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,March2003,availablefrom
http://www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices/software_tools.shtmlorOITClearinghouse,phone:(800)586-2086,email:
clearinghouse@ee.doe.gov
152

Table9.2.Tipsforidentifyingenergysavingsopportunities
Energysavingsopportunity Referencedocument
a
Operateboilersatorneardesign
capacity
BenchmarktheFuelCostofSteamGenerations,SteamTipSheet15,
DOE/GO-102000-1115,December2000,USDOE
MinimizeBoilerShortCyclingLosses,SteamTipSheet16,
DOE/GO-102000-1116,December2000,USDOE
ImproveYourBoilersCombustionEfficiency,ProcessHeatTipSheet4,
DOE/GO-102002-1506,March2002,USDOE
PreheatedCombustionAir,ProcessHeatTipSheet1,
DOE/GO-102002-1551,May2002,USDOE
Reduceexcessair CheckBurnerAirtoFuelRatios,ProcessHeatTipSheet2,
DOE/GO-102002-1552,May2002,USDOE
Cleanheattransfersurfaces CleanBoilerWater-sideHeatTransferSurfaces,SteamTipSheet7,
DOE/GO-10099-952,June2001,USDOE
Reduceheatlossfromopenings CoverHeatedOpenVessels,SteamTipSheet3,DOE/GO-102002-1477,
January2002,USDOE
Reduceheatlossbyinstalling
thermalinsulation
InsulateSteamDistributionandCondensateReturnLines,SteamTip
Sheet2,DOE/GO-102002-1504,March2002,USDOE
InstallRemovableInsulationonUninsulatedValvesandFittings,SteamTip
Sheet17,DOE/GO-102000-1117,December2000,USDOE
Installheat-recoveryequipment UseFeedwaterEconomizersforWasteHeatRecovery,SteamTipSheet3,
DOE/GO-102002-1505,March2002,USDOE
UseVaporRecompressiontoRecoverLow-PressureWasteSteam,Steam
TipSheet11,DOE/GO-102001-1274,May2001,USDOE
RecoverHeatfromBoilerBlowdown,SteamTipSheet10,
DOE/GO-10099-955,RevisedJune2001,USDOE
Improvewatertreatmentto
minimizeboilerblowdown
MinimizeBoilerBlowdown,SteamTipSheet9,DOE/GO-10099-954,
RevisedJune2001,USDOE
Optimizedeaeratorventrate DeaeratorinIndustrialSteamSystems,SteamTipSheet18,
DOE/GO-102000-1118,December2000,USDOE
Repairsteamleaks InspectandRepairSteamTraps,SteamTipSheet1,
DOE/GO-102002-1503,March2002,USDOE
Minimizeventedsteam UseaVentCondensertoRecoverFlashSteamEnergy,SteamTipSheet13,
DOE/GO-102001-1276,May2001,USDOE
Usehigh-pressurecondensateto
generatelow-pressuresteam
FlashHigh-PressureCondensatetoRegenerateLow-PressureSteam,Steam
TipSheet12,DOE/GO-102001-1275,May2001,USDOE
Useback-pressuresteamturbines
insteadofpressure-reducing
valves
ReplacePressure-ReducingValveswithBackpressureTurbogenerators,
SteamTipSheet20,DOE/GO-102002-1476,December2002,USDOE
Optimizecondensaterecovery ReturnCondensatetotheBoiler,SteamTipSheet8,DOE/GO-10099-953,
RevisedJune2001,USDOE
Usesteamtopowerrotating
machinery
ConsiderSteamTurbineDrivesforRotatingEquipment,SteamTip
Sheet21,DOE/GO-102002-1475,January2002,USDOE
Usesteamtoproduceacooling
effect
UseLowGradeWasteSteamtoPowerAbsorptionChillers,SteamTip
Sheet14,DOE/GO-102001-1277,May2001,USDOE
a
Availablefromhttp://www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices/technical_publications.shtml,orOITClearinghouse,
phone:(800)586-2086,email:clearinghouse@ee.doe.gov
153


obtainedusingthetool,finaldecisionsabouttheeconomicviabilityofCHPprojectsshouldnotbebased
solelyonCHPWalk-throughPaybackEstimatoroutputbecauseithasrecognizedlimitations.For
example,fundamentalassumptionsbuiltintotheanalysissuggestthatthecostofelectricityandfuel
alwaysremainconstant,andalloftheelectricityandthermalenergyproducedbytheCHPsystemisused
productively.Othervariablessuchastariffs,maintenanceandoperatingcosts,fluctuationsinthermaland
electricitydemand,interestcharges,andmanyotherimportantparametersarenotaccuratelymodeledin
theanalysis.Whenusedasintended,theCHPWalk-throughPaybackEstimatorcanhelpboilerowners
andoperatorsscreencandidateCHPsystemstoidentifythosewithlittleornochanceoffinancialsuccess.
AsthedatainTables8.28.5show,itispossibleforcertainfuelandelectricitycostcombinationsto
producenocostsavings.Inthesesituations,cogenerationisunlikelytobeaneconomicaloptionand
considerationshouldbegiventoterminatingCHPprojectplanningactivities.
Anotherscreeningassessmenttoolfornatural-gas-poweredCHPsystemscanbedownloadedfrom
theMidwestCHPApplicationsCenterwebsite(www.chpcentermw.org/10-00_tools.html)Thetool,
whichisknownastheSpreadsheetforEvaluatingEconomicsofCHPSystems,identifiesCHPsystems
withfavorableeconomicpotentialbyexaminingthecostdifferentialbetweenelectricityandnaturalgas.
Afterenteringrequiredsite-specificdata,thetoolestimatesroughsavings,installationcost,andpayback.
5
AlthoughmoreinputisrequiredcomparedtotheCHPWalk-throughPaybackEstimator,itisimportant
tounderstandthattheoutputfrombothofthesescreeningtoolsshouldnotbeusedtomakefinal
decisionsabouttheeconomicviabilityofaCHPsystem.
TheBCHPScreeningTool,Version1.1,wasdevelopedbytheDOEOfficeforEnergyEfficiency
andRenewableEnergyforuseincomputinghourlybuildingheating,ventilating,airconditioning,and
electricloads.ItalsoperformsannualenergycostandCHPpaybacksbyusingequipmentandelectricity
ratedatabasesfor160citiesintheUnitedStates.ThesoftwareisavailableonCD-ROMfromtheCooling
andHeatingandPowerGroupoftheEngineeringSciencesandTechnologyDivisionoftheORNL.
ACHPinvestmentappraisalspreadsheetthatcanbecompletedmanuallyorusingacomputeris
availablefromtheBritishDepartmentoftheEnvironment,Transportation,andtheRegions.Itisusedto
performpreliminaryappraisalsofpotentialprocessesorsitesforprofitableadoptionofcogeneration
technology.Discussionsaboutthetoolandtheunderlyingappraisalmethodologyareprovidedinacost-
freepublicationthatisavailablefromtheEnergyEfficiencyEnquiriesBureau,Oxfordshire,England.
4
A
completedexampleisincludedinthepublicationtohelpguidetheuser.
SoftwareknownastheSteamSystemAssessmentTool(SSAT)wasdevelopedbyDOEfor
assessingpotentialsavingsfromindividualizedsteam-systemimprovementsincludingtheadditionofone
ormoresteamturbinetopping-cycleCHPsystems.Usingsite-specificinput,thesoftwaregenerates
resultsdetailingpotentialenergy,cost,andemissionssavingsthatvariousimprovementscouldachieve.
Thetoolcontainsallthekeyfeaturesoftypicalsteamsystems,includingboilers,back-pressureturbines,
condensingturbines,deaerators,letdowns,flashvessels,andfeedwaterheatexchangers.Analytical
resultsprovideinformationaboutboilerefficiency,boilerblowdown,cogeneration,steamcost,
condensaterecovery,heatrecovery,ventsteam,insulationefficiency,alternativefuels,back-pressure
steamturbines,steamtraps,steamquality,andsteamleaks.
TheCogenerationReadyReckonerisamorecomprehensivescreeningtooldesignedtoassistwith
preliminaryanalysisofthetechnicalandeconomicpotentialofcogenerationprojects.Developedforthe
AustralianCommonwealthDepartmentofIndustry,Tourism,andResources,thesoftwareandusers
manual
9
canbedownloadedatnocostusingapersonalcomputer
(www.ecogeneration.com.au/readyreckoner/ready.htm).Althoughoriginallyintendedprimarilyforusein
Australia,thesoftwarewasupdatedin2002toincludeU.S.currencyandcustomaryunitsofmeasure.
MoreinformationaboutthistoolanditscapabilitiesisprovidedinSect.9.1.3.
Softwaretoolsavailablefromgovernmentalorganizationsandprivatebusinessesarepresentedin
Table9.3.Additionalinformationaboutcombinedcooling,heating,andpowertechnologyisavailable
fromtheDistributedEnergy(DE)ProgramwithintheDOE(www.eere.energy.gov/de/).Establishedin
154

FY2001,thisprogramisdevelopingaportfolioofadvancedon-site,small-scale,andmodularenergy
conversionanddeliverysystemsforindustrial,commercial,residential,andutilityapplications.Program
activitiesinclude
distributedenergytechnology(activitiesinindustrialgasturbines,microturbines,reciprocating
engines,andthermallyactivatedtechnologies);
technologybaseefforts(long-termR&Dintheareasofmaterials,sensors,andpowerelectronics);
and
systemsintegration[coveringsuchtechnologiesaspackagedcooling,heating,andpower(CHP)
systemsforend-usemarket].
Table9.3.CHPsoftware
Softwarename Primaryapplication Free Reference
CHPWalk-
through
Payback
Estimator
Natural-gasandoil-
poweredCHPsystems
Yes www.ornl.gov/cgi-
bin/cgiwrap?user=chpcalc&script=CHP_payback.cgi
Spreadsheetfor
Evaluating
Economicsof
CHPSystems
Natural-gas-powered
CHPsystems
Yes www.chpcentermw.org/10-00_tools.html
Cogeneration
Ready
Reckoner
IndustrialCHP Yes www.ornl.gov/sci/eere/der/sia.htm
CombinedHeat
andPower
(CHP)Tool
IndustrialCHP Yes UnderdevelopmentbyDOE
CogenPro CHPsizingsoftwarefor
federalfacilities
Yes www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~eadc/cogenH.html
RECIPRO CHPusingreciprocating
engines
No www.thermoflow.com/
www.thermoflow.com/overview.htm
PDE IndustrialCHPusinggas
turbines
No www.thermoflow.com/
www.thermoflow.com/overview.htm
BCHPScreening
Tool
BuildingCHPsystems Yes AvailablefromtheOakRidgeNationalLaboratory,
Email:fischersk@ornl.gov
BuildingEnergy
Analyzer
BuildingCHPsystems No www.interenergysoftware.com/
www.interenergysoftware.com/BEA/BEAAbout.htm
D-GenPro BuildingCHPsystems No www.archenergy.com/dgenpro/default
HeatMapCHP IndustrialCHPand
districtenergy
No www.energy.wsu.edu/software/
GTPro IndustrialCHPusinggas
turbines
No www.thermoflow.com/
www.thermoflow.com/overview.htm
SSAT IndustryCHPusingsteam
turbines
Yes www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices/software_tools.shtml
SteamPro Conventionalsteam
powerplants,withor
withoutcogeneration
No www.thermoflow.com/
www.thermoflow.com/overview.htm
SOAPP-CT.25 IndustrialCHPusinggas
turbines
No www.soapp.com/soapp/dg/
155

ThecombinedheatandpowerareaoftheDEProgramcoordinatesseveralCHP-relatedactivitiesat
DOE.Itsobjectivesaretoraiseawarenessoftheenergy,economic,andenvironmentalbenefitsofCHP
andtohighlightbarrierstoincreasedimplementation.TheWebsiteforthisprogramarea
(www.eere.energy.gov/de/program_areas/euid_combo_prgrm.shtml)includesinformationonCHP
programscarriedoutbyotherDOEoffices.
9.1.2 PreliminaryDesign
InordertoidentifytheoptimumCHPsystemforaparticularsite,itisimportanttoestablish
preliminarydesignsforasmanyCHPconfigurationsaspossible.Eachpreliminarydesignneedsto
includeoneormoreprimemoversandappropriateheat-recoveryequipmentarrangedintoeithera
topping-cycle,bottoming-cycle,orcombined-cycleconfiguration.TwelvedifferentCHPsystemsthatcan
serveasthebasisforeachpreliminarydesignaredescribedinSect.8.5.Initially,themostimportant
designcriteriashouldbetoprovidetherequiredamountsofthermalandelectricalenergyforthesite.
Anotherimportantfactorthatneedstobeconsideredatanearlystageinthedecision-makingprocess
involvesselectingtheappropriatenumberandsizeofredundantprimemovers.Thepurposeforthese
primemoversistoprovidetherequiredlevelofthermalandelectricalenergyduringbothplannedand
forcedoutages.Issuessuchasthecapacityandavailabilityofalternativeenergysources,impactsof
reducedthermalandelectricalenergyonoperations,andexpectedfrequencyanddurationofplannedand
forcedoutagesshouldnotbeoverlooked.DesignsforCHPsystemsthatarenottechnicallyfeasible,
incompatiblewiththeexistinginfrastructure,occupytoomuchspace,orrequirefuelthatisunavailable
shouldnotbeconsidered.
PrimemoverscommonlyselectedforCHPsystemsinICIboilerapplicationsincludesteamandgas
turbines,butmicroturbines,reciprocatingengines,andfuelcellsarealsoavailable.Therequiredsizeand
numberofprimemoversisafunctionoftheelectricityandthermaldemand,fueltypeandavailability,
modeofoperation,andenvironmentalfactorslikenoiseandemissions.Equallyimportantistheselection
ofheat-recoveryequipmentsuitableforrecoveringandusingthewasteheat.AtexistingICIboiler
installations,itisalsoimportanttoverifythatadequatespaceisavailablefortherequiredcomponents.
Otherfactorsthatcaninfluencethedesignsincludezoningrestrictions,environmentalregulations,and
buildingcoderequirements.
Oncepreliminarydesignsaredeveloped,theprocessofevaluatingthetechnicalmeritsofeach
designcanbegin.BecausemanytechnicalissuesmustbeconsideredwhenevaluatingCHPsystem
feasibility,itisoftennecessarytoassembleamultidisciplinaryteamofknowledgeableindividualswith
anunderstandingofcomplexmechanicalandelectricalsystemstechnology.Ifthetechnicalevaluation
identifiesoneormorefeasiblepreliminarydesigns,thenextstepinthedecision-makingprocessinvolves
anevaluationoftheireconomicfeasibility.
9.1.3 EconomicScreeningAnalysis
WhenpreliminarydesigneffortsresultinanumberofCHPsystemsthataretechnicallyfeasible,an
economicanalysisofeachdesignmustbeperformed.Theprimaryobjectivesofthescreeningexercise
aretoeliminatecandidateCHPsystemsthatarenotpracticalandtoidentifythepreferredCHPsystemfor
furtherconsideration.Resultsoftheeconomicscreeninganalysisshouldprovideboilerownersand
operatorswiththefundamentalinformationtheyneedtojustifyacontinuationofprojectplanning
activities,includingexpendituresforadetailedengineeringstudy.
Inpreparingfortheanalysis,itisimportanttoestimatethecapitalandoperatingcostsoftheCHP
systemandtoestablishcriteriaforassessingeconomicfeasibility.Anotherimportantanalyticalobjective
istounderstandhowsensitivethepaybackperiodistovariationsinoperatinghoursandescalatingfuel,
electricity,operating,andmaintenancecosts.
156

Averyusefulsoftwaretoolforperformingeconomicfeasibilityevaluationsisknownasthe
CogenerationReadyReckoner.
9
Themethodologyonwhichthistoolisbasedinvolvesacomparisonof
annualizeddifferencesbetweenabenchmarkcasewithoutcogenerationandacogenerationcase.By
analyzingcapitalandoperatingcostsofbothbenchmarkandcogenerationsystems,thesoftwarehelps
boilerownersandoperatorsestablishabasisforoptimizingthesystemandjustifyingthefinancial
investment.ResultsofthescreeninganalysisalsohelpestimatetheapproximatesizeoftheCHPsystem
anditsconstructioncostanddeterminethemostappropriatetypeofprimemovertobeusedandits
designandoperatingphilosophy.
Inthebenchmarkcase,thethermalandelectricalparametersthatwouldapplyatthesiteif
cogenerationisnotinstalledaredefined.Thisgenerallyinvolvesthefollowingconsiderations:
steam,hotwater,andelectricityusageandexpectedloadgrowth;
operatingandmaintenancecosts,includingboilerfuelandelectricitypurchasedfromthelocalutility;
constructionandfinancecosts;and
varioustariffspaidforthefuelandelectricity.
TheanalysisofthecogenerationcaseinvolvesselectingoneofthepreliminaryCHPdesignsfor
reviewandidentifyingthefuelthatwillpowertheCHPsystem.NotethattheCHPfuelmaybedifferent
fromthefuelusedinthebenchmarkcase.Otherfactorsthatneedtobeestimatedandusedasinput
includeoperatingandmaintenancecosts,capitalcosts,andtariffs.Parametersthatcanbeevaluatedbythe
CogenerationReadyReckonerinclude
operatingperiodswhereupto12operatingperiodscanbeseparatelyenteredtostudytheeffectsof
differentthermalandelectricaldemandcyclesandapplicabletariffsoncashflow,
operatingmodeswheretwodifferentsetsofoperatinghourscanbeenteredtosimulatenormal
operatingconditionsandconditionswhenoneormoreprimemoversareoutofservice,
debtrepaymentandinterest,and
time-dependentdegradationofequipmentperformance.
UsefulfinancialresultsfromCogenerationReadyReckoneranalysisinclude
benchmarkandcogenerationcasecashflows,
benchmarkandcogenerationcasecapitalcostprofiles,
cashflowdifferential(cogenerationcashflowsbenchmarkcashflows),
taxandfinancialcosts,
financialinformationsuchasnetpresentvalue(NPV)andinternalrateofreturn(IRR),and
sensitivitygraphsforthevariationinimportelectricitycost,exportelectricityvalue,cogeneration
casefuelcost,capitalcost,anddiscountrate.
AftertheeconomicscreeninganalysisiscompletedandthemostattractiveCHPsystemisidentified,
adetailedengineeringstudyisperformed.Thestudyobjectivesaretoidentifyandsizethecomponents
neededtointegratecogenerationtechnologyintotheICIboilerinstallation.Knowingthisinformation
makesitpossibletomoreaccuratelyestimateconstruction,operating,andmaintenancecosts.Withthe
equipmentdefined,itispossibletoanalyzeenergyrequirementsandcosts,characterizepart-load
performance,andestimatereturnoninvestmentandpayback.Tofullyunderstandenergysupplyand
157

demandvariations,itmayevenbenecessarytomodelhour-by-hoursystemperformance.Optimizingthe
CHPsystemoftenrequiresseveraliterationsofdesignchangesfollowedbyeconomicreevaluation.
Whilethecostofthedetailedengineeringstudycanbesignificant,theexpenditureshouldbeviewed
asthefinalsteptowardselectionofthemostcost-effectiveCHPsystem.Thereasonforconductingthe
detailedengineeringstudyistoprovidethetypesofsite-specificinformationneededtoundertakemore
costlyandtime-consumingactivitiessuchasnegotiationsforpower,steam,andfuelsupplycontracts;
environmentalpermits;zoningapproval;andprojectfinancing.
9.1.4 Health,Safety,andEnvironmentalIssues
Carefulconsiderationofhealth,safety,andenvironmentalissuesisnecessaryduringtheplanning
stagesofanyCHPprojectbecausethecostofaddressingtheseissuescanimpacteconomicfeasibility.
SomeoftheseissuesmayalsorepresentbarrierstoimplementationthatcouldmakeCHPimpractical.
Environmentalissuestypicallyfocusoncontrollingairandwateremissionsandobtainingenvironmental
permits.BesidesnormalindustrialhealthandsafetyissuescommontoICIboilerinstallations,issues
uniquetoCHPsystemsmayalsoneedtobeaddressed.Forexample,certaintypesofprimemoverscan
createnoiseandvibrationsthatareunacceptable,andpotentiallyseriouselectricalhazardscanoccur
whenaCHPsystemisinterconnectedwiththeelectricalgrid.
9.1.4.1 Noiseandvibration
High-speedrotatingequipment,suchasgasturbinesusedinCHPsystems,isoftenverynoisy.
Reducingnoisetoanacceptablelevelandminimizingtheconsequencesofobjectionablevibrationsoften
involvesconstructionofspecialnoiseenclosuresorfoundationstructurestoeffectivelyisolatethe
equipment.Whiletheseenclosuresandstructuresmaybeessentialtothehealthandsafetyofworkers,the
costoftheirinstallationcanbesubstantialandshouldnotbediscounted.
9.1.4.2 Engineeredandadministrativecontrols
Hotandcoldsurfacesassociatedwithpowerpiping,boilerjackets,heatexchangers,exhaustgas
ducts,mufflers,andrefrigerationequipmentusedinCHPsystemsrepresenthealthandsafetyconcerns
thatarecommontomanyindustries.Toreducethepotentialforpersonalinjury,itmaybenecessaryto
applyengineeredbarriersatstrategiclocationstoproperlyprotectworkers.Thesebarriersmayinvolve
useofpersonalprotectiveequipmentorinstallationofphysicalbarrierssuchasgates,doors,handrails,
insulation,guards,andshields.Forsomehazards,itmayalsobenecessarytoestablishadministrative
controlstosupplementtheengineeredbarriers.Thecostofapplyingnecessaryengineeredand
administrativecontrolsshouldbeincludedintheconstructionandoperatingcostestimatesfortheCHP
system.
9.1.4.3 Electricalhazards
SafetyissuesassociatedwiththeinterconnectionofaCHPsystemtotheelectricalgridarediscussed
inSect.5.4.Thephenomenonknownasislandingisaparticularconcernbecauseutilityworkers
involvedinmaintenanceorrepairoffaultypowerlinesthatareservicedbyaCHPelectricalgenerator
canbeexposedtopotentiallylife-threateningelectricalhazards.Toavoidthisproblem,manyutilities
requireinstallationofprotectiverelaysandswitchgearcapableofisolatingtheCHPsystemfromthe
electricalgrid.Besidesthecostofinstallingandmaintainingthisequipment,someutilitiesalsorequire
ownersofCHPsystemstopurchaseliabilityinsurancetolimittheresponsibilityoftheutilityorits
customers.
10
Becausecostsareassociatedwiththeinstallationofutility-requiredsafetyequipmentand
158

premiumsforliabilityinsurance,theseexpensesshouldbereflectedintheeconomicfeasibility
evaluationsofaffectedCHPsystems.
9.1.4.4 Emissionscontrol
FederalairandwaterqualityregulationsarecontainedintheCAAandtheCWAasdiscussedin
Sect.2.3.TheseactsauthorizeEPAtoestablishfederalstandardsforairandwateremissions.Although
EPAappliesthesestandardsnationwide,stateandlocalregulatoryauthoritiesareallowedtoestablish
supplementaryemissionsstandardsforairandwaterqualityprovidedtherequirementsareatleastas
stringentasthefederalstandards.
SatisfyingthefederalCAAgenerallyrequiresownersandoperatorsofexistingICIboiler
installationstocontrolemissionsfromnewlyinstalledCHPequipment.Techniquescommonlyusedto
reduceNO
x
,SO
x
,andPMemissionsaredescribedinTables4.44.6.Selectingoneemissionscontrol
techniqueoveranotherdependsonmanyfactors,includingthetypeoffuelusedtopowertheCHP
system,thetypesandcapacitiesofexistingemissioncontrolequipment,andtheenvironmental
regulationsthatapplytothesite(attainmentorNAA).Emissionsratesandtechnologyrequirementsthat
applytonewsourcesofairemissionsaresummarizedinTable2.5.
Technology-basedandwaterquality-basedeffluentlimitsestablishedbyEPAundertheCWAcan
influencethewayboilerblowdown,coolingtowerblowdown,andcoolingwatermustbetreatedbefore
beingreleasedfromthesite.Treatmentandprocessingofthesewastewaterstreamsmayberequiredas
partoftheNationalPollutantDischargeEliminationSystem(NPDES)permittingprocess.Thisprocessis
usedbyEPAtoimposelimitationsonthedischargeofcertainpollutantsthatmaybepresentinthese
wastewaterstreams.
BecausecompliancewithCAAandtheCWArequirementscanbeexpensive,thecostofrequired
emissioncontrolequipmentneedstobefactoredintoconstructionandoperatingcostestimates.
9.1.4.5 Permits
TheCAAestablishespermittingrequirementsforconstructionandoperationofnewandmodified
majorstationarysourcesofregulatedairpollutants.Beforeconstructionofoneofthesesourcescanbegin,
apermitmustbeobtainedfromtheregulatoryauthorityhavingjurisdiction.Thetypeofpermitissuedand
therequirementsforobtainingthepermitdependontheairqualityatthelocationofthesource.As
discussedinSect.2.3,aCHPsystemthatisamajornewsourceofemissionsissubjecttoeitherthe
PreventionofSignificantDeterioration(PSD)ortheNonattainmentNSRpermittingprocess.Exceptfor
someverysmallCHPsystems,almosteverycogenerationprojectneedssometypeofNSRpermit.
Operatingpermitsareissuedbythefederalgovernment(EPA)aswellasstateandlocal
jurisdictions.Theprimarypurposeforissuinganoperatingpermitistorecordthefollowinginformation
inonedocument:
alloftheemissioncontrolrequirementsthatapplytothesource,
reportingrequirementsfortrackingemissionsofregulatedpollutants,
monitoring,testing,andrecordkeepingrequirements,and
annualcertificationrequirements.
Thesepermitprovisionsensurethatmandatedemissionslimitationsandemissionreduction
requirementsareachievedinactualpractice.Additionalinformationaboutpermittingrequirementsunder
theCAAispresentedinSect.2.3.1.4.
AlthoughobtainingconstructionandoperatingpermitsforCHPsystemsisnowwell-established,the
application,submittal,andreviewprocessescanbebothtechnicallycomplexandtime-consuming.
159

Therefore,tominimizethepossibilityofdelay,permitapplicationsshouldbecompletedandsubmittedas
earlyintheCHPprojectplanningcycleaspossible.
UndertheNPDESprogramoftheCWA,allfacilitiesthatdischargepollutantsfromanypointsource
intowatersoftheUnitedStatesarerequiredtoobtainanNPDESpermit.TheNPDESpermittingprocess
formostCHPsystemsinvolvesobtainingalicenseforthefacilitytodischargeaspecifiedamountofa
pollutantintoareceivingwaterundercertainconditions.MajorcomponentsofanNPDESpermitinclude
effluentlimits,monitoringandreportingrequirements,specialconditions,andstandardconditions.
11
CompliancewiththetermsandconditionsofanNPDESpermitmayrequireinstallationofwastestream
processingequipment,procurementofchemicalagentsfortreatingthewastestream,ordisposalofwaste
products.TheequipmentandoperatingcostsforcomplyingwithNPDESpermitrequirementsshouldbe
consideredwhenevaluatingtheeconomicviabilityofaCHPsystem.
9.1.5 ElectricalGridConsiderations
AsdiscussedinSects.2.4.2and5.6,boilerownersandoperatorsneedtoconsidertwooptionswhen
decidinghowtheCHPsystemwilloperate.OneoptioninvolvesinterconnectingtheCHPsystemwiththe
electricalgrid.ThisoptiongenerallyallowsinstallationofasmallerCHPsystemwithelectrical
generatingcapacitysufficienttomeetmost,butnotall,ofthefacilityselectricaldemand.Becausesome
utilitiesprohibitCHPsystemsfromoperatinginparallelwiththeelectricalgridandothersrefuseto
interconnectwiththesesystems,
12
discussionswithutilityrepresentativesneedtobeheldatanearlystage
intheplanningprocesssothatstrategiesforaddressingpotentialbarrierstoimplementationcanbe
formulated.
Insituationswhereinterconnectionisnotpossibleorprohibitivelyexpensive,projectplannerscan
eitheroperateindependentlyoftheelectricalgridorabandontheproject.Operatingindependentlyfrom
theelectricalgridmeansthatthegeneratingcapacityoftheCHPsystemmustbeadequatetosupplyallof
thepowerusedbythefacilityduringperiodsofpeakdemandplusareserveallowanceforshort-term
powertransients.ThisgenerallyrequiresinstallationofamorecomplexCHPsystemthatincludes
emergencypowergeneratingequipmentcapableofstartingtheCHPsystemafterashutdown.Although
noelectricitypurchasesarerequiredtooperateinthismodeandnointerconnectionbarrierswillarise,
constructionandoperatingcostsofamorecomplexCHPsystemcouldadverselyimpactproject
economics.
9.2 INFORMATIONSOURCES
Informationthatmaybeusefultoboilerownersandoperatorswhoareinterestedinobtaininga
betterunderstandingofcogenerationtechnologyiswidelyavailable.Manytextbooks,open-literature
publications,andtechnicalreportshavebeenwrittenaboutthissubject,andanumberofthesedocuments
arecitedasreferencesinthisguide.Titles,authors,andpublicationdatesfordocumentsthatwere
reviewedwhilepreparingthisguidearelistedinthereferencesattheendofeachchapter.
NumerousWorldWideWebsitesalsocontainvaluableinformationaboutcogenerationtechnology
andprovidelinkstoorganizationsthatpromoteandeducateenergyusersabouttheeconomicandenergy-
savingsbenefitsofCHP.Websitesthatcontainawiderangeofbackgroundandtechnicalinformation
aboutcogenerationtechnologyareidentifiedinTable9.4.
Becausetheeconomicbenefitsofcogenerationtechnologycannotbeguaranteed,itisimportantfor
boilerownersandoperatorstobeawareofinformationsourcesthatareavailableandtomakeuseofthe
experienceandknowledgebasethatispresented.Usingthisinformationappropriatelyiskeytomaking
informeddecisionsaboutsuccessfullyapplyingCHPatneworexistingICIboilerinstallations.
160

Table9.4.Websiteswithinformationaboutcogenerationtechnology
Sponsor Programormission Website
U.S.DepartmentofEnergy
(DOE),OfficeofEnergy,
EfficiencyandRenewable
Energy(EERE),Distributed
Energy(DE)Program
CombinedHeatandPower(CHP)
Program
www.eere.energy.gov/de/program_area
s/euid_combo_prgrm.shtml
U.S.DepartmentofEnergy
(DOE),OfficeofEnergy,
EfficiencyandRenewable
Energy,(EERE)Federal
EnergyManagementProgram
(FEMP)
DistributedEnergyResourcesand
CombinedHeatandPower
www.eere.energy.gov/femp/technologie
s/derchp.cfm
U.S.DepartmentofEnergy
(DOE),OfficeofEnergy,
EfficiencyandRenewable
Energy(EERE),Industrial
TechnologiesProgram(ITP)
BestPractices www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices
U.S.EnvironmentalProtection
Agency(EPA)
CombinedHeatandPower
Partnership
www.epa.gov/chp
NewYorkStateEnergyResearch
andDevelopmentAuthority
(NYSERDA)
DistributedGenerationand
CombinedHeatandPower
Program
www.nyserda.org/dgchp.html
USCombinedHeatandPower
Association(USCHPA)
Mission:Createaregulatory,
institutionalandmarket
environmentthatfosterstheuse
ofclean,efficientCHPasa
majorsourceofelectricpower
andthermalenergyinthe
UnitedStates.
http://uschpa.admgt.com/
MidwestCogeneration
Association(MCA)
Mission:Promoteagreaterpublic
understandingofcogeneration,
independentpowerproduction,
anddistributedgeneration
www.cogeneration.org
COGENEurope Mission:Promotethewidespread
developmentofcogenerationin
Europeandworldwide
www.cogen.org
InternationalDistrictEnergy
Association
Mission:Fosterthesuccessofits
membersasleadersin
providingreliable,economical,
efficientandenvironmentally
sounddistrictenergyservices.
www.districtenergy.org/
AdditionalinformationaboutcogenerationtechnologyisalsoavailablefromthesixRegional
ApplicationCentersidentifiedinTable9.5.Thepurposeofthesecentersistofacilitatedeploymentof
applicabletechnologiesbyworkingregionallytoeducatemarketplayersonthebenefitsofCHP
technologies,whilereducingperceivedrisk,andidentifyingandprovidingspecializedsupportto
facilitatethedevelopmentandexecutionofkeyprojects.
161

Table9.5RegionalCHPapplicationcenters
Region States Keycontacts
Intermountain Arizona,Colorado,NewMexico,Utah,
andWyoming
PattiCase,etcGroup,801-278-1927,
plcase@etcgrp.com
Mid-Atlantic Delaware,Maryland,NewJersey,
Pennsylvania,andVirginia
ReinhardRadermacher,UniversityofMaryland,
301-405-5286,raderm@umd.edu
Midwest Illinois,Indiana,Iowa,Michigan,
Minnesota,Missouri,Ohio,and
Wisconsin
JohnCuttica,UICEnergyResourcesCenter,
312-996-4382,cuttica@uic.edu
Northeast Connecticut,Maine,Massachusetts,
NewHampshire,NewYork,Rhode
Island,andVermont
LarryAmbs,UMassAmherst,413-545-2539,
ambs@ceere.org
TomBourgeois,PaceUniversityEnergyProject,
914-422-4227,tbourgeois@law.pace.edu
Northwest Alaska,Idaho,Montana,Oregon,and
Washington.
DavidSjoding,WashingtonStateUniversity,
360-956-2004,sjodingd@energy.wsu.edu
Pacific California,Hawaii,Nevada,andthe
PacificTerritories
TimLipman,UniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley,
510-642-4501,telipman@socrates.berkeley.edu
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B-6


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1547-2003,InstituteofElectricalandElectronicsEngineers,NewYork,2003.
StandardPracticeforUseofScrapTire-DerivedFuel,ASTMDesignation:D6700-01,American
SocietyofTestingandMaterials,WestConshohocken,Pennsylvania,2001.
StandardSpecificationforDieselFuelOils,ASTMDesignation:D975-03,AmericanSocietyof
TestingandMaterials,WestConshohocken,Pennsylvania,2003.
StandardSpecificationforFuelOils,ASTMDesignation:D396-02,AmericanSocietyofTestingand
Materials,WestConshohocken,Pennsylvania,2002.
B-7

StandardSpecificationforGasTurbineFuelOils,ASTMDesignation:D2880-03,AmericanSocietyof
TestingandMaterials,WestConshohocken,Pennsylvania,2003.
StandardSpecificationforLiquefiedPetroleum(LP)Gases,ASTMDesignation:D1835-03,American
SocietyofTestingandMaterials,WestConshohocken,Pennsylvania,2003.
StandardsfortheInstallationofStationaryFuelCellPowerPlants,NFPA853,NationalFireProtection
Association,Quincy,Massachusetts,August18,2000.
StandardsofPerformanceforLargeMunicipalWasteCombustorsforWhichConstructionis
CommencedAfterSeptember20,1994,orforWhichModificationorReconstructionisCommenced
AfterJune19,1996,40CFR60,Eb,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
StandardsofPerformanceforNewStationarySources,40CFR60,U.S.EnvironmentalProtection
Agency.
StandardsofPerformanceforSmallMunicipalWasteCombustionUnitsforWhichConstructionis
CommencedAfterAugust30,1999orforWhichModificationorReconstructionisCommenced
AfterJune6,2001,40CFR60,SubpartAAAA,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
StandardsofPerformanceforStationaryGasTurbines,FederalRegister,68,No.71,1799018002,
April14,2003.
StateOperatingPermitPrograms,40CFR70,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
StatutoryRestrictionsonNewSources,40CFR52.24,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
SteamDigest2001,DOE/GO-102002-1516,OfficeofIndustrialTechnologies,U.S.Departmentof
Energy,Washington,D.C.,January2002.
SteamSystemOpportunityAssessmentforthePulpandPaper,ChemicalManufacturing,andPetroleum
RefiningIndustries,DOE/GO-102002-1639,OfficeofIndustrialTechnologies,U.S.Departmentof
Energy,Washington,D.C.,September2002.
SteamSystemOpportunityAssessmentforthePulpandPaper,Chemical,Manufacturing,andPetroleum
RefiningIndustries,MainReport,DOE/GO-102002-1639,U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,
D.C.,September2002.
SteamSystemOpportunityAssessmentforthePulpandPaper,Chemical,Manufacturing,andPetroleum
RefiningIndustries,Appendices,DOE/GO-102002-1640,U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,
D.C.,October2002.
SteamTurbinesforMechanicalDriveService,NEMAStandardsPublicationNo.SM23-1991(R1997,
R2002),NationalElectricalManufacturersAssociation,Rosslyn,Virginia,1991.
Steam,ItsGenerationandUse,40thed.,eds.Stultz,S.C.,andKitto,J.B.,BabcockandWilcox,
Barberton,Ohio,1992.
SulfurDioxideAllowanceSystem,40CFR73,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
SulfurDioxideOpt-Ins,40CFR74,U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.
TechnologyCharacterization:FuelCells,preparedbyEnergyNexusGroupfortheU.S.Environmental
ProtectionAgency,Washington,D.C.,April2002.
TechnologyCharacterization:GasTurbines,preparedbyEnergyNexusGroupfortheU.S.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,Washington,D.C.,February2002.
TechnologyCharacterization:Microturbines,preparedbyEnergyNexusGroupfortheU.S.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,Washington,D.C.,March2002.
TechnologyCharacterization:ReciprocatingEngines,preparedbyEnergyNexusGroupfortheU.S.
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,Washington,D.C.,February2002.
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EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,Washington,D.C.,March2002.
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MechanicalEngineers,NewYork,2001.
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http://www.epa.gov/oar/caa/overview.txt
B-8

TheMarketandTechnicalPotentialforCombinedHeatandPowerintheCommercial/Institutional
Sector,preparedfortheU.S.DepartmentofEnergybyONSITESYCOMEnergyCorporation,
Washington,D.C.,January2000(Revision1).
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Sheet14,U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,Washington,D.C.,May2001.
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ProtectionAgency.http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/101pape.pdf
WetElectrostaticPrecipitationDemonstratingPromiseforFineParticulateControl,Power
Engineering,PennWellCorp.Tulsa,Oklahoma,January2001.
B-9

B-10

GLOSSARY
Absorptionchiller:Acoolingmachinethatusesheatastheprimarysourceofenergyfordrivingan
absorptionrefrigerationcycle.Absorptionchillersareclassifiedaseitherindirect-fired,heat-recovery,or
direct-firedunits.
Aftercooler:Agas-to-liquid(air-to-water)heatexchangerthatremovesheatfromreciprocating
engineturbochargers.
AirQualityRelatedValues(AQRV):AtermusedbytheEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)
torepresentallvaluespossessedbyanarea,suchasanationalpark,thatmaybeaffectedbychangesin
airqualityincludingallassetsofanareawhosevisibility,significance,orintegrityaredependentupon
theairenvironment.
Alkalinefuelcell(AFC):Atypeoffuelcellthatisveryefficientandhasbeenusedsuccessfullyin
thespaceprogram.Alkalinefuelcellsrequireverypurehydrogenthatisexpensivetoproduce,andfor
thisreasontheyarenotconsideredmajorcontendersforthestationarypowermarket.
Alternatingcurrent(ac):Anelectriccurrentthatreversesdirectionsinusoidally.IntheUnited
States,mostelectricalcurrentisacat60cycles/s.
Apparentpower:Thevectorsumofrealpowerandreactivepower.Electricalgeneratorsare
typicallyratedinunitsofkilovolt-amp(kVA).Thisapparentortotalpowerratingistheproductofthe
generatorratedvoltageandtheratedmaximumcurrent.
Areasource:Anysmallsourceofnonnaturalairpollutionthatisreleasedoverasmallareabutthat
cannotbeclassifiedasapointsource.Suchsourcesmayincludevehicles,fireplaces,woodstoves,and
smallfuelcombustionengines.
Attainmentarea:AnareaconsideredtohaveairqualityasgoodasorbetterthantheNational
AmbientAirQualityStandardsasdefinedintheCleanAirAct.Anareamaybeanattainmentareafor
oneormorecriteriapollutantsandanonattainmentareafortheothers.
Avoidedcost:Theincrementalcosttoanelectricpowerproducertogenerateorpurchaseaunitof
electricityorcapacity,orboth,butwhichisinsteadprovidedbyathirdpartyorwhichisnotneededdue
toenergyconservationandefficiency.
Backuptariff:AfeeortariffchargedtoaCHPsystemowneroroperatorbytheelectricalsupplier
thatprovideselectricalenergytothesitewhenon-siteelectricalgeneratingequipmentcannotsatisfythe
demand.
Baseload:Thelevelofdemand,forheatorelectricity,thatexistsforthemajorityoftheoperating
period.Demandwillrarelybelessthanthebaseload.
Base-loadeddesignandoperation:Anoperatingmodeinwhichthecombinedheatandpower
(CHP)systemisinterconnectedtotheelectricalgridandsizedtomeetthesitesbase-loadrequirements.
Byoperatinginthismode,part-loadoperationisavoided,noredundantcapacityisrequired,andonly
supplementalpowerinexcessofthebaseloadispurchasedfromtheelectricutility.
BestAvailableControlTechnology(BACT):Emissioncontroltechnologybasedonthemaximum
degreeofemissionreduction(consideringenergy,environmental,andeconomicimpactsandothercosts)
achievablethroughapplicationprocessesandavailablemethods,systems,andtechniques.UseofBACT
ispermittedbytheauthorityhavingjurisdictiononacase-by-casebasisformajornewormodified
emissionssourcesinattainmentareasandappliestoeachregulatedpollutant.Innoeventdoestheuseof
BACTpermitemissionsinexcessofthoseallowedunderanyapplicableCleanAirActprovisions.
Biasfiring(BF):Anemissioncontroltechniquethatinvolvesinjectingmorefueltosomeburners
(typicallythelowerburners)whilereducingfueltootherburners(typicallytheupperburners)tocreate
stagedcombustionconditionsinsideaboiler.Thistechniquedecreasestheexcessoxygenconcentration
andtherebyreducestheformationofnitrogenoxidesduringcombustion.
G-1

Boilerefficiency:AvaluethatcharacterizestheamountofheatcapturedbytheboilerorHRSGand
transferredtothewater,comparedtotheheatinput.Boilerefficiencyisafunctionofboilerlossesand
combustionlosses.
Bottomingcycle:Aheat-recoveryschemeinwhichhigh-temperaturethermalenergyisproducedand
firstusedforindustrialapplicationssuchasglassprocessingandmetalsmeltingfurnaces.Wasteheat
recoveredfromtheindustrialprocessisthenusedtodriveaturbinetoproduceelectricpower.
Britishthermalunit(Btu):Theamountofenergyrequiredtoraisethetemperatureofapoundof
water1Ffrom39.2F.
Burnertuning(BT):Anemissioncontroltechniquethatlimitstheamountofexcessoxygen
availableforcombustionandtherebyreducesformationofnitrogenoxides.
Burnersoutofservice(BOOS):Anemissioncontroltechniquesthatreducestheformationof
nitrogenoxides.Inthistechnique,certainburnersareremovedfromservicebystoppingfuelflowbut
maintainingairflowtocreatestagedcombustionconditionsinsideaboiler.
Buy-backrate:TheratepaidtoaCHPsystemowneroroperatorbytheelectricalsupplierforthe
excesselectricitygeneratedbytheCHPsystem.
Carbondioxide(CO
2
):Anodorless,colorlessgasformedduringrespirationandbythe
decompositionoforganicsubstances.Carbondioxideisalsoproducedwhenfuelisburned.
Carbonmonoxide(CO):Anodorlessgasproducedwhenfuelisburned.Carbonmonoxideisoneof
thesixcriteriapollutantsforwhichtheEPAhasestablishedNationalAmbientAirQualityStandards.
CHPelectricalefficiency:Ameasureoftheamountoffuelenergyconvertedintoelectricity.In
numericalterms,CHPelectricalefficiencyisafunctionofthenetelectricitygeneratedandthetotalfuel
inputexpressedasfollows:
Netelectricitygenerated/Totalfuelinput
CleanAirAct(CAA):A1970federallawforregulatingairquality.TheCAAwasfurtherexpanded
byamendmentsin1977and1990.The1990CAAAmendmentsauthorizetheEnvironmentalProtection
Agencytoestablishstandardsforanumberofatmosphericpollutants.
CleanWaterAct(CWA):A1977federallawthatamendedtheFederalWaterPollutionControlAct
of1972andwassubstantiallymodifiedbytheWaterQualityActof1987.Thislegislationestablishedthe
basicstructureforregulatingdischargesofpollutantsintothewatersoftheUnitedStates.The1987
amendmentstotheCWAsignificantlychangedthethrustofenforcementactivities.Greateremphasisis
nowplacedonmonitoringandcontroloftoxicconstituentsinwastewater,thepermittingofoutfalls
composedentirelyofstormwater,andtheimpositionofregulationsgoverningsewagesludgedisposal.
Thesechangesresultedinmuchstricterdischargelimitsandgreatlyexpandedthenumberofchemical
constituentsmonitoredintheeffluent.
Code of Federal Regulations(CFR):Aseriesofvolumesinwhichfederalregulationsarecodified
(e.g.,Title40,ProtectionoftheEnvironment).
Cogenerationtechnology:Atechnologyinwhichconventionalpowergenerationsystemshavethe
meanstomakeuseoftheenergyremaininginexhaustgases,coolingsystems,orotherenergywaste
streams.Applicationofcogenerationtechnologyoffersenergyandenvironmentalbenefitsoverelectric-
onlyandthermal-onlysystemsinbothcentralanddistributedpowergenerationapplications.
Combinedcycle:Atermreferringtothecombinationoftwoormoreheat-recoveryschemesto
extractthemostenergyfromthefuel.Typically,theexhaustfromagasturbinethatiscoupledtoan
electricalgeneratorisusedtoproducesteamthatthendrivesasteamturbinecoupledtoanotherelectrical
generator.Thisincreasestheefficiencyofelectricitygenerationtoabout50%.
Combinedheatandpower(CHP):Thesequentialproductionoftwoformsofusefulenergyfroma
singlefuelsource.InmostCHPapplications,chemicalenergyinfuelisconvertedtobothmechanicaland
thermalenergy.Themechanicalenergyisgenerallyusedtogenerateelectricitywhilethethermalenergy
G-2

orheatisusedtoproducesteam,hotwater,orhotair.Dependingontheapplication,CHPisreferredto
byvariousnamesincludingcogeneration,BuildingCooling,Heating,andPower(BCHP);Cooling,
Heating,andPowerforBuildings(CHPB);CombinedCooling,Heating,andPower(CCHP);Integrated
EnergySystems(IES),orDistributedEnergyResources(DER).
Compressionignition(CI)engine:Areciprocatinginternalcombustionenginethatcompressesair
untiltheairtemperatureishigherthanthefuelignitiontemperature.Atthatpointinthecycle,fuelis
injectedintothecylinderwhereitspontaneouslyignites,burns,andexpandsagainstthepiston.Diesel
enginesarecharacterizedasCIengines.
Criteriapollutants:The1990amendmentstotheCAArequiredtheEPAtosetNationalAmbient
AirQualityStandardsforcertainpollutantsknowntobehazardoustohumanhealth.TheEPAhas
identifiedandsetstandardsforsixcriteriapollutants:ozone,carbonmonoxide,totalsuspended
particulates,sulfurdioxide,lead,andnitrogendioxide.
Demandcharge:Afeeortariffchargedfortheuseofelectricitybasedonthemaximumpower
requirement,electricaldemand,duringaspecifiedperiodoftime,typicallyamonth($/kW).
Desiccantdehumidifier:Amachinethatusesheattoachieveacoolingeffectbyremovingwater
vaporfromanairstreamtherebydecreasingthelatentcoolingload.Desiccantdehumidifiersuse
materialsknownasdesiccantsthatnaturallyremovemoisturefromhumidair.Asthedesiccantbecome
saturated,itloosesitsabilitytoremovemoistureandmustbeeitherreplacedorrecharged.Recharginga
desiccantinvolvesincreasingitstemperaturetoexpelthecapturedmoisture.
Desiccant:Amaterialthatnaturallyattractsmoisturefromgasesandliquids.Asmoistureis
adsorbed,itcollectsonthesurfaceofthedesiccantandthedesiccantbecomessaturated.Whenheated,
thedesiccantdriesout,orregenerates,andcanbeusedagain.Somecommondesiccantsincludesilicagel,
activatedalumina,aluminaoxide,anddeliquescentabsorbentssuchaslithiumchloride(LiCl)and
calciumchloride(CaCl
2
).
Directcurrent(dc):Anelectriccurrentthatsteadilyflowsinthesamedirectionoverasustained
periodoftimeascomparedtoalternatingcurrentthatoscillatesasafunctionoftime.
Ebullientcoolingsystem:Acoolingsystemforreciprocatinginternalcombustionenginesthatuses
naturalcirculationofaboilingcoolantsuchastreatedwatertoremoveheat.Inoperation,pressurized
coolantenterstheenginenearthebottomwheretheheatcausespartofthecoolanttoboilgeneratingtwo-
phaseflow.Becauseonlypartofthecoolantboils,heatrejectionoccursataconstanttemperaturewith
lessthermalstresstotheengine.Theformationofbubbleslowersthedensityofthecoolantandcauses
naturalcirculationtothetopoftheengine.
Economicallydispatched:AnoperatingapproachforaCHPsystemthatfactorsinthevalueof
purchasedpowerandboilerfuelcostsrelativetoCHPsystemfuelandmaintenancecostsandtheability
touserecoverableheat.Byoperatinginthismode,itispossibletousemicroprocessorcontrolsystemsto
performreal-timecalculationsofoperatingcostsandcostsavingsasabasisformakingoperating
decisions.
Effectiveelectricalefficiency:Afunctionofthesteamturbineelectricpoweroutputandthetotal
fuelinputexpressedasfollows:
Steamturbineelectricpoweroutput/[Totalfuelinput(Steamtoprocess/Boilerefficiency)]
Electricalgenerator:Anelectromagneticdevicethatconvertsmechanicalorshaftpowerinto
electricalenergy.Electricalgeneratorsthatproducealternatingcurrentpowerarecategorizedaseither
synchronousorinductiongenerators.
Electrostaticprecipitator(ESP):Apostcombustionemissioncontroldeviceusedtoremove
particulatemattersuspendedinfluegas.SeparationwithinanESPisaccomplishedbyelectrically
chargingtheparticles.Astheparticlestakeonanegativecharge,theymigratetowardpositivelycharged
collectorplates,therebycleaningthefluegas.
G-3


EnergyPolicyAct(EPACT):A1992federallawthatcreatedamorecompetitivemarketplacefor
electricitygenerationbyopeningaccesstotransmissionnetworksandexemptingsomenon-utilitiesfrom
certainregulatoryrequirements,allowingtheirparticipationinwholesaleelectricpowersales.
ExemptWholesaleGenerator(EWG): Anunregulatedenergyproducer,notclassifiedasautility,
thatcangenerateelectricityforsaleatwholesaleratesandpurchasepowerforresaleatmarketrates,but
cannotsellelectricityintheretailmarket.
Exitfee:Afeeortariffimposedonacustomerthatwillnolongerbesupportingthepayoffofthe
electricitysupplierssunkorstrandedcostingenerationequipment.
Federal Register(FR):Adailypublicationofthefederalgovernmentthatcontains,amongother
things,proposedandfinalrulesissuedbytheEPA.
Fluegasdesulfurization(FGD):Apostcombustionemissioncontroltechniqueforremovingsulfur
dioxidefromfluegas.Wetscrubbers,dryscrubbers,andsorbentinjectionrepresentdifferentFGD
techniques.
Fluegasrecirculation(FGR):Theprocessofinjectingfluegasintoaboileralongwithfresh
combustionairtomodifyconditionswithinthecombustionzone.TheresultofFGRiscontrolofnitrogen
oxideformationbyloweringthepeakflametemperatureandreducingtheoxygenconcentration.
Forced-internalrecirculation(FIR):Atypeofburnerthatusesacombinationofpremixing,
staging,andinterstageheatremovaltocontrolnitrogenoxideandcarbonmonoxideformationduring
combustionofnaturalgas.(Caution:Forced-internalrecirculationshouldnotbeconfusedwithfuel-
inducedrecirculation,whichisalsorepresentedbytheacronymFIR.)
Fuel-inducedrecirculation(FIR):Anitrogenoxidereductiontechniqueapplicabletoboilersthat
burngaseousfuel.Fuel-inducedrecirculationissimilartofluegasdesulfurizationexceptthataportionof
thefluegasismixedwiththefuelinsteadofcombustionair.Theeffectofthismixtureonthecombustion
processistoreducethepeakflametemperature.(Caution:Fuel-inducedrecirculationshouldnotbe
confusedwithforced-internalrecirculation,whichisalsorepresentedbytheacronymFIR.)
Gasturbine:Arotatingmachinethatconvertsthechemicalenergyoffuelintomechanicalenergy.
Basicelementsofagasturbinearethecompressor,combustionchamber,andturbine.Inoperation,fresh
airisdrawninbythecompressorandforcedintothecombustionchamber.Insidethecombustion
chamber,thecompressedairmixeswiththefuel,andcombustionoccurs.Duringcombustion,the
chemicalenergyinthefuelisreleasedtoproducehigh-temperaturecombustionproductsthatexpand
throughtheturbineandcauserotation.
Hazardousairpollutant(HAP):Acategoryofairpollutantsthatisnotcoveredbyambientair
qualitystandardsbutwhich,asdefinedintheCleanAirAct,mayreasonablybeexpectedtocauseor
contributetoirreversibleillnessordeath.Thereare188chemicalcompoundsconsideredbythe
EnvironmentalProtectionAgencytobeHAPs.
Heatexchanger:Anunfiredheat-recoverydevicethatiscapableoftransferringheatfromgas-to-
gas,gas-to-liquid,liquid-to-gas,orliquid-to-liquid.
Heat-recoverymuffler:Anunfiredheat-recoverydevicethatrecoversheatfromreciprocating
engineexhaustandusestheheattogeneratehotwaterorsteam.
Heat-recoverysteamgenerator(HRSG):Anunfiredorsupplementaryfiredheatexchangerthat
usesthermalenergytoproducehotwaterorsteam.ThemainapplicationforunfiredHRSGsiswasteheat
recoveryandsteamproductionfromgasturbineexhaust.SupplementaryfiredHRSGsforgasturbine
applicationsincludegas-firedoroil-firedburnersthataugmentthesteamorhotwatergeneratingcapacity
oftheexhaustgasstream.
Higherheatingvalue(HHV):Thestandardmeasureoftheenergyreleasedduringcombustionofa
fuel,assumingtheproductwaterisintheliquidstate.Fornaturalgasfuel,theHHVisapproximately
10%higherthanthelowerheatingvalue(LHV).
G-4

ICIboiler:Afiredheat-recoverydeviceforindustrial,commercial,andinstitutionalfacilitiesthat
usesthechemicalenergyinfueltoraisetheenergycontentofwatersothatitcanbeusedforheatingand
powerapplications.
Inverter:Anelectricaldevicethatconvertsdirectcurrentpowertoalternatingcurrentpower.Most
invertersoperatebycuttingthedirectcurrentpowerintoaseriesofblocksorsquarewavesatanumberof
differentfrequencies.Theseblocksarethenelectricallysummedtocreateavoltagewaveformthat
approximatestherequiredalternatingcurrent.
Isentropicefficiency:Acomparisonoftheactualworkoutputofamachinecomparedtotheideal,or
isentropic,output.Itisameasureoftheeffectivenessofextractingworkfromtheexpansionprocessand
isusedtodeterminetheoutletconditionsofthesteamfromasteamturbine.
Islanding:AsafetyhazardthatcanoccurwhenageneratingfacilitysuchasaCHPsystemcontinues
tosupplypowertoaportionoftheelectricalgridafterthebalanceofthegridhasbeende-energized.
Isolateddesignandoperation:AnoperatingmodeinwhichtheCHPsystemissizedtomeetthesite
peakwithreserveallowanceforshort-termpowertransientsandtooperatewithnoconnectiontothe
electricalgrid.Byoperatinginthismode,noelectricitypurchasesarerequired.
Lead(Pb):AheavymetalthatisoneofthesixcriteriapollutantsforwhichtheEPAhasestablished
NationalAmbientAirQualityStandards.Leademissionsresultfromthecombustionofleadedgasoline
(beingphasedout),useofcertainpaints(houses,cars),operationofsmelters(metalrefineries),and
manufactureoflead-acidstoragebatteries.Combustionboilersarenotamajorsourceofleademissions.
Load-tracking:AnoperatingmodeforaCHPsystemthatisdesignedtotrackeitherthesites
thermalorelectricload.Byoperatinginthismode,supplementalpowerpurchases,heatrejection,or
supplementalthermalenergymayberequired,butbothelectricandthermalapproachescanbedesigned
tosupplythesitespeakrequirements.
Lowexcessair(LEA):Aboileroperatingconditioninwhichthelowestpossibleexcessairlevelis
providedwhilemaintaininggoodcombustion.OperatingwithLEAcreatesconditionswithinthe
combustionzonethatlowernitrogenoxideproduction.
Lowerheatingvalue(LHV):Thestandardmeasureoftheenergyreleasedduringcombustionofa
fuel,assumingtheproductwaterisinthegaseousstate.Fornaturalgasfuel,theLHVisapproximately
10%lowerthanthehigherheatingvalue(HHV).
LowestAchievableEmissionRate(LAER):Therateofemissionsthatreflects(1)themost
stringentemissionlimitationcontainedintheimplementationplanofanystateforsuchsourceunlessthe
owneroroperatoroftheproposedsourcedemonstratesthatsuchlimitationsarenotachievableor(2)the
moststringentemissionlimitationachievedinpracticebyothersourceswithinthesamecategory.
Applicationofthistermdoesnotpermitaproposednewormodifiedsourcetoemitpollutantsinexcess
ofexistingNewSourcePerformanceStandards.
Low-NO
x
burner(LNB):Aspeciallydesignedpieceofcombustionequipmentthatreducesnitrogen
oxideformationthroughcarefulcontrolofthefuel-airmixtureduringcombustion.Byproperstagingof
fuelandair,nitrogenoxideformationiscontrolledduetoalowermaximumflametemperatureanda
reducedoxygenconcentration.
Majormodification:AmodificationwithrespecttoPreventionofSignificantDeteriorationandNew
SourceReviewundertheCleanAirAct.
Majorstationarysources:AtermusedtoestablishtheapplicabilityofPreventionofSignificant
DeteriorationandNewSourceReviewregulations.Inanonattainmentarea,anystationarysourcethathas
apotentialtoemitmorethan100tons/yearisconsideredamajorstationarysource.Inattainmentareas,
thecutofflevelmaybeeither100or250tons/year,dependinguponthetypeofsource.
MaximumAchievableControlTechnology(MACT):Emissionlimitationsbasedonthebest
demonstratedcontroltechnologyorpracticesinsimilarsourcestobeappliedtomajorsourcesemitting
oneormoreofthelistedHAPs.
G-5

Microturbine:Asmallgasturbineconsistingofacompressorandaturbine.Aninternalheat
exchangerknownasarecuperatorisoftenaddedtorecoverheatfromtheexhaustgasesandthereby
improveoverallenergyefficiency.Inoperation,aradialflow(centrifugal)compressorcompressesthe
combustionairthatisthenpreheatedintherecuperatorusingheatrecoveredfromtheexhaustgasstream.
Aftertheheatedairfromtherecuperatormixeswithfuelinthecombustionchamber,thehotcombustion
gasesexpandthroughtheturbineandcauserotation.
MMBtu:Aunitofmeasureforheat(millionBritishthermalunits).
Moltencarbonatefuelcell(MCFC):Atypeoffuelcellthatoperatesathighertemperatureandis
moreefficientthanthecommerciallyavailablephosphoricacidfuelcell.Thehighexhausttemperatureof
aMCFCcangenerateadditionalelectricityinasteamturbineorinagasturbinecombined-cycleCHP
system.TheMCFCisexpectedtotarget1-20MWstationarypowerapplicationsandshouldbewell
suitedforindustrialCHPapplications.
Municipalsolidwaste(MSW):Asolidfuelconsistingofamixtureofpaper,wood,yardwaste,food
wastes,plastics,leather,rubber,andothernoncombustiblematerialssuchasmetal,glass,androck,that
areusuallyremovedpriortocombustion.
NationalAmbientAirQualityStandards(NAAQS):Uniformairqualitystandardsestablishedby
theEPAthatapplytooutsideairthroughoutthecountry.(Seecriteriapollutants.)
NationalEmissionsStandardsforHazardousAirPollutants(NESHAP):Emissionstandardsset
bytheEPAforairpollutants,notcoveredbyNationalAmbientAirQualityStandards,thatmaycausean
increaseindeathsorinaseriousillness.Primarystandardsaredesignedtoprotecthumanhealth;
secondarystandardsaredesignedtoprotectpublicwelfare.
Naturalgasreburning(NGR):Acombustionmodificationtechniqueforreducingemissionsof
nitrogenoxidesbystagingfuelratherthancombustionair.Inthistechnique,aportionofthefuelis
injecteddownstreamofthemaincombustionzone.Theresultisreducedformationofnitrogenoxides
throughlowerpeakflametemperaturesandreducedoxygenconcentrations.
NewSourcePerformanceStandards(NSPS):Uniformnationalairemissionsrequirementsthat
limittheamountofpollutionallowedfromspecificnewsourcesorfromexistingsourcesthathavebeen
modified.
NewSourceReview(NSR):ACleanAirActrequirementthatStateImplementationPlansmust
includeapermitreviewthatappliestotheconstructionandoperationofnewandmodifiedstationary
sourcesinnonattainmentareastoensureattainmentofNationalAmbientAirQualityStandards.
Newsource:Anystationarysourcethatisbuiltormodifiedafterpublicationoffinalorproposed
regulationsthatprescribeastandardofperformancethatisintendedtoapplytothattypeofemission
source.
Nitrogenoxides(NO
x
):Thecumulativeemissionsofnitricoxide(NO),nitrogendioxide(NO
2
),and
othertracecompoundsofnitrogenproducedwhenfuelisburned.Nitrogendioxideisoneofthesix
criteriapollutantsforwhichtheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyhasestablishedNationalAmbientAir
QualityStandards.
Nonattainmentarea(NAA):AgeographicareathatdoesnotmeetoneormoreoftheNational
AmbientAirQualityStandardsforthecriteriapollutantsdesignatedintheCleanAirAct.
Overfireair(OFA):Combustionairthatisinjectedintoaboilerabovethenormalcombustionzone.
Thisapproachisgenerallyusedinconjunctionwithoperatingtheburnersatalowerthannormalair-to-
fuelratiotoreducetheformationofnitrogenoxides.Whenapplied,OFAissuppliedabovethemain
combustionzonetoachievecompletecombustion.Overfireairisafeatureoftenincorporatedintolow-
NOxburnerdesigns.
Oxygentrim(OT):Aboileroperationalmodificationthatlimitstheamountofexcessoxygen
availableforcombustion.
G-6


Ozone(O
3
):OneofthesixcriteriapollutantsforwhichtheEPAhasestablishedNationalAmbient
AirQualityStandards.Ground-levelozoneisformedwhenvehicleexhaustandcombustionemissions
mixwithcertainotherchemicalsinthepresenceofstrongsunlight.
Particulatematter(PM):OneofthesixcriteriapollutantsforwhichtheEPAhasestablished
NationalAmbientAirQualityStandards.Particulatematterincludesfineliquidorsolidparticlessuchas
dust,smoke,mist,fumes,orsmogfoundinairoremissionsfromcombustion.
Partspermillion(ppmV):Awayofexpressingconcentrationsofsubstancesinair,water,soil,
humantissue,food,orotherproductsbasedonvolume.
Peakload:Thepeakloadisthemaximumdemandforheatorelectricitythatoccursinanyonehour
inayear.
Peakshaving:AnoperatingmodeforaCHPsystemthatisdesignedtosatisfythesitespeakpower
requirementseitherbyoperatingduringthesitespeakdemandperiodsorduringtheutilityspeak
demandperiods.Byoperatinginthismode,thepurchaseofmoreexpensiveon-peakpowerisavoided
therebydecreasingtheaveragepriceofpower.
Phosphoricacidfuelcell(PAFC):Atypeoffuelcellthatusesconcentratedphosphoricacidasthe
electrolyte.Therelativestabilityofconcentratedphosphoricacidishighcomparedtoothercommon
acids;consequently,aPAFCiscapableofoperatingatthehighendoftheacidtemperaturerange(212to
428C).
Plantwideapplicabilitylimitation(PAL):Avoluntarylimitorcaponafacilitystotalemissions
thatisestablishedbasedonthefacility'shistoricalemissions.Thislimitprovidesflexibilityforafacility
tomakemodificationswithouttriggeringmajorNewSourceReviewrequirementsaslongasthe
emissionscapisnotexceeded.
PM
10
:Particulatemattersuchassoot,dust,smoke,fumes,andmistwithanaerodynamicdiameter
lessthanorequaltoanominal10m.
PM
2.5
:Particulatemattersuchassoot,dust,smoke,fumes,andmistwithanaerodynamicdiameter
lessthanorequaltoanominal2.5m.
Pollutioncontrolproject(PCP):Aprojectthatresultsinsignificantemissionsincreases,butis
exemptfromNewSourceReviewduetodecreasesinemissionsofanotherpollutant.
Potentialtoemit(PTE):Therateofemissionofanaircontaminantofaprocessorprocess
equipmentwhilebeingoperatingatitsmaximumratedcapacity.Certainphysicaloroperationallimits
thatarelegallyenforceablecanaffectthepotentialtoemit.
Powerquality:Arelativetermusedtocharacterizeelectricalenergy.Powerqualityisinfluencedby
correctingthepowerfactortokeepthevoltageandcurrentinphase,maintainingstrictvoltagelevels,and
minimizingharmonicdistortions.
Power-to-heatratio:Anindicationoftheproportionofpower(electricalormechanicalenergy)to
heatenergy(steamorhotwater)producedbyaCHPsystem.
PreventionofSignificantDeterioration(PSD):Aregulatoryprogramusedtoevaluatepermitsfor
newormodifiedsourcesinattainmentareas.Theintentistopreventanattainmentareafrombecominga
nonattainmentarea.
Protonexchangemembranefuelcell(PEMFC):Atypeoffuelcellthatisofparticularinterestto
theautomotiveindustryasafuturepowerplantforelectricvehicles.ThePEMFChasveryhighpower
densitiesandcanstart-upquicklyandmeetvaryingdemand.
psig:Aunitofpressuremeasurement(poundspersquareinchgauge).
PublicUtilityHoldingCompanyAct(PUHCA):Federallegislationof1935thatpreventsutility
holdingcompaniesfromsubsidizingunregulatedbusinessactivitiesfromprofitsobtainedfromtheir
regulatedbusinessactivitiesandcaptivecustomers.
PublicUtilityRegulatoryPolicyAct(PURPA):A1978federallawthatrequiresutilitiestobuy
electricpowerfromprivatequalifyingfacilities,atanavoidedcostrate.Thisavoidedcostrateis
equivalenttowhatitwouldhaveotherwisecosttheutilitytogenerateorpurchasethatpowerthemselves.
G-7

Utilitiesmustfurtherprovidecustomerswhochoosetoself-generateareasonablypricedbackupsupply
ofelectricity.
QualifiedFacility(QF):AutilityisrequiredunderSection210ofPURPAtopurchaseexcess
electricitygeneratedbyaqualifiedfacilityandtoprovidebackuppoweratareasonablecost.Qualified
facilitiesincludedplantsthatuserenewableresourcesorcogenerationtechnologiestoproduceelectricity.
Reactivepower:Ameasureoftheamountofenergystoredinanelectricalcircuitthatperformsno
realwork.Theenergymaybestoredinmagneticfieldsoftransformersandmotorsorinelectromotive
fieldsincapacitors.Reactivepower,whichissometimesreferredtoasinductivepower,istheproductof
theinductivecurrentflowingthroughaload,andthevoltagedropacrosstheloadisexpressedinunitsof
reactivekilovolt-amp(kVAR).
Realpower:Anindicationoftheamountofenergythatperformsrealwork.Insimpleresistive
circuits,realpowerisdefinedastheproductofthecurrentflowingthroughthecircuitandthevoltage
acrossthatcircuit.Realpoweristypicallymeasuredinunitsofkilowatt(kW).
Reciprocatinginternalcombustionengine(RICE):Aninternalcombustionenginewitha
crankshaftthatisturnedbythemovementofpistonsinsidecylinders.
Recuperator:Agas-to-gasheatexchangerdesignedtoextractheatfromanexhaustgassteamand
useittoincreasethetemperatureofincomingcombustionair.Recuperatorsrelyontubesorplatesto
continuouslytransferheatfromtheoutgoingexhaustgastotheincomingcombustionair.These
componentsarearrangedtokeepthetwogasstreamsfrommixing.
Reducingairpreheat(RAP):Anemissioncontroltechniqueinwhichthetemperatureofpreheated
combustionairislowered.Reducingtheairpreheattemperaturecanlowerthepeakflametemperature
andresultinreducedformationofnitrogenoxides.
Refuse-derivedfuel(RDF):Asolidfuelconsistingofmorethan50%waste,includingamixtureof
paper,wood,yardwaste,foodwastes,plastics,leather,rubber,andothernoncombustiblematerialssuch
asmetal,glass,androck,whichareusuallyremovedpriortocombustion.
Regenerator:Agas-to-gasheatexchangerinwhichheatistransferredindirectlyasaheatstorage
mediumisalternatelyexposedtohotandcoldflowstreams.Periodicexposuretohotandcoldflow
streamscanbeaccomplishedeitherbyrotaryorvalve-switchingdevices.Duringoperation,asmallbut
significantamountofairleakageoccursfromonegasstreamtotheother.
Selectivecatalyticreduction(SCR):Apostcombustionemissioncontroltechniqueforreducing
emissionsofnitrogenoxides.Inthistechnique,acatalystandareductant(ammoniagas)areusedto
dissociatenitrogenoxidestonitrogengasandwatervapor.
Selectivediscounting:Apracticewherebyanelectricalsupplieragreestoprovideelectricitytoa
customeratareducedordiscountedrateasanincentivetopursuingalternativeelectricalgenerating
capability.
Selectivenoncatalyticreduction(SNCR):Apostcombustionemissioncontroltechniquefor
reducingemissionsofnitrogenoxides.Inthistechnique,areducingagentofeitherammoniaorureais
usedtodissociatenitrogenoxidestonitrogengasandwatervapor.
Smallpowerproducer(SPP):AsmallpowerproductionfacilityunderPURPAthatgenerates
electricityusingwaste,renewable(water,wind,andsolar),orgeothermalenergyasaprimaryenergy
source.FossilfuelscanbeusedbySPPs,butrenewableresourcemustprovideatleast75%ofthetotal
energyinput.
Solidoxidefuelcell(SOFC):Atypeoffuelcellthatoffersthereliabilityofallsolidceramic
constructionandisexpectedtohaveanelectricefficiencyofupto50%(LHV).Thehighexhaust
temperatureofaSOFCcanbeusedtogenerateadditionalelectricityinasteamturbineorinagasturbine
combined-cycleCHPsystem.
Source:Atermthatappliestoeachpointatwhichemissionsarereleasedoranentirefacilitywherea
pollutantisemitted.
G-8

Sparkignition(SI)engine:Areciprocatinginternalcombustionenginethatusesanexternally
suppliedsparktoigniteacompressedmixtureoffuelandair.(Caution:Sparkignitionshouldnotbe
confusedwithsteaminjectionwhichisalsorepresentedbytheacronymSI.)
Stagedcombustionair(SCA):Anemissioncontroltechniqueinwhichairisinjectedintoaboilerat
differentpointsorstagesinthecombustionprocesstoreducethepeakflametemperatureandlowerthe
oxygenconcentration,therebycontrollingtheformationofnitrogenoxides.Techniquesbasedonthis
conceptincludeBOOS,BF,OFA,andLNBs.
Stagedcombustion:Atechniquethatinvolvesmixingairandfuelattwoormorelocationsinsidea
boilertocreatezoneswithhighandlowexcessairlevels.Combustionateitherveryloworveryhigh
excessairlevelsresultsinreducedformationofnitrogenoxides.
Standardcubicfoot(scf):Aunitofmeasureforgas.Onestandardcubicfootofgasisthequantity
ofgassaturatedwithwatervaporatapressureof30in.ofmercuryat60Fthatoccupiesonecubicfoot.
StateImplementationPlan(SIP):AstateplanapprovedbytheEPAforestablishment,regulation,
andenforcementofairpollutionstandards.
Stationarysource:Afixed,nonmovingproducerofpollution,mainlypowerplants,manufacturing
facilities,refineries,andotherfacilitiesthatemitairpollutants.
Steaminjection(SI):Anemissioncontroltechniqueusedtodecreasetheflametemperatureand
therebyreducetheformationofnitrogenoxidesduringcombustion.(Caution:Steaminjectionshouldnot
beconfusedwithsparkignition,whichisalsorepresentedbytheacronymSI.)
Steamturbine:Arotatingmachinethatconvertsthekineticenergyofmovingsteamintomechanical
energy.Steamturbinesareconstructedwithastationarysetofblades(callednozzles)andamovingsetof
adjacentblades(calledbucketsorrotorblades)installedwithinapressure-retaininghousing.Stationary
nozzlesacceleratethesteamtohighvelocitybyexpandingittolowerpressurewhiletherotatingblades
changethedirectionofthesteamflowtoproducetorque.Steamturbinesaresubdividedintotwo
principalturbinetypes,impulseandreaction,dependingonthewaytheydirectsteamflow.
Sulfurdioxide(SO
2
):Apollutantthatisoftenemittedduringthecombustionofsulfur-bearingfuels.
SulfurdioxideisoneofthesixcriteriapollutantsforwhichtheEPAhasestablishedNationalAmbient
AirQualityStandards.
Sulfuroxides(SO
x
):Anyofseveraloxidesofsulfur.
Synchronizing:Theprocessbywhichthesinusoidaloutputvoltagewaveformofanalternating
currentelectricalgeneratorisbroughtpreciselyintolinewiththefrequency,time,andvoltageofanother
electricalgeneratororwiththemainsystemtowhichitistobeconnected.
Thermodynamicefficiency:Atermusedforexpressingefficiencyfordevicesthatoperateincycles
orforindividualcomponentsthatoperateinprocesses.
Three-waycatalyst(TWC):Apostcombustionemissioncontroldeviceforsparkignitionengines
thatusesceramicsubstratesandtrimetalcatalystformulations.
Tire-derivedfuel(TDF):Asolidfuelconsistingofwholescraptiresinachippedform.
Toppingcycle:Aheat-recoveryschemeinwhichtheenergyinfuelisfirstusedtogenerate
electricity.Wasteheatfromtheprimemoveristhenrecoveredandusedforprocessheatingorcooling
applications.
TotalCHPefficiency:Ameasureofthenetelectricitygenerated,thenetheatsuppliedtothe
process,andthetotalfuelinputexpressedasfollows:
(Netelectricitygenerated+Netheatsuppliedtoprocess)/Totalfuelinput
Toxicairpollutant:Anairpollutantthatisknownorsuspectedtocausecancerorotherserious
healtheffects.Thereare188toxicairpollutants,alsoknownasHAPs,regulatedbytheEPA.
Trigeneration:Acombined-cycleCHPsystemthatincludescoolingequipmentsuchasan
absorptionchiller.
G-9

Uplifttariff:AfeeortariffchargedtoaCHPsystemowneroroperatorbythedistributionutilityfor
transmissionoftheCHP-producedelectricitytothemarket.Theuplifttariffcouldreflectcostsfor
distribution,ancillaryservices,capacity,andlosses.
Volatileorganiccompound(VOC):Anyorganiccompoundthatparticipatesinatmospheric
photochemicalreactionsexceptthosedesignatedbytheEPAAdministratorashavingnegligible
photochemicalreactivity.
Wasteheat-recoveryboiler:Anunfiredheat-recoverydevicesuchasaheat-recoverysteam
generatorthatusesheatrecoveredfromhotexhaustgasesasfuelforgeneratinghotwaterorsteam.
Waterinjection(WI):Anemissioncontroltechniqueusedtodecreasethepeakflametemperature
andtherebyreducetheformationofnitrogenoxidesduringcombustion.
G-10

ORNL/TM-2004/144
INTERNALDISTRIBUTION
1. D.Cox 9. K.L.McElhaney
2. R.C.DeVault 1027. C.B.Oland
3. S.K.Fischer 28. M.Olszewski
4. E.C.Fox 29. C.C.Southmayd
5. P.W.Garland 30. T.Theiss
6. C.R.Hudson 3133. A.L.Wright
7. D.K.Jamison 34. ORNLLaboratoryRecords(OSTI)
8. R.E.Leach 35. ORNLLaboratoryRecords(RC)
EXTERNALDISTRIBUTION
3645. R.D.Bessette,President,CouncilofIndustrialBoilerOwners,6035BurkeCentreParkway
No.360,Burke,VA22015
4648. R.Gemmer,U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,EE-2F,1000IndependenceAve.,SW,Washington,DC
20585-0121
49. G.Harrell,Ph.D.,P.E.,SeniorResearchAssociate,TheUniversityofTennesseeKnoxville,
EnvironmentalandResourcesCenter,311ConferenceCenterBuilding,Knoxville,TN37996-
4134
50. C.B.Hooper,SteamSolutions,Inc.,2220BansteadRoad,Midlothian,VA23113
51. R.Jendrucko,UniversityofTennessee,DepartmentofMechanicalandAerospaceEngineering,
301PerkinsHall,Knoxville,TN37996
52. J.S.Moore,TAEngineering,Inc.,CatonsvilleProfessionalCenter,405FrederickRoad,
Suite252,Baltimore,MD21228
5355. R.N.Mosher,President,R.N.Mosher&Associates,3997GumwodCourt,Chantilly,VA
20151-2601
5665. W.R.Rawson,President,AmericanBoilerManufacturersAssociation,4001N.9thSt.,
Suite226,Arlington,VA22203-1900
66. M.Smith,U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,1000IndependenceAve.,SW,Washington,DC20585-
0121
67. G.Talmage,PennsylvaniaStateUniversity,DepartmentofMechanicalandNuclearEngineering,
306ReberBuilding,UniversityPark,PA16802
68. A.C.Thekdi,E3M,Inc.,15216GravensteinWay,NorthPotomac,MD20878