You are on page 1of 65

Topical Enduring

Understanding
1. Change in the form of any matter involves energy.
2. Survival of the biological system depends on the
conversion of energy from one form to another.
3. Changes in the organism are dependent on its
environment.
4. Living organisms require matter and energy to
maintain its complexity and organisation.
5. Energy flow in biological processes obeys the laws of
thermodynamics.
15
Matters, System &
Organisation

Macr omol ecul es

Phot osynt hesi s

Respi r at i on
16
Unit Essential Questions
! Why do we need to respire?
! Do the structure and organisation of the living
system change when energy is released from
them?
! How are respiratory systems of animals
organised efficiently to carry out its functions?
! Can there be any metabolism without enzymes?
17

Answer this on your own in your journal. (5 mins)

Discuss as a class (10 mins)
Unit Enduring
Understanding
1. Living organisms release energy within the biological
molecule into forms they can use to carry out life
processes.
2. Process of the release of energy is affected by
external environment.
3. The structure and organisation of the respiratory
system is dictated by the function that it serves.
4. Metabolic pathway is a sequence of enzyme-
controlled reactions.
18
ENERGY
• How is the energy “generated” in your
body?
• Do plants respire? Is the process similar
to that of Man?
• Compare the energy conversion in plant
and in Man.
Key Understanding
1.Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can
only be converted from one form into another.
2.Respiration is the process by which living
organisms convert energy into forms they can
use to carry out life processes.
3.Some organisms can respire aerobically as
well as anaerobically.
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
The bodies energy-making reaction needs similar
things to the energy-making process of fire.
Like fire, the body needs oxygen and a fuel.
+
and the fuel (in the form of
digested food) comes courtesy
of the digestive system.
Energy-making process
the oxygen is
supplied by the
breathing
system
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
If we now think back over the journey of oxygen and
digested food through the human body, we will
realise that they both end up in the same place.
these substances
eventually arrive
at the body cells
food oxygen
breathing
system
digestive
system
BLOOD
Energy-making process
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
Therefore, the raw materials for the energy-making
process eventually arrive at the body cells.
This energy-making process is known as...
R E S P I R A T I O N
Each living cell is supplied with food and oxygen in
order to generate energy.
oxygen
blood
food
+
capillary
muscle cell
Energy-making process
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
No chemical reaction is 100% efficient.
Therefore, as well as producing the useful energy, respiration
also produces waste products.
These waste products
must be removed
from the body.
This is exactly what happens!
Waste products
If the process of breathing in is used to obtain the
O
2
for respiration, it would make sense for the body
to use the process of breathing out to remove these
waste products of this reaction.
Cellular Respiration
• The process by which organisms break down
energy rich molecules (eg. glucose) to release
the energy in the ATP form.
Overall equation for aerobic respiration of glucose:
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O + energy
glucose + oxygen carbon + water + large amount
dioxide of energy
Uses of Energy
• muscle contraction
• protein synthesis
• cell division
• active transport
• building up of protoplasm for growth
• transmission of nerve impulses
• maintenance of a constant body temperature
Involves three metabolic stages:-
1 Glycolysis
(cytoplasm)
2 The Krebs Cycle
(mitochondrial matrix)
3 Electron Transport &
oxidative phosphorylation
(inner membranes of
mitochondrion)
Cellular Respiration
Mitochondria
Mitochondria - the power house
30
Cellular Respiration
Diagram from Biozone Senior Biology 1
1. Glycolysis
- occurs in the cytoplasm
- involves breakdown of glucose
into 2 molecules of pyruvate
Outline of cellular respiration
2. Krebs Cycle
- occurs in the mitochondrion matrix
- decomposes a derivative of
pyruvate to carbon dioxide
1
3. Electron transport and oxidative
phosphorylation
- occurs in the inner membrane of
the mitochondrion
- Accounts for almost 90% of the
ATP generated by respiration
2
3
Diagram from Advanced Human and Social Biology : Student’s Art Notebook

• Glucose (6C) is broken
into two molecules of
pyruvate (3C)
Glycolysis
• 2 ATP and 2NADH + 2H
+
are generated from this
stage.
• No oxygen is required
(the process is
anaerobic)
• in cytosol/ cytoplasm of
cell
Diagram from Biological Science 1 by N.P.O. Green, G.W. Stout, D. J. Taylor, Cambridge University Press
Glycolysis
36
A 2-stages process.
How many ATP & NADH are generated from 1 glucose?

• The acetyl group
passes into a cyclic
reaction and combines
with a 4 carbon
molecule to from a 6
carbon molecule.
• The CoA is released for
reuse.
• Successive steps in the
cycle remove carbon as
carbon dioxide.
• in matrix of
mitochondria
Krebs cycle
Diagram from Biological Science 1 by N.P.O. Green, G.W. Stout, D. J. Taylor, Cambridge University Press
Kreb Cycle
38
How many ATP, NADH & FADH are generated from 1 glucose?
Electron Transport System
Diagram from Advanced Human and Social Biology : Student’s Art Notebook
1 NADH yields 3 ATP
1 FADH
2
yields 2 ATP
• in cristae of mitochondria
Electron transport chain
40
Summary of ATP production

Diagram from Biological Science 1 by N.P.O. Green, G.W. Stout, D. J. Taylor, Cambridge University Press
Summary of ATP production
Glycolysis
• 2 net ATP from substrate-level phosphorylation
2 NADH yields 6 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
Transition Reaction
• 2 NADH yields 6 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
Krebs (Citric Acid )Cycle
• 2 ATP from substrate-level phosphorylation
6 NADH yields 18 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
2 FADH
2
yields 4 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
Total Theoretical Maximum Number of ATP Generated
per Glucose
• 38 ATP: 4 from substrate-level phosphorylation; 34 from
oxidative phosphorylation.
Cellular Respiration Animation
http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/BiologicalSciences/Faculty/DMeyer/respiration.swf
Adenosine Triphosphate
Diagram from Biozone Senior Biology 1
Advanced Human and Social Biology : Student’s Art Notebook
Adenosine
Triphosphate
ATP is a convenient store of
energy for a cell because
• it stores energy in
relatively small amount.
• it is quickly hydrolysed in
a one-step reaction to
release energy.
• it is easily moved around
inside cells, but cannot
pass through cell
membranes.

Formation of ATP
Oxygen consumption of mitochondria
interactive experiment.”
http://www.cells.de/cellseng/1medienarchiv/Zellfunktionen/
Memb_Vorg/Zellatmung/Atmungsaktivitaet/index.jsp
Online Respiration Matching Game
http://www.quia.com/mc/1008211.html
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
However, to call this reaction just ‘respiration’ is not
quite correct.
Let us try to understand why…..
Think about what you
do in an average day.
sometimes
you are
resting
low energy
requirements
What is respiration?
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
sometimes
you are
active
high energy
requirements
What is respiration?
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
Your body requires different amounts of energy at
different times.
Therefore…
the process of respiration
must be able to ‘speed
up’ and ‘slow down’
this will mean that
we need different
amounts of food to
feed the reaction
it will also mean that we
need different amounts of
oxygen to feed the reaction
the blood will have to flow
at different speeds
according to demand
our rate of breathing will change
this is exactly
what happens
What is respiration?
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
Let’s take two extreme examples human activity and
see how the process of respiration change...
It seems that the process of respiration changes
during the course of the day.
This may not represent the daily activities of an average
human, but this scenario will help us understand this
process of respiration in more depth.
1. sleeping
2. running a
marathon
What is respiration?
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
SLEEPING
When we sleep, our body is at rest.
There is a low demand for energy.
low
energy
demand
blood flow
does not
have to be
rapid
low
demand for
food and
oxygen
the breathing
rate remains
normal
In other words, the body has plenty of time to inhale the
oxygen that it needs. It also has time to completely digest
the food to release the important chemicals (e.g glucose).
The blood can efficiently transport these substances to the
cells without increasing its rate of flow.
What is respiration?
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
When the body is performing respiration in such a way, it
is given a special name.
When the body…
We say it is performing AEROBIC respiration.
O
2
has plenty of oxygen
is able to completely digest food
can supply the cells with the oxygen and
food that they need
Aerobic respiration
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
So our original equation for the process of respiration
is actually the equation for aerobic respiration.
This is an efficient process... enough energy is made to
supply the whole body.
Our bodies perform aerobic respiration for much of the day.
In fact, as long as the supply of oxygen remains high
enough, we will continue to perform aerobic respiration.
Of course, the amount of energy we produce will drop if
the level of oxygen drops.
Aerobic respiration
Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
So, now we know that there is a form of respiration which is
performed when there is a supply of oxygen to the body.
But, what happens in situation 2?
Are they performing aerobic respiration?
Well, in order to answer that question, we have to think
about what their bodies are doing during the race.
during before after
remember the runners?
Aerobic respiration
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
Energy
demands
Oxygen
available
Form or
respiration
What’s happening?
before
low high aerobic
during
high
low / none
aerobic
(but slowing)
after
dropping none / low
?
What is respiration?
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
?
How can the body perform aerobic
respiration in this situation?
Aerobic respiration requires oxygen but when you have
been running a race or doing strenuous exercise, you
cannot inhale enough oxygen for this reaction.
Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
This process fails!
But, if this process fails when the oxygen levels drop, the
body would be left with absolutely no energy.
What is respiration?
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
No energy would lead to stop working!
This would mean that the body would
stop working whenever it became
short of oxygen.
The problem is that we often do exercise and our
bodies continue working.
What must be happening when our oxygen levels
drop to zero?
The body must be able to keep working through
short periods of low/no oxygen.
But how?
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
With aerobic respiration, the cells supply of oxygen and
food is relatively constant.
oxygen
food
cell blood
When this supply is
cut off, the cell is left
with excess food
and lacks energy.
It solves this problem by making energy from just the food
alone!
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
Now because it is releasing energy from food, it is still
performing respiration.
But it is not aerobic respiration because there is
no oxygen present. (aero- means of air)
Therefore we call it ANAEROBIC respiration.
The energy being made by breaking down the food
without oxygen.
This seems a better process!
To be able to make energy without needing oxygen would
be very beneficial.
However, there is a problem.
Anaerobic respiration
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
Remember the last time you ran a race, carried a
heavy weight or swam under water for too long and ran
short of breath.
It probably felt uncomfortable.
Well, if anaerobic respiration was as efficient as it
sounds, this lack of comfort would not happen.
Anaerobic respiration
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
When the cell breaks down the food to release the
energy, it also makes a potentially harmful waste
product.
The breakdown of the food is also incomplete.
It is not an efficient process.
Anaerobic respiration
So, what is the problem with anaerobic respiration?
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
Glucose Lactic Acid + (some) Energy
This waste product is known as LACTIC ACID.
Therefore the equation for anaerobic respiration is…
from the
digestive system
waste
product
not as much energy
as with aerobic
respiration
You will notice that this reaction is only an option for short
periods of time.
This is because the waste product is harmful and not
enough energy is made to satisfy the body.
Anaerobic respiration
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
Why is lactic acid so harmful?
Well, this chemical can stop muscles within the body,
from contracting and relaxing.
The lactic acid soaks the muscle cells and
prevents the muscle cell from doing its job.
relaxation
contraction
If the muscles in your body stop contracting and
relaxing they are said to be fatigued.
They eventually seize and you experience cramp.
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
If you want to consider the full impact of damage caused
by the presence of lactic acid, just remember that the
heart is made of muscle cells!
This leaves us with a problem...
if we want to do exercise
We want the energy
that anaerobic
respiration produces
YES NO
So the answer is for anaerobic respiration to be a ‘gap-fill’
during periods of very low / no oxygen availability.
Why is lactic acid so harmful?
But we don’t want the
lactic acid waste
product
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
time
oxygen
levels
rest
exercise
exercise
stops
aerobic
anaerobic
Anaerobic respiration keeps our bodies going until we
can breathe in more oxygen again.
Whilst we are performing anaerobic respiration, our
bodies are building up a ‘debt’ of oxygen.
Anaerobic respiration
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
This is rather like owing the bank some money.
Once you get some money, you have to pay off that
debt.
We can think of that debt as being the presence of
lactic acid in the body.
Lactic acid
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
When our bodies convert
from aerobic to anaerobic
respiration, we start
making lactic acid.
As soon as this begins, the
body starts building an
oxygen debt.
This is equivalent to the
amount of oxygen it would
have used if aerobic
respiration had continued.
Lactic acid
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
This oxygen debt will have to be repaid when the
exercise stops.
Oxygen will be used to break down the lactic acid that is
present in the body.
The oxygen ‘oxidises’ the lactic acid.
In fact, the lactic acid is oxidised into carbon dioxide
and water.
In this way, the process of aerobic respiration can be converted into
The process of anaerobic respiration which can then turn back into...
Lactic acid
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
The body has the ability to produce energy, despite changes
in the supply of oxygen.
Here are the two forms of respiration.
glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy
Aerobic respiration (complete breakdown of food)
Anaerobic respiration (incomplete breakdown of food)
Aerobic respiration is performed when oxygen is present.
Anaerobic respiration is performed when oxygen is absent.
Summary
glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + lactic
acid + little energy
Anaerobic Respiration
• All organisms can metabolize glucose
anaerobically (without O
2
) using glycolysis in
the cytoplasm, but the energy yield is very
low and it produces much more toxic waste
products.
• In yeast and plants, alcoholic fermentation
occurs.
• In animals, production of lactic acid.
Anaerobic Respiration
• Muscle cells can respire anaerobically for
short periods of time when there is a shortage
of oxygen. It incur an oxygen debt.

Oxygen debt is the amount of O
2
required to
oxidise the lactic acid produced
• Lactic acid is produced which causes fatigue
• Lactic acid is transported to the liver and
converted back into glucose when the body is
no longer short of O
2
.
Anaerobic Respiration
Summary of pathways of anaerobic respiration

Diagrams from Biological Science 1 by N.P.O. Green, G.W. Stout, D. J. Taylor, Cambridge University Press
Overall Equations for Anaerobic Equations
Plants & Yeast
C
6
H
12
O
6
C
2
H
5
OH + CO
2
+ energy
glucose ethanol + carbon + small amount
dioxide of energy
Animals
C
6
H
12
O
6
C
3
H
6
O
3
+ energy
glucose lactic acid + small amount
of energy