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Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name: Linum usitatissimum) is a
member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. Flax is grown both for its seeds and for its
fiber. Various parts of the plant have been used to make fabric, dye, paper, medicines, fishing
nets, hair gels, and soap. Flax seed is the source of linseed oil, which is used as edible oil, as a
nutritional supplement and as an ingredient in many wood finishing products.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Family: Linaceae
Genus: Linum
Species: L. usitatissimum
Binomial name
Linum usitatissimum

 High moisture absorption capacity almost double than cotton, makes it a thirsty fabric.
Linen allows the skin to breath and its extremely comfortable under all weather
conditions. Cool in summer, Warm in winter and refresh in humid weather.
 Linen helps to protect the skin from harmful UV rays.
 Natural anti bacterial health fabric.
 With repeated washing the fabric attains new sheen and airness which makes it even
more skin friendly.
 Extremely durable and wear resistance.
 Natural anti static and hence repels dust.
 Natural anti bed sore.
 Purer linen influences the lowering of muscle tensions.
 Extremely soft and supple.

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 Retains the creases and wrinkles due to the individual body movement of the wearer.
 It adopts easily to any occasion and lifestyle, whether a daily or special formal or
informal use.
 Wrinkles of linen has its own way of expressions
 Linen is stuff, resistant and nearly immortal.
 It has natural sheen and extraordinary texture which differentiate it with other fabrics.
 Highly absorbent
 Good Heat Conductor
 Feels cool to touch
 Smooth and lint free
 Softens more with washings
 High natural Luster
 Dries quickly, ability to weak moisture
 Unlikely to stick to the skin
 Fabric is stronger weight than dry
 Does not stretch
 Resists abrasion damage
 Has no elasticity therefore keeps its shape
 Resist dirt and stains
 No pilling and Lint tendencies
 Anti Static and Anti bacterial
 Elegant and Durable

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2.2. Plant Layout

2.3. Flow Chart of Process Sequence of Flax Spinning

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2.4. Descriptions of the Process Sequence and

1. Bale Opening
In this process the bale is opened and is converted to sheet
form. Steaming is done at this stage. Then it is transferred into
bunch form.
 BALE WEIGHT : 100+/- 10 Kgs.
 Bale is opened manually,
 Then sorting or bunching is done.
 Bunch weight : 95 +/- 10 gms.
2. Bunch Making (Sorting)
In this process the flax fibers are opened into bunch form of weight between 80gm to 100gm by the
workers. Removal of dust, dirt and other unwanted materials are also done here.
3. Hackling
Hackling splits and straightens the flax fibers, as well as
removing the fibrous core and impurities from flax. Hackling
is done with hackling combs by pulling the flax through the
combs. This parts the locked fibers and makes them
straight, clean, and ready to spin. After heckling, the flax is
ready to spin. After spinning, the flax is then suitable for
weaving into linen.
Machine Parameters:
Total Number of machines: 3
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Hackling height hackling sheet-760mm
Frequency of opening and closing of hackling sheet-8-8.5 times/min
Row no of hackling tool on hackling sheet-24
Length of hackling tool-12in (305mm)
Speed of hackling sheet-18-28m/min
Can dia and height of speader-450*1000mm
Delivery roller dia-101.6mm
Front roller dia-114.3mm
Overall size of the whole machine-11700*4800*3000
4. Drawing
In this process further attenuation of fibres and doubling is
Machine Parameters:
Machine Name: FX280, FX281, FX282, FX283, FX284
No of machines available: 12
Machine Specification:
FX280 FX281 FX282 FX283 FX284
No of head 2,3,4 2,3,4 3,4,5 4,5,6 5,6,7
1180 1104 1003 953 928
No of
97 88 96 87 84
Dia of front
76 63 45 45 45
Dia of back
63 51 45 45 45

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Processing Data:
No of fed
6 8 8 8 8
Doubling no of
6 8 8 8 or 4 8 or 4
Weight of
delivered sliver
min (m/min)
17 11 7.3 4.9 or 2.5 1.6 or 0.8
Speed of the
deliver roller
16~24 17~25 17~25 19~26 17~24

5. Roving
A continuous slightly twisted strand of fibers wound in a package called Bobbin, suitable to feed
spinning frame. Roving is the final product of the several drawing out operations. It is the preparatory
stage for the final insertion of twist. To this point, only enough twist has been given the stock to hold the
fibers together. Roving has no tensile strength; it will break apart easily with any slight pull.

(For 40lea)
Machines Involve: 4, 6, and 7
Rove Weight: 0.38gm/mtr
Draft For Roving: 12.01
Twist @ meter : 40
(For 60lea)
Machines Involve: 1, 2, and 3
Rove Weight: 0.32gm/mtr
Draft For Roving: 11.6
Twist @ meter : 44
A roving is a long and narrow bundle of fiber. It is
usually used to spin woolen yarn. A roving can be created by
carding the fiber, and it is the drawn into long strips. After
drawing operation roving is done. The main objective of
roving is drafting, twisting and winding.
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Machine Specification:
Machine Name-FX-402
No of machines: 4
No of head 15
No of spindles 120
Dia of front roller 38.1
Dia of back roller 38
Dia of wooden pressing roller 180-200
Motor 160M-615 KW
Distance between front roller and front back 550
Overall Size 15158*3600
Weight 16-6 ton
Count of rove NM 1.8-3.8
Draft 8.34-12.51
Twist 29-41T/m
Flyer speed rpm 833

6. Bleaching Plant
Bleaching is a chemical processing which extract impurities for better yarn quality by using bleaching
agent H

 LOADING OF CARRIER: Pre – arrangement of bleaching
 HCL Wash (Peroxide): Treatment of Material in HCL acid solution to remove impurities and
other unwanted materials.
 COLD WASH: Treatment of textile material in hot water/cold water after bleaching.
 H
: A chemical processing of improving the whiteness of textile material by using H

Bleaching Process runs for 6 hrs and Boiling Process runs for 4
Considering bleaching loss is about 12%.
BLEACH ROVE INSPECTION: Computer matching of
Whiteness Inspection/ Yellowness Inspection/ Reddishness
Inspection of each bleached lot to decide batch.

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In bleaching plant the roving materials are bleached in order to remove the natural colour of the yarn.
Bleaching is done mainly following methods:
Chloride Bleaching: Soda ash

Hydrogen peroxide Sodium silicate
Acetic acid Sodium nitrate
Sulphuric acid Sodium Chloride
Alfox 200 Caustic flakes

Securon 540

Contavan GAL

Stabilizer N

Betafoam KS

7. Wet Spinning
Spinning is the final operation in the whole spinning process, transforming the rove into yarn. This
technology applies the same principle of Drafting, attenuating and twisting the fibres in order to obtain
yarn cohesion. The properties of yarn and hence the choice of process depend on the type and features
of the desired yarn.
There are several methods for spinning the hackled flax:
 Wet Spinning, which can be done with grey, boiled and bleached roves. Wet spinning is the
process of yarn formation, a special feature of flax fibre spinning through Ring Frame
spinning machine (LINIMPIANTI RING FRAMES) / other spinning machine. It enables yarns of
an outstanding quality and finesse to be produced.

(For 40lea)
Rove Wt.: 0.38gm/mtr
Considering bleaching loss (aprx): 11.5% - 12%
Therefore, feed material for Ring frame:
Drafting: 8.3
(For 60lea)
Rove Wt.: 0.32gm/mtr
Considering bleaching loss (aprx): 11.5% - 12%
Therefore, feed material for Ring frame:
Drafting: 10.7
Besides Wet-Spinning, there are also –
 Semi – wet spinning and
 Dry spinning
Machine Parameters:
Machine Name: PM-88L5
No of machines: 26
Yarn linear density 20-60 tex (Nm)
Twist/meter 300-800Tm
Twist direction Right Z
Draft 2,3-13,4
Setting (mm) 180 (Front and back roller nip)
Yarn ring dia 55mm
Wind height 210mm
Spindle speed 3700-3800
Drafting system Single zone, single apron drafting system with two
pressure rollers
Power of motor 15 KW

Spinning machine drive 0, 37
Ring rail drive 88
Spindle guage 88mm
Spindle quantity 64,192, 240, 256
Width 1550
Height 2450
Length 64 spindles-3750
192 spindles-9400
240 spindles-11500
250 spindles-12200
Basic weight of machine 64 spindles-3250
192 spindles- 6950
240 spindles-8350
256 spindles- 8780

8. Drying (R.F DRYER):
After coming out of ring frame the prins are in wet condition. It cannot be wound further without drying
them. So R.F Dryer is used in this case. The lot of prins is pressed through the R. F Dryer at a
temperature of 80°C.
9. Winding (Auto Coner):
Regardless of the spinning method that is used the yarn must be cleaned of all impurities and be wound
on a bobbin that is suitable for further processing. Such are the functions of the winding operation,
carried out on winding frames which is called as
Autoconer (SAVIO SPLICING AUTO WINDER). This is the
last step in flax spinning before the yarn leaves the
spinning mill for delivery to the weaver. The
requirements which the Autoconer provides at the
time of Winding operation are:
 tying-in of the yarn tails into the yarn body
 abrasion resistance
 stress-strain characteristic
 elasticity
 work-to-rupture
 tensile strength of the spliced joints
 visual appearance of the spliced joints
After going through this operation, the spun yarn is cleaned from yarn faults by means of electronic
clearer and wound in a bigger package, Named as Cone.
The parameters are observed in this stage are:
Winding Speed (aprx): 650mpm
Splicer Type: Aqua Splicer
Clearer Type: Uster Quantum

Schlafhorst is the market leader with its automatic yarn package winding machine. The basis of the
success of the Autocorner 338 in the market is its modular
machine concept, which allows the flexible, application-
oriented integration of innovative modules into the machines.
Schlafhorst presents the highlights of the Autocorner 338
winding technology on a single winding unit.
10. Conditioning Room:
In this stage the bigger pachage wound in the Autoconer
machine are stored in a conditioning room and from there they
are sent for packaging.

11. Packaging:
Packaging plays a vital role in marketing a particular product.
Here the bobbins are packed and delivered for further processing or sold to the buyer.
 Bigger Package Cone- 1.6kg
 Small Package Cone-1kg/900gm
 Gross Weight of the Carton-26kg
 Total no of bobbins/carton-26kg
 Production per day-600kg

 Ear plug in wet spinning and winding section
 Apron and gloves in bleaching plant