You are on page 1of 16

32 | P a g e

PART III
WEAVING

33 | P a g e

3.1. Plant Layout

3.2. Flow Chart of Process Sequence of Weaving

34 | P a g e

3.3. Descriptions of the Process Sequence and
Machineries

1. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT: Design for a fabric is being developed in this department by the
designers. The patterns of weave, the colour of yarns, the color combination of yarns in case of
checks or striped fabric, fabric weight as per yarn count etc. is predestined by the designers.

2. PRE-CHECKED SPUN YARN FROM GO DOWN : Spun yarn quality characteristics that are most
important for good weaving performance include short and long term weight uniformity,
imperfections, tensile properties and hairiness. That is why warp and weft yarns have to come
up with spinning process. The final count we get through winding operation, therefore winding
is the major preparation process before weaving. Pre-checking is done to choose the proper
yarn for a specific design to develop a certain quality fabric.
From here, Weft/Filling Yarn and Warp/Ends are meant for further processing.

2.1. WARP YARN: In weaving operation, the lengthwise yarns which run from the back to the
front of the loom from the basic structure of the fabric and are called the warp yarn or the
ends. Warp yarn is subjected to higher stresses which require extra preparation. Thus at the
time of warping flax yarns are followed by an oiling operation.
2.2. WEFT/FILLING YARN: in weaving, weft/woof is the yarn which is drawn under and over
parallel warp yarns to create a fabric. The weft is threaded through the warp using a shuttle
or without the same in modern power loom technology. The filling yarns are not subjected
to the same type of stresses as the warp yarns & thus they are easily prepared for the
weaving process.

3. YARN DYEING (ONLY MEANT FOR CHECKS AND STRIPED FABRIC): It is done only at time when
fabrics are designed in checks or stripes.
35 | P a g e

There are many forms of yarn dyeing. Common forms are at Package form and at Hanks
form. Cotton yarns are mostly dyed at Package form and Acrylic or Wool yarns are dyed at hank form.
The common dying process of Flax yarn with Reactive Dyes at package form is given below in
short:
I. The raw yarn is wounded on to a number of perforated tubes or springs/ cheese to achieve
package suitable for dye penetration.
II. Then these softened packages are loaded on a dyeing carrier’s spindle, one another which is
also perforated.
III. The packages are next pressed upto a desired height to achieve suitable
density of packing.
IV. The carrier is then loaded on the dying machine and the yarn is dyed.
V. After dyeing the packages are unloaded from the carrier into a trolly.
VI. Next all the packages are hydro extracted to remove the maximum
amount of water.
VII. All the packages are then dried to achieve the final dyed package..
a. In package dyeing, dye is circulated around and through the tubes to assure that yarns
have a maximum contact to the dye stuff.
o DYE: Dye is a word used to colour fabric. There are two main types of dyes – Natural and
Synthetic. The process is called Dyeing.
o DYE LOT: Dye lot is a number that identifies yarns dyed in the same vat at the same
time. Subtle differences appear between different batches at the same colour yarn from
the same manufacturer
4. WARP YARN PREPARATION: Warp yarn is subjected to higher stresses which requires extra
preparation. Yarns intended for the warp must pass through spooling, warping and slashing
which prepare them to withstand the strain of the weaving process.
36 | P a g e

As flax itself can withstand higher stresses, so, it does not need to pass through the sizing operation. At
the time of warping in beam, warp yarns are feeded by Gibson & Arcofil oil solution(60:40) with water
which is similar to sizing process.
5. PRE-PROCEDURE OF WEAVING OF PATTERNED FABRIC
5.1. CREELING FOR SECTIONAL WARPING: It is conventional in the textile industry to form a
weft less warp sheet of previously drawn yarns and to wind the warp sheet onto a large
spool called a Beam(A large spool or flanged cylinder around which the warp threads, or
ends, are wound in a uniform and parallel arrangement). The warp sheets commonly
comprise hundreds of thousands of individual yarns, and are unwound from the beams to
feed looms.
The source of warp yarns which are to be beamed is typically a Creel(A framework arranged to hold
yarns so that many ends can be withdrawn smoothly and evenly without tangling) supporting an
individual yarn package of previously drawn yarn for each yarn in the warp sheet. The individual yarns
are withdrawn from the packages and fed through an arrangement of guides to form the warp sheet.
CREELING:-
1) Creel the packages.
2) Draw the threads into the appropriate tensioners.
3) Insert the threads of each horizontal row into the guides and the appropriate stop motion elements.
CREELING PARAMETERS:-
Type of creel = magazine creel (parallel creel with reverse package).
Max. Capacity of creel = 480.
Total no. of creels = (480x5) = 2400
End breakage rate = 12-15 ends/beam.
Creeling time = 25-30 min.

37 | P a g e

6. SECTIONAL WARPING: Sectional warping machines are used for warping. Different number of
sections is made as per required design of warp which are provided by design development
department.
‘GAMETEX’ MACHINES are used by sectional warping.

WARPING:-
1. Dent the lease reed, starting from the middle and working to left and right. First draw in the
bottom horizontal row of left and one by one toward up and complete the left hand side like
wise the right hand side.
2. Dent the reed (comb) on the warp table and set the width as per the warping program.
3. Insert the knot of the yarn into a hole. Then rotate the reel by 2-3 rotations. Check section
width by scale. If there is any variation in section width adjust it by angular motion of warp table
reed.
4. Start the machine in run mode. It will stop at first lease.
5. Inch the machine by pressing foot pedal and insert the lease. Then again restart the m/c.
6. During the m/c running if any ends breaks, the m/c will stop automatically, and knot the yarn
manually. And run the m/c again.

Data required for WARPING PROGRAM (as for example):-
* Yarn Count
* Total ends = 2013
* Beam flange to flange distance in mm. = 915
* Creel Capacity = 480.
* Total length in meters = 1200.
38 | P a g e

* Partial length in meters = 150.
* Ends / mm. = 2013 /915 = 2.2
* No. of sections = 2013 / 480 = 4.1937 i.e., 4 section of 480 ends and 5
th
section of 93 ends.
* Section width = (480 /2.2) = 218.18 say, 218.2
Checks: Total ends = (480 x 4) + 93 = 2013 (ok).
Width = (218.2x4) + (93/2.2) = (872.8 + 42.27) = 915.07 (ok.)

Technical specification of GAMATEX sectional warping m/c:
WARPING SECTION
1. SECTIONAL WARPING MACHINE
PRASHANT GAMATEX
MODEL-(1) 6A-405
(2) EP-800/801
TOTAL NO. OF MACHINE: 3
CIRCUMFERENCE /Beam Dia. – 3 METER
Warping SPEED: 150-200 FOR LINEN (APPROX.)
Max. warp length = 5978 mt.
Traverse = 232.4 mm.
Instead of sizing flax yarns, Arcofil & Gibson oils are used, which gives strength to the yarn & reduce the
friction between the yarn sheet & m/c parts.
* Product NAME: UNILUBE WWA CONC.
* Composition: Aqueous solution of water soluble synthetic polymers.
39 | P a g e


7. BEAMING: - A large spool or flanged cylinder around which the warp threads, or ends, are
wound in a uniform and parallel arrangement. The entire procedure is called Beaming.
 BEAMING:
1) After completion of warping press centering push button to take the m/c almost in line with beam.
2) Take a empty beam in front of the beaming headstock.
3) Take all the yarns on beam from the top of fluted roller, waxing roller & guide roller. Tie all yarns on
the beam keeping equal space between all the sections knot…
4) Start beaming by pressing the green push button & gradually increase the speed.
5) Stop the m/c to take out the lease safely.
6) Take all the ends on the beam
7) Take the beam down by press button.
8) Thus beaming operation is over.
8. DRAWING IN/PINNING: The drawing being done on the warp sheet itself after creeling.
Drawing-in is the entering or drawing of yarns from a new warp into the weaving machine,
namely Drop wires, Heedless and Reed, when starting a new fabric style.
 Drop Wires: Drop wire is a narrow metal sheet that is hung in the air by the tensioned warp
yarn. If the warp yarn is broken, then the drop wire drops and touches a metal bar that extends
along the width of the machine. This contact between the drop wire and metal bar closes an
electric circuit and shuts down the machine immediately. There is a drop wire for each warp
yarn.
 Heddle: A cord, round steel wire, or thin flat steel strip with a loop or eye near the center
through which one or more warp threads pass on the loom so that the thread movement may
be controlled in weaving. The heddles are held at both ends by the harness frame. They control
the weave pattern and shed as the harnesses are raised and lowered during weaving.
40 | P a g e

 Harness: A frame holding the heddles in position in the loom during weaving.
 Reed: A comb-like device on a loom that separates the warp yarns and also beats each
succeeding filling thread against that already woven. The reed usually consists of a top and
bottom rib of wood into which metal strips or wires are set. The space between two adjacent
wires is called a dent (or split) and the warp is drawn through the dents. The fineness of the
reed is calculated by the number of dents per inch.
 Shaft: This is a rectangular frame to which a series of wires, called heddles, are attached. The
yarns are passed through the eye holes of the heddles, which hang vertically from the
harnesses. The weave pattern determines which harness controls which warp yarns, and the
number of harnesses used depends on the complexity of the weave. In weaving, the warp
threads are moved up or down by the shaft. This is achieved because each thread of the warp
goes through a heddle on a shaft. When the shaft is raised the heddles are too, and thus the
warp threads threaded through the heddles are raised. Heedless can be either equally or
unequally distributed on the shafts, depending on the pattern to be woven. In a plain weave or
twill, for example, the heedless are equally distributed.
 TOTAL DRAWING-IN MACHINE: 9
 EACH MACHINE OPERATOR: 2 persons (drawer & reacher)
 FOR 6 SHAFT LOOM: 4 shaft for body of the fabric
2 shaft for selvedge of the fabric
 TIME FOR DRAWING 1 BEAM: 3-4 hrs.
 REED SPACE USED: 63”
 AVG. NUMBER OF ENDS DRAWN/SHIFT/OPERATIVE: 7000
9. BEAM GATING ON LOOM: This operation is performed after DRAWING-IN operation when the
beam is actually ready with its weaving program along with its other devices like heedless, reed,
harness, shaft etc. when this ready beam is loaded to the loom for weaving, then it is called
BEAM GATING ON LOOM. There
is BEAM LOADING TROLLY, which carries the warp beam with the shafts, reed etc. and load the same on
loom.
 NUMBER OF BEAM LOADING TROLLY: 4
41 | P a g e

 LOADING CAPACITY: 3300kg.
10. KNOTTING/TYING IN: If the weaving pattern or design is same as the previous one, then there is
no need to follow the DRAWING – IN procedure. We can directly feed the weaver’s Beam at the
loom; new threads/yarns are tied/knotted with the previous one by knotting machine and
started weaving.
NUMBER OF MACHINES: 2
MODEL: STAUBLITOP MATIC
SPEED: 400rpm (600max.)
11. WEAVING/FORMATION OF FABRIC/GREY ON LOOM
 BASIC MECHANISMS AND WEAVING FUCTIONS:
I. How does Heedle and Shaft works: The warp is threaded through heddles on different
shafts in order to obtain different weave structures. For a plain weave on a loom with two
shafts, for example, the first thread would go through the first heddle on the first shaft, and
then the next thread through the first heddle on the second shaft. The third warp thread
would be threaded through the second heddle on the first shaft, and so on. In this manner
the heddles allow for the grouping of the warp threads into two groups, one group that is
threaded through heddles on the first shaft, and the other on the second shaft.

II. SHEDDING: Shedding is the raising of the warp yarns to form a shed through which the
filling yarn, carried by the shuttle, can be inserted. The shed is the vertical space between
the raised and unraised warp yarns. On the modern loom, simple and intricate shedding
operations are performed automatically by the heddle frame, also known as a harness. This
is a rectangular frame to which a series of wires, called heddles, are attached. The yarns are
passed through the eye holes of the heddles, which hang vertically from the harnesses. The
weave pattern determines which harness controls which warp yarns, and the number of
harnesses used depends on the complexity of the weave.
III. Picking. As the harnesses raise the heddles, which raise the warp yarns, the shed is created.
The filling yarn in inserted through the shed by a small carrier device called a shuttle. The
shuttle is normally pointed at each end to allow passage through the shed. In a traditional
42 | P a g e

shuttle loom, the filling yarn is wound onto a quill, which in turn is mounted in the shuttle.
The filling yarn emerges through a hole in the shuttle as it moves across the loom. A single
crossing of the shuttle from one side of the loom to the other is known as a pick. As the
shuttle moves back and forth across the shed, it weaves an edge, or selvage, on each side of
the fabric to prevent the fabric from raveling.
IV. Battening. As the shuttle moves across the loom laying down the fill yarn, it also passes
through openings in another frame called a reed (which resembles a comb). With each
picking operation, the reed presses or battens each filling yarn against the portion of the
fabric that has already been formed. Conventional shuttle looms can operate at speeds of
about 150 to 160 picks per minute.
V. Taking up: With each weaving operation, the newly constructed fabric must be wound on a
cloth beam. This process is called taking up.
At the same time, the warp yarns must be let off or released from the warp beams.
 Shuttleless Looms: Because the shuttle can cause yarns to splinter and catch, several
types of shuttleless looms have been developed. These operate at higher speeds and
reduced noise levels. Shuttleless looms use different techniques to transport cut pieces
of fill yarn across the shed, as opposed to the continuous yarn used in shuttle looms.
Some of the common shuttleless looms include water-jet looms, air-jet looms, rapier looms, and
projectile looms. In JST, projectile and rapier looms are used.
I. Rapier looms use two thin wire rods to carry the fill yarn and
can operate at a speed of 510picks per minute. Rapiers are
used mostly for spun yarns to make cotton, linen and
woolen/worsted fabrics.
In a double rapier loom, two rods move from each side and meet in the
middle. The fill yarn is carried from the rod on the fill side and handed off
to the rod on the finish side of the loom. The speed of this type of loom in avg. 340 – 360 rpm.
43 | P a g e

II. Projectile looms use a projectile to carry the fill yarn across the
weave.
AVERAGE SPEED OF MACHINE (RPM): Projectile (steel) = 260
Projectile (carbon) = 300 – 310

Shuttleless looms have been replacing the traditional fly-shuttle loom in recent
years.
 Quantity of fabric produced / day = 10000mt.-30000mt.
 Type of weaving machine in weaving department:
1. PROJECTILE (STEEL) PU: 73VSD S150 KR DI
2. PROJECTILE (CARBON): P 7200 B 390 N 4 SP K & P 7200 W 220 N 4 SP K
3. RAPIER: G 6200 S 190 N 8 SP
 Total no. weaving m/c = 68.
 All these machines are made by SULZER-RUTI (Switzerland).
 Total Nos. of workers in weaving department -370.
 MEANING OF SIGNAL LAMPS ON LOOM:
 YELLOW – Continuous: set piece length reached
 YELLOW – weft flashing: weft yarn break
 BLUE – flashing: warp yarn break
 RED – continuous: foreman call
 RED – flashing: when one of the following function is switch-off, running, weft – detector – warp
stop motion & projectile break
 ALL LAMPS FLASHING: automatic warp let – off correction
 RED + YELLOW FLASHING: emergency stop button pressed
44 | P a g e

 YELLOW – continuous: piece overruns
 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP) FOR WEAVERS:
 (SOP) at warp breakage
 (SOP) at weft breakage
 (SOP) for quality concern
 SOP at warp breakage:
For body: -
 loom stop due to warp breakage
 blow light glow on
 loom stop due to drop pin falls on the pin bar without any warp tension
 there is a mid point in the drop pin
 two indicators fall on the two side of the machine
 this is easier and time saving way of finding out the weft yarn
 weaver use hand to find out the broken yarn
 knot the another yarn with old one in the break side
 draw the yarn through the healed wire
 draw the end through the exact dent
 keep the yarn by one hand in the fall of the cloth with proper tension
 start the loom again
 after 4 – 5 picks release the ends
 then cut the protruding end by cutter
 SOP at weft breakage:
 yellow light glow
 weaver draw the yarns through the proper eyelet of the weft finger
45 | P a g e

 pull the yarns at the weft side under a small roller with tension
 start the loom
 weaver should not take more than 30seconds time for this
 SOP for quality:
 Checking of the warp from the back side
 Checking the fabric from the front side
 Checking the fabric fault on the surface of the fabric
 Remove the fault as possible
 Checking the warp beam from the back side of the beam and find all the yarn. Also, find any
fault is there or not.
 QUALITY PARAMETER AT EACH STAGE:
 AT WINDING STAGE
1. EVENESS OF YARN
2. STRENGTH OF YARN
3. COUNT OF YARN
 AT WARPING STAGE
1. PATTERN OF WARP SHEET
2. TOTAL NUMBER OF WARP ENDS
3. YARN USED ON FABRIC WIDTH
 AT DRAWING STAGE
1. SELECTION DRAWING PATTERN
2. SELECTION OF HEALDS ACCORDING TO WEAVE
3. WEAVE DEFINE AT THIS STAGE
46 | P a g e

 AT WEAVING STAGE (LOOM STAGE)
1. PICK SELECTION AT LOOM STAGE
2. PICK/INCH
3. WEAVE PATTERN
4. FABRIC COVER FACTOR
5. WEIGHT OF FABRIC IN GRAM PER SQUARE METER(GSM)
6. SHRINKAGE OF WARP AND WEFT
 CRITICAL PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE LOOM
 Warp tension and strength relation
 Weft tension
 shed opening height
 working practices
 atmospheric condition
 cleaning, oiling & maintenance
 high loom speed
 yarn imperfection level
 due to less reed space
 due to wrong working of stop motions
 CAUSE OF LOOM STOPPAGE
 warp breakage
 weft breakage
 mechanical fault
 beam gaiting
 cleaning
 oiling & gaiting
47 | P a g e

 FABRIC INSPECTION & MENDING DEPARTMENT:
Fabric inspection is done by manually in the tube light. The fabric rotate over a board & a fabric
inspector find the fault & mark on them. Then the fabric goes to mending department to remove the
fault manually.
GREY INSPECTION:
NAME OF THE MACHINE: GREY INSPECTION MACHINE
MAKE: TRUE SHAPE ENGINEERING PRIVATE LIMITED
MAKE YEAR: 1999
MODEL: TSE IT