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Matters, System &

Organisation

Macr omol ecul es

Phot osynt hesi s

Respi r at i on
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Unit Essential Questions
! Why do we need to respire?
! Do the structure and organisation of the living
system change when energy is released from
them?
! How are respiratory systems of animals
organised efficiently to carry out its functions?
! Can there be any metabolism without enzymes?
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Answer this on your own in your journal. (5 mins)

Discuss as a class (10 mins)
Unit Enduring
Understanding
1. Living organisms release energy within the biological
molecule into forms they can use to carry out life
processes.
2. Process of the release of energy is affected by
external environment.
3. The structure and organisation of the respiratory
system is dictated by the function that it serves.
4. Metabolic pathway is a sequence of enzyme-
controlled reactions.
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ENERGY
• How is the energy “generated” in your
body?
• Do plants respire? Is the process similar
to that of Man?
• Compare the energy conversion in plant
and in Man.
Key Understanding
1.Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can
only be converted from one form into another.
2.Respiration is the process by which living
organisms convert energy into forms they can
use to carry out life processes.
3.Some organisms can respire aerobically as
well as anaerobically.
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
The bodies energy-making reaction needs similar
things to the energy-making process of fire.
Like fire, the body needs oxygen and a fuel.
+
and the fuel (in the form of
digested food) comes courtesy
of the digestive system.
Energy-making process
the oxygen is
supplied by the
breathing
system
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
If we now think back over the journey of oxygen and
digested food through the human body, we will
realise that they both end up in the same place.
these substances
eventually arrive
at the body cells
food oxygen
breathing
system
digestive
system
BLOOD
Energy-making process
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
Therefore, the raw materials for the energy-making
process eventually arrive at the body cells.
This energy-making process is known as...
R E S P I R A T I O N
Each living cell is supplied with food and oxygen in
order to generate energy.
oxygen
blood
food
+
capillary
muscle cell
Energy-making process
© Boardworks Ltd 2003 of 74
No chemical reaction is 100% efficient.
Therefore, as well as producing the useful energy, respiration
also produces waste products.
These waste products
must be removed
from the body.
This is exactly what happens!
Waste products
If the process of breathing in is used to obtain the
O
2
for respiration, it would make sense for the body
to use the process of breathing out to remove these
waste products of this reaction.
Cellular Respiration
• The process by which organisms break down
energy rich molecules (eg. glucose) to release
the energy in the ATP form.
Overall equation for aerobic respiration of glucose:
C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O + energy
glucose + oxygen carbon + water + large amount
dioxide of energy
Uses of Energy
• muscle contraction
• protein synthesis
• cell division
• active transport
• building up of protoplasm for growth
• transmission of nerve impulses
• maintenance of a constant body temperature
Involves three metabolic stages:-
1 Glycolysis
(cytoplasm)
2 The Krebs Cycle
(mitochondrial matrix)
3 Electron Transport &
oxidative phosphorylation
(inner membranes of
mitochondrion)
Cellular Respiration
Mitochondria
Mitochondria - the power house
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Cellular Respiration
Diagram from Biozone Senior Biology 1
1. Glycolysis
- occurs in the cytoplasm
- involves breakdown of glucose
into 2 molecules of pyruvate
Outline of cellular respiration
2. Krebs Cycle
- occurs in the mitochondrion matrix
- decomposes a derivative of
pyruvate to carbon dioxide
1
3. Electron transport and oxidative
phosphorylation
- occurs in the inner membrane of
the mitochondrion
- Accounts for almost 90% of the
ATP generated by respiration
2
3
Diagram from Advanced Human and Social Biology : Student’s Art Notebook

• Glucose (6C) is broken
into two molecules of
pyruvate (3C)
Glycolysis
• 2 ATP and 2NADH + 2H
+
are generated from this
stage.
• No oxygen is required
(the process is
anaerobic)
• in cytosol/ cytoplasm of
cell
Diagram from Biological Science 1 by N.P.O. Green, G.W. Stout, D. J. Taylor, Cambridge University Press
Glycolysis
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A 2-stages process.
How many ATP & NADH are generated from 1 glucose?

• The acetyl group
passes into a cyclic
reaction and combines
with a 4 carbon
molecule to from a 6
carbon molecule.
• The CoA is released for
reuse.
• Successive steps in the
cycle remove carbon as
carbon dioxide.
• in matrix of
mitochondria
Krebs cycle
Diagram from Biological Science 1 by N.P.O. Green, G.W. Stout, D. J. Taylor, Cambridge University Press
Kreb Cycle
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How many ATP, NADH & FADH are generated from 1 glucose?
Electron Transport System
Diagram from Advanced Human and Social Biology : Student’s Art Notebook
1 NADH yields 3 ATP
1 FADH
2
yields 2 ATP
• in cristae of mitochondria
Electron transport chain
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Summary of ATP production

Diagram from Biological Science 1 by N.P.O. Green, G.W. Stout, D. J. Taylor, Cambridge University Press
Summary of ATP production
Glycolysis
• 2 net ATP from substrate-level phosphorylation
2 NADH yields 6 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
Transition Reaction
• 2 NADH yields 6 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
Krebs (Citric Acid )Cycle
• 2 ATP from substrate-level phosphorylation
6 NADH yields 18 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
2 FADH
2
yields 4 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
Total Theoretical Maximum Number of ATP Generated
per Glucose
• 38 ATP: 4 from substrate-level phosphorylation; 34 from
oxidative phosphorylation.
Cellular Respiration Animation
http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/BiologicalSciences/Faculty/DMeyer/respiration.swf
Adenosine Triphosphate
Diagram from Biozone Senior Biology 1
Advanced Human and Social Biology : Student’s Art Notebook
Adenosine
Triphosphate
ATP is a convenient store of
energy for a cell because
• it stores energy in
relatively small amount.
• it is quickly hydrolysed in
a one-step reaction to
release energy.
• it is easily moved around
inside cells, but cannot
pass through cell
membranes.

Formation of ATP
Oxygen consumption of mitochondria
interactive experiment.”
http://www.cells.de/cellseng/1medienarchiv/Zellfunktionen/
Memb_Vorg/Zellatmung/Atmungsaktivitaet/index.jsp
Online Respiration Matching Game
Try this game at http://www.quia.com/mc/1008211.html