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• Mario AIIinei : I have to commence by clearing away one of the most absurd consequences of

the traditional chronology, namely, that of the arrival of the Slavs into the immense area in
which they now live. The only logical conclusion can be that the southern branch of the Slavs is
the oldest and that from it developed the Slavic western and eastern branches. Today only a
minority of experts support the theory of a late migration for the Slavs”
• According to the oman historian !uintus "urtius ufus, #eneti from $aphlagonia fought in
the army of Alexander the %reat. &"'(")*
• The +atin historian !uintus "urtius ufus in his biography of Alexander The %reat wrote that
the #eneti from Asia ,inor region of $aphlagonia too- part in the army of Alexander The %reat.
!uintus "urtius ufus mentioned an interesting piece of information. 'e wrote that $hilotas, a
,acedonian who was a naturilised 'ellen, teased his fellow ,acedonians by calling them
.$hrygians or $aphlagians./0*. 'e also wrote that the ,acedonians were unhappy about this
and complained to Alexander The %reat. Two very important points to note here1 $hilotas
equated the terms $hrygians and $aphlagonians. It is well -nown that the $hrygians &in the
2al-ans were -nown as 2rygians* became the constitutional ethno3cultural core of the ancient
,acedonians, whereas the term $aphlagonians represents a geographic name for #eneti, i.e.
for the ancestors of the .Slavs.. 4hat this means actually is that $hilotas equated the ancient
,acedonians and the #eneti, and this happened before I# 2".
• The #eneti have inhabited this region since about 5600 2."., and inhabit about 76
percent of that region to this day
• Slavic $hrigians &$hrygians*, dominated Anatolia &present3day Tur-ey* until about 800
2". Their language is clearly Slavic1 %ordum &$hrygian*, %rod &Slovio*, Town
• Тъгда црTђь Михаилъ рече къ философN Kос1t1uиuN:
,Cлъ¶mиmи ли, философе, рaчь сиm? Huъ сего да uе
uоxе1ь съ1nори1и, раsna 1еõе. Тa uа 1и дари uuоsи и nоиuъ
õра1ъ сnои, игNuеuъ Ме»одии, иди xе. Bъ¶ õо ¬с1а
селNutuиuа, да селNutuе nьси чис1о
• Then Emperor MichaeI said to Constantine the PhiIosopher: 'Do
you hear, PhiIosopher, these words? Nobody, but you, can do this. So,
take abundant gifts, take your brother, Abbot Methodius, and go! You
are ThessaIonians, and aII ThessaIonians speak pure SIavic.'
• As "urta describes, he finds an original solution to solve the problem of Sclavenic pre3sixth century presence1 9Instead of a great
flood of Slavs coming out of the Pripet marshes, I envisage a form of group identity which could arguably be called ethnicity and
emerged in response to Justinian\'s implementation of a building project on the Danube frontier and in the al!ans" #he Slavs, in
other words, did not come from the north, but became Slavs only in contact with the $oman frontier.: &p. ;*
• "ommon Slavic itself may have been used as a lingua franca within and outside Avar qaganate. <...< we may presume that du-e
aduald learned how to spea- Slavic in =riuli. 'is Slavic neighbors in the north apparently spo-e the same language as the
>almatian Slavs.: &p. ;/6*
• I began this chapter with the statement that the nature of the Slavic settlement remains obscure to many modern historians. Several
conclusions follow from the preceding discussion, but the most important is that, whether or not followed by actual settlement, there is
no .infiltration. and obscure progression. The evidence of written sources is quite explicit about this. <...< The problem with applying
this concept of migration to the sixth3 and seventh3century Slavs is that there is no pattern of an unique, continuous, and sudden
invasion. ,oreover, until the siege of Thessalonica during 'eraclius?@ early power, there is no evidence at all of outward migration in
the sense of a permanent change of residence. <...< 4hat Aohn <of (phesus< had in mind were warriors, not migrant farmers.: &p. 55;*
• %a%bsence of &'() %a genetic mar!er% in the male population of the Pannonian plain and in Slovenia, *roatia, Serbia, $omania and
the al!an populations %+% disproves the theory that the ,southern- Slavs migrated to the present locations (.// years ago, from the
areas beyond the *arpathian 0ountains" &ad they done so, they would have brought with them &'(), which is fre1uent and widely
distributed genetic mar!er north and northeast of the *arpathian 0ountains 2 in Poland, $ussia and 3!raine"
• 94redegar had two apparently e1uivalent terms for the same ethnie5 Sclauos coinomento 6inedos" #here are variants for both terms,
such as Sclavini or 7enedi" #he \'6ends\' appear only in political conte8t5 the 6ends, and not the Slavs, were befulci of the 9vars: the
6ends, and not the Slavs, made Samo their !ing" It is therefore, possible that \'6ends\' and \'Sclavenes\' are meant to denote a
specific social and political configuration, in which such concepts as state or ethnicity are relevant, while \'Slavs\' is a more general
term, used in a territorial rather than an ethnic sense" \'6ends\' and \'Slavs\' were already in use when 4redegar wrote oo! I7" #hey
first appear in Jonas of obbio\'s ;ife of St" *olumbanus,<=termini>7enetiorum 1ui et Sclavi dicuntur?" written sometime between )@A
and )B@" 9ccording to Jonas, *olumbanus had once thought of preaching to the 6ends, who were called Slavs"
• Conclusion: the fve names preserved in Mir II are not «Slavic tribal names», but self-designations of Proto-Bulgarian
Sklavin bands accordingl! the! have clear "unnic or Iranian et!mologies#
Since all attempts to fnd an et!molog! of the term Sklavin- $ Slav-, on native ground have failed, one is tempted to
look else%here # Proto-Bulgarian seems the most promising spot# &here %e fnd a common "unno-&urkic %ord sa'la-,
(to %atch over, guard, protect( # &he noun derived from it b! the su)* +$,-$ is attested in .a/an-&atar 0Muslim
progen! of the 1olga Bulgars2 and in .araim 0modern 3ip4a'-Polovcian2, %here the su)* became $-%$# In these
languages the noun sa'la-% means (guard, %atch guarding( in the senses of actor, profession, place, or action 5s
earl! as Proto-Bulgarian, the suffi* +$,-$ had become $%$ 6 e#g#, 7898-:-; 0< +'ola-=u-r2 (leader( # >urther, in Proto-
Bulgarian stress moved from the root s!llable to the su)*, and the root vo%el then reduced, e#g#, +da%l-an ? d%an
(hare(, +tovir@m ? tvir@m «the ninth» # &herefore one can assume that in Proto-Bulgarian the old +sa'la-=u %ould
develop as +sa'la-% and later as s'la%-# Proto-Bulgarian also had a collective su)* $-in$, used especiall! to designate
peoples6 e#g#, 1olga Bulgarian Bulgar-in, «the Bulgars», So%ar-in «the So%ars» #
Thus our conclusion is that there %as a Proto-Bulgarian %ord sa'la% ? s'la% %ith the plural form +s'la%-in and
t%o meanings6 A2 «guard, %atch, guarding» B2 «trained slave»# &he 5rabs, %ho %ere engaged in the slave trade,
0see belo%2, adopted the singular form as C0a2'lab, meaning «trained slave», %hile the B!/antines, %ho %ere
interested in contacts %ith the collective of the s'la%in on their limes, adopted it as sklavin, adding a plural
desinence6 D79E:FG-8H# In Slavic, the suffi* %as modified to the collective plural -In-e, denoting a social group,
correlated %ith the singulative su)* -in-, %hile the impermissible initial cluster +skl %as reduced to sl#
The term sklavin of the Byzantine cultural sphere between the sixth and ninth centuries was very
tightly connected with the Avar Pax !n contemporary testimonies" whenever the #klavins appear" the
Avars are almost invariably also referred to" though sometimes indirectly" usually as their masters
The term #klavin" then" ! contend" did not have an ethnic or linguistic entity as its referent" but was
classi$catory" designating in the $rst instance barbaric professional frontier warriors %o single
common #lavic nation existed" nor can we assume a feeling of one #lavic ethnic commonality !nstead"
the sources show that the term & '()*+,-.* / '()*0,-.* 1sing2 or *3 '()*+,-.*4 / '()*+4-.*4 /
'()*04-.*4 1pl2 had the meaning 5any regions occupied by the #klavin6" that is" a stronghold" whether
small or large in area" of the frontier military colony type &he first author to use the term D79EJFGHE %as
&heoph!lact Simocattes 0K# LAM-LNA2 referring to barbarians( strongholds on the left bank of the Oanube# &he
institution %as kno%n throughout the entire province of Po%er Pannonia# Several scholars 0e#g# ,# Qstrogorsk!,
• Homer &Bth century 2. ".* records in IliadC5D the Veneti in $aphlagonia as Enetoi &the %ree-
did not -now the letter v*.
• Herodotus, historian &6th century 2. ".*, writes about IIIyrian Veneti, about Veneti living
around the Iower stream of the Danube, and finally about Venet iinhabiting the Northern
Adriatic territory.CED
• PoIibus &Eth century 2. ".* added to the description of events during the years E5B to 5/8 2.
"., following1 C#he land to the 9driatic coast was mastered by another, very old fol!,
named Veneti """ #hey spea! a different language as the *elts, but what their habbits and their
clothing is concearned, they differ from them only slightly %"""% Veneti and 'onomani were
persuaded by $oman representatives, to join the $omans:.C;D
• Demetrius of Scepsis, grammarian, archeologist &End century 2. ".*, mentions the capitaI of
the #eneti &Enea* in Troas &Asia ,inor*.C/D
• Strabo, historian, geographer &5st century 2. ".*, designates the (V)eneti in PaphIagonia as
the maFor tribe moving towards Thrace &nowadays territory of 2ulgaria* after the fall of Troy
&Asia ,inor*.C6D
• JuIius Caesar, historian &5st century 2. ".*, reports about the Veneti living in GauI &2rittany*.
• Titus Livy, historian &5st century 2. ".*, describes how Veneti came up to the coasts of the
&northern* Adriatic, also mentioning the river .Timava., which flows through the dus-iness of
the G-ocFan caves &Slovene Ti&e*ma means the dar-ness*.C7D
• PIiny the EIder &5st century 2. ".* tal-s about an extensive land, named Eningia, where
Sarmatians, Venedi, etc. lived. 'e also mentions the VenetuIani in central Italy.CHD
• Tacitus, historian &5st century ". (.*, places Veneti on the border of Suebia together with
$eucinians, Sarmatians and =enns.CBD
• PtoIemy, geographer &End century*, mentions exceedingly large nations 3 the (O)venedi on
the whole coastal region of the Venetic guIf &The 2altic sea*.C50D
• Emperor JuIian &/th century* presents evidence of Veneti, who settled in the proximity of
Aquilea &Italy*.C55D
• Jordanes, historian &8th century*, notes a numerous nation of Veneti, populating the area
between north of >acia &now omania* and up to the #isla delta &the 2altic sea*. C5ED
In Vita s. CoIumbaniC5;D &7th century* &the Alpine* Veneti, who call themselves Slavs, are
recorded &9termini Venetorum qui et Sclavi dicuntur:*.
• In the Fredegarius ChronicIe &7th century* we can read about the Slavs designated
as Vinedi.C5/D
Adam of Bremen, chronicler &55th century*, mentions an extensive land Sclavania, settled
by WinuIians, who used to be called VandaIs. The land could have been ten times bigger then
Sachsen, especially if we include 2ohemians &"Iechs* and $olians, since they are not
distinguishable from each other, nor by their appearance, or by their language.C56D
• In Denmark &from latest 5Eth century and until the year 5B7E* the title .)ing of the Vends.
&+atin VandaIs* was used for enthroning >anish -ings.
• HeImoId, historian &5Eth century*, records a vast Slavic country, where the
ancient VandaIs are now named Wends or WinuIians.C58D
• Wincenty KadIubek / Vincent of Cracow, historian &5Eth century*, affirms that $oles used to
be called VandaIs.C57D
• HeimskringIa, the ChronicIe of Norwegian kings&5Eth century* mentions, that the 2lac-
Sea Cdivides three parts of the earth, from which is the eastern part called 9sia, whereas the
western part is by some called Durope, and by others Enea.:C5HD
• Miersuae Chronicon &5;th century* equates VandaIs with Slavs.C5BD
• AIbert Crantz, historian &56th century*, reports about WandaIs or Wends, and says that they
are Slavs, living as a single nation from $oland to >almatia. According to him, the mighty acts
in =rance, Spain and Africa are ascribed to the Wends.CE0D
• Marcin BieIski &58th century* says that WandaIs was once the name for Slavs.CE5D
The $omeranian chronicler Thomas Kantzow &5606356/E* writes that the CSlau<v?s
and Wandals are the same thing % """% just li!e the 'ermans are called differently E 'ermani,
#euthones, 9lemanni":1 Jriginal text1 9>an Slaui und WandaIi ist ein >inc- < ...< gleich wie die
TeutIschen werden oft on Knterschied geheissen %ermani, Teuthones, Alemanni.:CEED
• Christophorum EntzeIt von SaIueIt &58. century* records ancient populousness of the lands
east from the (lbe &+aba* river with Wends. At the same time he equates Veneti and
• Sebastian Münster, cartographer &58th century*, mentions a once mighty nation on the (ast
sea &Jstsee* named VandaIs or Wends. 'e also reports onWandaIs who settled regions in
eastern %ermany, where inhabitants are called ScIavs or Wends. Jriginal text1 C0ec!lenburgE
PommernEPreussen5 jtem randenburg und was dem Polenland Fugelegen,
alles Wandali geheiGen und ihre Dinwohner haben auch Sclaven
oder Wenden geheiGen":CE/D
• AntoI Vramec, chronicler &58th century*, writes in his chronicle for the year BEH the following1
The Heneti, who name themselves Sloveni, were at that time -noc-ed down in %ermany.CE6D
Adam Bohoric, linguist &58th century*, lin-s Heneti, Vene(d)ti, Vinds, VandaIs and Slavs
together as a single nation.CE8D
• Mavro Orbin &58th century* numbers Veneti, Vends, VandaIs, Illyrians, Sarmatians ... among
• The ChronicIe of Brandenburg &58. century* emphasiIes the mighty predecessors of Wends,
the VandaIs, who sac-ed ome and "arthage, and mentions their -ing %enserich as the -ing
of VandaIs.CEHD
• Johann Weichard Baron von VaIvasor, historian, geographer &58HB*, wrote1 CWends and
Sclavenes are one fol!, Wandals and Wends one and the same nation": &94enden und
• seynd ein #ol-, 4andalen und 4enden einerley Lation.CEBD
V. N. Tatiscev, ethnographer &57th 35Hth century*, classifies the Heneti as Slavs, as well as
the VandaIic or Vendenic state as the first -nown Slavic state.C;0D
• A. L. SchIözer, historian &5Hth century*, defended his thesis about Slavs originating from
Illyrians and the Veneti.C;5D
• VasiIij Trediakovski &5Hth century* classifies >almatians, Serbians, 2ulgarians ...
among VandaIs.C;ED
• Davorin Trstenjak &5Bth century* wrote about the ancient Adriatic Veneti, who belonged to
a Vindish3Slavic family. 'e accented their affinity with the Aremoric&2rittany* and BaItic
• In HeImoIts WeItgeschichte &end of the 5Bth century* it is indicated, that the Veneti,
Wends and Winds were actually ancestors of Slovenes, and that they used to settle the old
roman provinces #indelitia, aetia, Loricum, $annonia.C;/D