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Gaseous Exchange

in human & other animals
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Drowning
• Human can die from drowning.
• What is the cause of death?
• DISCUSS
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Can we kill cockroaches by
drowning them?
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Gas Exchange
The process by which oxygen is
acquired and carbon dioxide is
removed.
Cellular respiration creates a
constant demand for oxygen and a
need to eliminate carbon dioxide
gas.
Monday, July 19, 2010
Gas Exchange in Animals
Diagram from Biozone Advanced Biology AS
Monday, July 19, 2010
Gas Exchange in Animals
Diagram from Biozone Advanced Biology AS
Monday, July 19, 2010
Gas Exchange in Animals
Diagram from Biozone Advanced Biology AS
Monday, July 19, 2010
Properties of Gas Exchange
Surfaces
Monday, July 19, 2010
Properties of Gas Exchange
Surfaces
• They consist of a thin membrane
Monday, July 19, 2010
Properties of Gas Exchange
Surfaces
• They consist of a thin membrane
• They have a large surface area
Monday, July 19, 2010
Properties of Gas Exchange
Surfaces
• They consist of a thin membrane
• They have a large surface area
• They are moist
Monday, July 19, 2010
Properties of Gas Exchange
Surfaces
• They consist of a thin membrane
• They have a large surface area
• They are moist
The diffusion rate across gas exchange surfaces is
described by Fick’s law:
Surface Area Difference in concentration
of membrane across the membrane
Thickness of the membrane
X
Monday, July 19, 2010
The Human Respiratory System

larynx
trachea
cartilage
bronchus
lung
heart
sternum
Pleural
membrane
rib
Intercostal
muscle
bronchiole
alveolus
diaphragm
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Are these healthy lungs?
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Morphology
Diagram from Biozone Advanced Biology AS
Monday, July 19, 2010
Morphology
Detail of a terminal bronchiole
and its branches in the
next slide
Diagram from Biozone Advanced Biology AS
Monday, July 19, 2010
Detail of a terminal bronchiole and its branches
Diagram from Biozone Advanced Biology AS
Monday, July 19, 2010
Alveoli
These are ideally suited for gaseous
exchange between air and blood. They have:

A rich blood supply – lots of capillaries

Thin ‘walls’ only one cell thick – easy to
diffuse through

Large surface area – space for diffusion

Moist surfaces – for gases to dissolve into
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A single alveolus
Air space
Alveolus wall
(one cell thick)
Red blood cells
inside capillary
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Can you identify the parts?
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Can you identify the parts?
Bronchiole
Alveoli
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Alveoli
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Name the parts
Monday, July 19, 2010
Alveoli
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Name the parts
alveolus
capillary bronchiole
Monday, July 19, 2010
Breathing
• The lungs cannot inhale and exhale on
their own – they don’t have the muscles
for this
• Instead, they rely on the contraction and
relaxation of the intercostal muscles
and the diaphragm (another large
muscle)
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Relationship between
pressure and volume
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Breathing/ Ventilation

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Breathing / Ventilation
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Mechanism of breathing
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Gaseous Exchange
Courtesy from Mr Tee
Monday, July 19, 2010
Transport of oxygen
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Transport of carbon dioxide
Courtesy from Mr Tee
Monday, July 19, 2010
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
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Transport of Carbon Dioxide
Monday, July 19, 2010
Diagram from Biozone Advanced Biology AS
Monday, July 19, 2010
Control of Breathing
Diagram from Biozone Advanced Biology AS
Monday, July 19, 2010
Holding Your Breath Activity
Step 1 : Take a deep breath and hold your breath as
long as you can.
Record your time.

Question
What signals might stimulate your brain to make you
start breathing again?
Monday, July 19, 2010
Step 2 : You will breathe into a plastic bag for 1 minute
and then hold your breath for as long as you can.
Record your time.
Question
What change would you predict in how long you can
hold your breath after breathing into the bag?
Explain why?
Holding Your Breath Activity
Monday, July 19, 2010
Explanation
Raised CO
2
levels in blood
Raised carbonic acid

Raised H
+
Lowered pH
Chemoreceptors monitor pH level and
stimulates the respiratory centre to
increase rate and depth of breathing
Monday, July 19, 2010