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Compression Test

Objective:
To perform Compression Test on the given samples
Abstract:
This report contains a brief introduction about the compression test, how to perform the test, the
results obtained from the engineering as well as from true stress-strain curves and difference between them.
Equipment:
 Universal Testing Machine
 Mild steel specimens
 Cast Iron specimens
 Vernier Calipers
Introduction:
A compression test is a method for determining the behavior of materials under a compressive
load. Compression tests are conducted by loading the test specimen between two plates, and then applying a
force to the specimen by moving the crossheads together. During the test, the specimen is compressed, and
deformation versus the applied load is recorded. The compression test is used to determine elastic limit,
proportional limit, yield point, yield strength, and (for some materials).
The compressive strength is the maximum compressive stress a material is capable of withstanding without
fracture. Brittle materials fracture during testing and have a definite compressive strength value. The
compressive strength of ductile materials is determined by their degree of distortion during testing.








Fig. Stress-Strain Curve


According to ASM International,” Axial compression testing is a useful procedure for measuring the plastic
flow behavior and ductile fracture limits of a material. Measuring the plastic flow behavior requires frictionless
(homogenous compression) test conditions, while measuring ductile fracture limits takes advantage of the barrel
formation and controlled stress and strain conditions at the equator of the barreled surface when compression is
carried out with friction. Variations of the strains during a compression test. Axial compression testing is also
useful for measurement of elastic and compressive fracture properties of brittle materials or low-ductility
materials. In any case, the use of specimens having large L/D ratios should be avoided to prevent buckling and
shearing modes of deformation.










Fig. Compression Test Curve

Specimens can either be blocks or cylinders. For ASTM, the typical blocks are 12.7 x 12.7 x 25.4mm (½ by ½
by 1 in). And the cylinders are 12.7mm (½ in) in diameter and 25.4mm (1 in) long. For ISO, the preferred
specimens are 50 x 10 x 4mm for modulus and 10 x 10 x 4mm for strength.
Deformation
(a) Buckling, when L/ D > 5.
(b) Shearing, when L/ D > 2.5
(c) Double barreling, when L/D>2.0friction is present at the contact surface.
(d) Barreling, when L/ D < 2.0 friction is present at the contact surfaces.
(e) Homogenous compression, when L/D <2.0 no friction is present at the contact Surfaces.
(f) Compressive instability due to work- softening.








Fig. Modes of deformation in compression testing
Formulae
 Young’s modulus=slope of stress vs strain graph
 Ultimate compressive strength=force (N) just before rupture/ (original c/s area)
 Percentage reduction in length= (initial length-final length)*100/initial length
Procedure:
 The Dimension of test piece was measured
 Ends of the specimen were plane. For that the ends are tested on a bearing plate.
 The specimen was placed centrally between the two compression plates, such that the centre of moving
head is vertically above the centre of specimen.
 Load was applied on the specimen by moving the movable head.
 The load and corresponding contraction are measured at different intervals. The load interval may be as
500 kg.
 Load is applied until the specimen fails.
Calculations and Observations:
For Mild Steel Specimen
Dimensions:
Diameter 30mm
Length 27mm
Area 706.8mm
2




Engineering Stress-Strain
Readings:
Load (kN) Stroke(mm) Strain (e) Stress(s)
0
42.21
84.125
126
168.25
210.2
250
294
336
378
420
462
504
546
588
639
672
772
840.7
0
1.12
1.246
1.354
1.458
1.564
1.694
2.164
2.494
2.888
3.37
3.964
4.682
5.508
6.392
7.31
8.218
10.24
11.514
0
0.041
0.046
0.05
0.054
0.057
0.062
0.08
0.092
0.106
0.124
0.146
0.173
0.204
0.2367
0.27
0.304
0.38
0.426
0
59.71
119.02
178.26
238.04
297.36
353.7
415.95
475.38
525.03
594.22
653.65
713.07
772.49
831.91
904.07
950.77
1092.24
1189.44

Curve:












Mechanical Properties
Compressive Yield Strength:
Yield strength = Load/A
o
= 250kN/706.8 = 353MPa
Ultimate Compressive Strength:
UCS = Max load/A
o
= 840.7/706.8 = 1189.4MPa
True Stress-Strain
Readings:





















Load (kN) Stroke(mm) T.Strain(ϵ) T.Stress(σ)
0
42.21
84.125
126
168.25
210.2
250
294
336
378
420
462
504
546
588
639
672
772
840.7
0
1.12
1.246
1.354
1.458
1.564
1.694
2.164
2.494
2.888
3.37
3.964
4.682
5.508
6.392
7.31
8.218
10.24
11.514
0
0.04
0.044
0.048
0.052
0.055
0.06
0.07
0.088
0.1
0.11
0.136
0.159
0.185
0.211
0.239
0.265
0.322
0.354
0
62.15
124.49
187.17
250.89
314.3
375.62
449.22
519.11
556.53
667.9
749.08
836.43
930.07
1028.24
1148.16
1239.8
1507.29
1696.14
Curve:













Mechanical Properties
Compressive Yield Strength:
Yield strength = Load/A
i
= 250kN/665.5 = 375.63MPa
Ultimate Compressive Strength:
UCS = Max load/A
i
= 840.7/495.65 = 1696.14MPa
For Cast Iron Specimen
Dimensions
Diameter 30mm
Length 27mm
Area 706.8mm
2




Engineering Stress-Strain
Readings:
Load (kN) Stroke(mm) Strain(e) Stress (s)
0
37
74.15
111.25
148.2
185
222
259.3
296.1
333.2
370
407
444.1
481
518.1
555
592
682
764.4
0
0.904
1.018
1.118
1.214
1.308
1.402
1.498
1.596
1.7
1.818
1.962
2.136
2.344
2.58
2.83
3.12
4.212
6.29
0
0.033
0.037
0.041
0.044
0.048
0.051
0.055
0.059
0.062
0.067
0.072
0.079
0.086
0.095
0.104
0.115
0.156
0.232
0
52.34
104.9
157.39
209.67
261.7
314.09
366.68
418.93
471.42
523.4
575.8
628.32
680.53
733.02
785.22
837.57
964.91
1081.49

Curve:












Mechanical Properties
Ultimate Compressive Strength:
UCS = Max load/A
o
= 764.4kN/706.8 = 1081.49MPa
True Stress-Strain
Readings:












Load (kN) Stroke(mm) T.Strain(ϵ) T.Stress(σ)
0
37
74.15
111.25
148.2
185
222
259.3
296.1
333.2
370
407
444.1
481
518.1
555
592
682
764.4
0
0.904
1.018
1.118
1.214
1.308
1.402
1.498
1.596
1.7
1.818
1.962
2.136
2.344
2.58
2.83
3.12
4.212
6.29
0
0.032
0.036
0.04
0.043
0.046
0.049
0.053
0.057
0.06
0.064
0.069
0.076
0.082
0.09
0.098
0.108
0.144
0.208
0
54.06
108.78
163.84
218.89
274.26
331.05
386.84
443.64
500.64
558.46
617.25
677.95
739.05
802.65
866.88
933.89
1094.62
1332.39
Curve:













Mechanical Properties
Ultimate Compressive Strength:
UCS = Max load/A
i
= 764.4kN/573.70 = 1332.40Mpa

For Cylindrical Steel Specimen
Dimensions
Diameter 13mm
Length 30mm
Area 132.7mm
2





Engineering Stress-Strain
Readings:
Load(kN) Stroke (mm) Strain(e) Stress(s)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70.1
80
90
100
102.59
0
1.924
2.046
2.158
2.31
2.77
3.216
3.814
4.654
5.726
6.876
7.28
0
0.064
0.068
0.071
0.077
0.092
0.107
0.127
0.155
0.19
0.229
0.242
0
75.35
150.71
226.07
301.43
376.78
452.14
528.25
602.86
678.22
753.57
773.3

Curve:
















Mechanical Properties
Compressive Yield Strength:
Yield strength = Load/A
o
= 40kN/132.7 = 301.43MPa
Ultimate Compressive Strength:
UCS = Max load/A
o
= 102.59kN/132.7 = 773.09MPa
True Stress-Strain
Readings:








Curve:











Load(kN) Stroke (mm) T.Strain(ϵ) T.Stress(σ)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70.1
80
90
100
102.59
0
1.924
2.046
2.158
2.31
2.77
3.216
3.814
4.654
5.726
6.876
7.28
0
0.062
0.065
0.068
0.074
0.088
0.101
0.119
0.144
0.173
0.206
0.216
0
80.17
160.95
242.12
324.64
411.44
500.51
595.33
696.3
807.08
926.13
960.43

Mechanical Properties
Compressive Yield Strength:
Yield strength = Load/A
i
= 40kN/123.21 = 324.64MPa
Ultimate Compressive Strength:
UCS = Max load/A
i
= 102.59kN /106.84 = 960.22MPa

For Cylindrical Cast Iron Specimen
Dimensions
Diameter 13mm
Length 30mm
Area 132.7mm
2
Engineering Stress-Strain
Readings














Load (kN) Stroke(mm) Stress(e) Stress (s)
0
15.1
30
45
60
75
90
105
120
129
100.68
86
70.68
51
43.71
0
0.498
0.578
0.656
0.732
0.838
1.18
1.724
2.77
4.232
5.216
5.244
5.29
5.46
5.626
0
0.016
0.019
0.021
0.0244
0.0279
0.039
0.057
0.092
0.141
0.173
0.174
0.176
0.182
0.187
0
113.79
226.07
339.11
452.14
565.1
678.22
791.25
904.29
972.11
758.7
648.07
532.6
384.32
329.38
Curve:
















Mechanical Properties
Ultimate Compressive Strength:
UCS = Max load/A
o
= 129kN/132.7 = 972.11MPa
Fracture Stress:
Fracture Stress = Load/A
o
= 43.71kN/132.7 = 329.38MPa








True Stress-Strain
Readings:
Load (kN) Stroke(mm) T.Strain(ϵ) T.Stress(σ)
0
15.1
30
45
60
75
90
105
120
129
100.68
86
70.68
51
43.71
0
0.498
0.578
0.656
0.732
0.838
1.18
1.724
2.77
4.232
5.216
5.244
5.29
5.46
5.626
0
0.015
0.0188
0.0207
0.0241
0.0275
0.038
0.055
0.088
0.131
0.159
0.16
0.162
0.167
0.171
0
115.61
230.36
346.23
463.17
580.86
704.67
836.35
978.48
1109.17
889.89
760.83
626.33
454.26
390.97

Curve:














Mechanical Properties
Ultimate Compressive Strength:
UCS = Max load/A
i
= 129kN/116.30 = 1109.1MPa
Fracture Stress:
Fracture Stress = Load/A
i
= 43.71/111.79 = 391MPa