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Unit 5: Group Project

Lecture Note: Supplementary Note 3
Allocated Learning hours: 45
CIVIL ENGINEERING BATCH - 01 (FULL TIME) 3RD SEMESTER
Dr. Lalith Rajapakse/Dr. Lesly Ekanayake
Detailed Introduction to Building Services (again…!!)
General Introduction
Building Services Engineering is the engineering of the
internal environment and environmental impact of a
building. It essentially brings buildings and structures to life.
Building services engineers are responsible for the design,
installation, operation and monitoring of the mechanical,
electrical and public health systems required for the safe,
comfortable and environmentally friendly operation of
modern buildings.
Essential Services
 Communication lines, telephones and IT networks (ICT)
 Energy supply - gas, electricity and renewable sources
 Escalators, lifts and travelators (hor./vert. circulation)
 Fire detection and protection
 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)
 Lightning protection
 Low voltage (LV) systems, distribution boards/switchgear
 Natural lighting and artificial lighting, & building facades
 Security and alarm systems
 Ventilation and refrigeration
 Water , drainage and plumbing
 Other considerations:
Standard methods of detailing
Integration of all these (service cores/service ducts)
LED lighting for interior/exterior illumination for lower
energy consumption and carbon emissions
Integration of services and provision of ducts/cores
Coordination among mechanical/electrical/health
majors and allocation for costs/space
Design Intent
Detailed Introduction to Building Services
3.7.1 Basics and system types etc.
3.7 Drainage Systems/Sewerage & Waste Collection and Disposal
Waste Disposal
Soil
Water closets
Waste
Wash basins
Bath tubs
Showers
Kitchen sinks
Disposal chutes
Washing machines
Types of Drainage Systems
Mostly dependent on local authorities service facilities and established sewer arrangements or local regulations.
1). Combined systems: Uses a single drain to convey both foul water and surface water to a shared sewer
• Economical to install • Higher processing costs due to larger processing plants
2). Separate systems: Foul water from the sanitary appliances conveyed in a foul water drain to a foul water sewer
• Rainwater from roofs/ roads etc. is conveyed in a surface water drain to a surface water sewer/ soakaway/ river
• Expensive to install • Reduces load and treatment costs at water processing plant
3). Partially separate systems: In practice, different systems can be found often together, i.e. there is no pure combined
or separate system.
Terminology:
• Waste water – used water from appliances (e.g. sinks, showers, dishwashers etc.)
• Soil water – water containing excreted matter, whether human or animal
• Foul water – both waste and soil water
• Surface water – run-off of rainwater from roofs or any paved surface around the house (e.g. driveways, footpaths etc.)
Layout-Individual unit
Private and public sewer lines
Layout- Sewer network
3.7.1 Basics and system types etc.
3.7 Drainage Systems/Sewerage & Waste Collection and Disposal
Separate Sewer System: Foul water and surface/runoff
sewer lines are not interconnected all the time.
Combined Sewer System: Single sewer to handle both
foul water and surface/runoff components.
3.7.1 Basics and system types etc.
3.7 Drainage Systems/Sewerage & Waste Collection and Disposal
Provisions for urban runoff to enter into a
storm drain
Relationship between impervious surfaces and surface runoff
Low Impact Development: Rain garden designed
to treat stormwater from an adjacent parking lot
Wastewater treatment plants
3.7.2 Drainage systems: Direct connection vs. Stub stack
Toilet with elevated cistern & chain
attached to lever of discharge valve
Close coupled cistern type flushing
toilet [Modern type]
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
3.7.3 Drainage Belowground
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
System of pipework required to carry waste fluids and quasifluids from building to disposal site (Public sewage
treatment plant or domestic wastewater treatment system).
Design Features
3.7.3 Drainage Belowground
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
Using a private drain line to connect
outflows from several units together
is cheaper for housing schemes etc.
Adequate points of access for testing and cleaning of
blockages (manholes, inspection chambers, rodding eyes)
3.7.3 Drainage Belowground
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
3.7.4 Water Seal/Water Trap for Sanitary Appliances
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
How to avoid induced syphonage
3.7.5 Laying of drainage lines/Anti-flooding precautions/Self-cleansing
Minimum gradients: 1 : 40 for smaller flows and short lengths (to ensure self-cleansing)
1 : 80 for 100 mm pipes serving 5 – 20 houses
1 : 150 for 150 mm pipes serving 10 – 150 houses
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
3.7.6 Testing Belowground Drainage Lines/Systems
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
Smoke-testing of a drainage network using a
pressurized smoke generator
The test by water pressure is applied only to the iron stacks, branches, and
drain pipes; but it is just as important that the fixture connections be made
gas-tight, so a final test is applied to them when the fixtures are all connected
up and the traps sealed.
Drain test kit for the completion of
air tests to 4 in (100 mm) water
gauge pressure on drains and pipes
Drains must be tested before and after backfilling trenches.
Water Test: BS 8005 gives details of Water tests (for sewers up to 750 mm diameter).
 The section of pipework to be tested is blocked at the lower end with a test pipe
upstand at the higher end, often located in an inspection chamber or manhole.
 The test pipe has a 1.2 to 1.5 m head of water in it to produce a meaningful test with
adequate pressure.
 This should stand for 2 hours and if necessary topped up to allow for limited porosity
(clay pipes). For the next 30 minutes, maximum leakage for 100 mm and 150 mm
pipes is 0.05 and 0.08 litres per metre run respectively.
 BS 8005 requires maximum leakage of 1 litre per hour per metre diameter per metre
length of pipe.
Air Test: Details of Air tests according to BS 8005 as follows.
 The drain is sealed between access chambers and pressure tested with hand
bellows and a 'U' gauge (manometer).
 Build up air pressure initially to 100 mm water gauge.
 After 5 minutes adjust the air pressure to 100 mm water gauge.
 The pressure must not fall below 75 mm during the first 5 minutes, that is, a drop in
pressure of 25mm over 5 minutes.
Smoke Test
 The length of drain to be tested is sealed and smoke pumped into the pipes from
the lower end. The pipes should then be inspected for any trace of smoke.
 Smoke pellets may be used in the smoke machine or with clay and concrete pipes
they may be applied directly to the pipe line.
3.7.7 Subsoil drainage
Layout & spacing of drains depend on the subsurface soil composition
and drainage qualities as well as disposition of buildings/pavements.
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
To drain a larger garden, land drainage should be
installed in the classic herringbone pattern to
ensure no point within the area is more than 2.5 m
from a drain. Some pre-planning is essential to
ensure the best use of the drains and to allow for
unavoidable features such as trees, walls, etc., and
to ensure that the drainage runs to a convenient
outfall at an acceptable gradient.
3.7.8 Drainage design
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
3.7.8 Drainage design
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
3.7.8 Drainage design
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
3.7.8 Drainage design
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
3.7.8 Drainage design
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
3.7.9 Waste disposal: Refute chutes
3.7 Drainage systems/Sewerage & waste collection and disposal
3.8.1 Introduction
3.8 Fire Detection and Prevention
The discipline of fire protection engineering includes, but is not exclusive to:
 Active fire protection - fire suppression systems, and fire alarm.
 Passive fire protection - fire and smoke barriers, space separation
 Smoke control and management
 Building design, layout, and space planning
 Fire prevention programs
 Fire dynamics and fire modeling
 Human behavior during fire events
 Risk analysis, including economic factors
Design Guidelines: BS 9999:2008 Code of practice for fire safety in the design, management and use of buildings
(replaces the older version BS 5588; 1996-1999).
BS 9999 gives recommendations and guidance on the design, management and use of buildings to achieve
acceptable levels of fire safety for all people, in and around buildings.
BS 9999 is applicable to the design of new buildings, and to alterations, extensions and changes of use of an existing
building, with the exception of individual homes, and with limited applicability in the case of certain specialist
buildings. It also provides guidance on the ongoing management of fire safety in a building, throughout the entire life
cycle of the building, including guidance for designers to ensure that the overall design of a building assists, and
enhances the management of fire safety. It can be used as a tool for assessing existing buildings, although
fundamental change in line with the guidelines might well be limited or not practicable.
3.8.2 Basic Components used in Building Fire Protection
3.8 Fire Detection and Prevention
3.8.2 Basic Components used in Building Fire Protection
3.8 Fire Detection and Prevention
3.8.3 Important Concepts & Basics
3.8 Fire Detection and Prevention
Risk:
Fire
propagation rate:
Occupancy
characteristics:
3.8.3 Important Concepts & Basics
3.8 Fire Detection and Prevention
Risk profiles:
Risk profile
examples:
3.8.3 Important Concepts & Basics
3.8 Fire Detection and Prevention
Means of
escape:
Escape route:
Available safe
egress time:
3.8.4 BS 9999 & Approved Document B Guidelines/Specifications
3.8 Fire Detection and Prevention
Period of Structural Fire Resistance: • 15 mins for two storey office building with a ground floor area less than 1000 m
2
.
• An open plan office building between 30 and 60 m in height: 90 mins without sprinklers and 60 mins with sprinklers. •
A department store without sprinklers, between 11 and 18 m in height: 75 mins.
Sprinklers are not mandatory in any building in BS 9999 although two separate statements are made to the effect that,
for buildings over 30 m in height, sprinklers should be installed.
3.8.4 BS 9999 & Approved Document B Guidelines/Specifications
3.8 Fire Detection and Prevention
Access Roads and construction costs
Other supporting materials
Access Roads and construction costs
Other supporting materials
Access Roads and construction costs
Other supporting materials
Access Roads and construction costs
Other supporting materials
Domestic swimming pool construction costs
Other supporting materials
In Sri Lanka, Rs. 3,500 to 22,000 per sq. meter (rough estimate)