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You will need to know that

1. Breathing and cellular respiration are different processes of respiration.
2. Mitochondrion is site for the release of potential energy in cellular respiration.
3. Enzymes are crucial in the control of metabolic pathways.
4. Glucose is the main respiratory substrate.
5. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor and the formation of water.
6. Aerobic respiration releases a much greater amount of energy per glucose
molecule than anaerobic respiration.
7. Respiratory system is adapted for its function as a mechanism to obtain oxygen
for respiration and to excrete waste carbon dioxide.
8. The complexity of gaseous exchange system in various organisms is directly
proportion to the size of the organism and its habitat.

You will be able to:

1. State the uses of energy in the body of humans: muscle contraction, protein
synthesis, cell division, active transport, growth, the passage of nerve impulses
and the maintenance of a constant body temperature.
2. Define aerobic respiration in words or symbols.
3. Describe the roles of enzymes in the control of respiratory pathways, illustrated by
oxidoreductases and hydrolases.
4. Identify the main steps of cellular respiration: glycolysis, Kreb cycle and electron
transport chain.
5. Describe the conversion of monosaccharides to pyruvate during glycolysis; the
phosphorylation of hexose molecules; breakdown to glycerate 3-phosphate (GP);
production of reduced coenzyme (NADH + H+) and chemical potential in ATP
during oxidative phosphorylation in the electron transport chain. (Details of
intermediate compounds and reactions, other than those specified, are not
6. Describe the role of oxygen as the final electron acceptor and the formation of
7. Indicate on a diagram or micrograph of a mitochondrion, where each stage of the
cellular respiration occurs.
8. Define anaerobic respiration in humans and yeast in words or symbols.
9. Explain the formation of lactic acid in muscle; formation of ethanol in yeast when
pyruvate do not undergo complete oxidation in the absence of oxygen.
10. Describe the effect of lactic acid in muscles.
11. Compare and explain the differences in the yields of ATP from complete
oxidation of glucose and from the fermentation of glucose to lactic acid or ethanol.
12. Explain that aerobic respiration releases a much greater amount of energy per
glucose molecule than anaerobic respiration.
13. Appreciate how different organisms are adapted for efficient gaseous exchange.
14. Explain how the human respiratory system is adapted for its function as a
mechanism to obtain oxygen for respiration and to excrete waste carbon dioxide.
(Include reference to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and
associated capillaries.)
15. Design and perform an experiment to investigate the effect of external factor on
the respiration in yeast.
16. Tabulate results, analyse data and state a conclusion of each investigation.
17. Identify problems at the end of the experiment and make recommendations for
future improvement.

Can you use your understanding of Macromolecules and Photosynthesis to
answer these questions:
1. What is the relationship between energy and matter?
2. How is energy significant to biological system?
3. Can an organism survive without the exchange of matter with its environment?
4. Are all matters living and all living organisms made of matter?
5. Can living organisms create and destroy energy?
6. Can living organisms create and destroy matter?

Maybe these suggested enduring understanding based on CHANGE will help you to
make the connection between energy and matter.

Topical Enduring Understanding
1. Change in the form of any matter involves energy.
2. Survival of the biological system depends on the conversion of energy from
one form to another.
3. Changes in the organism are dependent on its environment.
4. Living organisms require matter and energy to maintain its complexity and
5. Energy flow in biological processes obeys the laws of thermodynamics.

If we narrow it further and focus only on the unit of RESPIRATION, you will be able
to answer these questions at the end of the unit
1. Why do we need to respire?
2. Do the structure and organisation of the living system change when energy is
released from them?
3. How are respiratory systems of animals organised efficiently to carry out its
4. Can there be any metabolism without enzymes?

You will be able to explain where the following enduring understanding of this unit is
1. Living organisms release energy within the biological molecule into forms they
can use to carry out life processes.
2. Process of the release of energy is affected by external environment.
3. The structure and organisation of the respiratory system is dictated by the
function that it serves.
4. Metabolic pathway is a sequence of enzyme-controlled reactions.