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Established in 1879


: _______________________ (
: ________________

) Class : _______


Group I

The elements in Group I are called the alkali metals. They are lithium (Li), sodium
(Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs) and francium (Fr).
They are known as Alkali metals because of they react with water to produce
alkaline solutions. For example, sodium reacts with water to form sodium
2 Na (s) + 2 H2O (l)  2 NaOH (aq) + H2 (g)
Properties of Group I metals
a) They have 1 electron in their valence shell. The atoms react by losing one
electron, forming a singly positive charged ion.
b) They are the most reactive of all the metals. Alkali metals are stored under
oil to protect them from moisture and air.
c) They are brittle and silvery metals.
d) They are good heat and electrical conductors.
e) They have generally low density and so float on water.
f) They have low melting points.
Reaction with water
Every alkali metal reacts with cold water, releasing hydrogen gas and producing a
solution of metal hydroxide that is alkaline.
a) These reactions always result in heat being produced – they are exothermic.
b) Darting of the metal piece on the surface of the water
c) Fizzling is observed as hydrogen gas is produced.
d) Colourless solution turns pink as phenolphthalein indicator is added to the


Transition Metals The transition metals lie between Groups II and III and make up the central block of the Periodic Table. Reason: The ionization energy of the elements decreases down the group (ease of forming cation increases). 2. with high density and high melting point. c) Reactivity of the elements increases down the group (metallic character increases) The element shows a more spontaneous reaction with water down the group. Reason: The molar mass of the element increases down the group. (Example platinum) d) They tend to form coloured compounds (for example. Properties of Transition metals a) They have variable electrons in their outer shells. there are groups of very radioactive elements that make up the transition metals. b) Density of the elements increases down the group. b) When they react. Because of this. the charge density (Charge/Size ratio) will decrease. iron (II) compounds are often green and iron (III) compounds are often brown). forming positive ions or cations.Trends down Group I a) Melting points of the elements decreases down the group Reason: Down the group. the strength of the metallic bond of the elements decreases. they tend to lose electrons. they form ions of variable charges and have varying valency. With the atomic radius of the elements increasing. c) They are hard metals. Catalytic use of transition metals 2 . These elements are part of the lanthanides series and actinides series and are shown at the foot of the Periodic Table. In addition. Melting point decreases.

3. Halogen comes from the Greek word “salt producing”. they serve to increase the rate of the reactions.7 Solid Black Black Properties of Group VII elements a) b) They have seven electrons in the outer shells. When added to reactions.32. They are often used in small amounts and are regenerated at the end of the reaction.8.1 8. Many of the transition metals are good catalysts. a) Iron is used to catalyse the production of ammonia (NH3) in Haber Process b) Vanadium oxide is used as a catalyst in the manufacture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in Contact Process. covalently bonded molecules.8. The halogens will react with all metals to form ionic salts.18.18. Mr Electronic struc ture State at room temp eratu re Colour Fluorine Pale green Chlorine Yellow Bromine Reddish brown Iodine Astatine 2.18. They all exist as diatomic. Name of halog en Chemical form ula Molecular mass .Definition of catalyst A catalyst is a substance that increases the speed of a reaction but remains chemically unchanged. c) Nickel is used as a catalyst in the manufacture of margarine.7 At2 2. with the formula X2 3 . Group VII The elements in this group are non-metals and are known as Halogens.

c) Reactivity of the element decreases down the group. This increases the strength of the intermolecular forces between the molecules. Cl2 KCl solution Pale yellow solution KBr solution Reddish brown solution KI solution Brown solution – black precipita te Equation for any occurring reaction Cl2 + 2KBr  2KCl + Br2 Cl2 +2KI  2KCl + I2 4 . Electron affini reflects the ability of an atom to accept electrons. thus higher boiling point and the state changing as such. Reason: Relative molecular mass of the elements increases down the group. X - d) They form ionic compounds with metals. Reason: Down the group. b) Melting and boiling point increases down the group as seen in the physical state of the elements changing from gas  liquid  solid. Larger amount of heat energy is needed to overcome the forces. example (hydrogen chloride) f) They are typical non-metals with low melting and boiling points. Trends down Group VII (with reference to the data table above) a) Colour of the element gets darker down the group. Displacement reaction – a more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive halogen from its compound.conductors of electricity.c) The atoms react by gaining one electron to form a negatively charged ion. Halogen added Chlorine. example (sodium chloride) e) They form covalent compounds with non-metals. g) They are all non. the electron affinity of the elements decreases.

I2 4. Neon (Ne). They have a complete valence shell and have little tendency to lose or gain electrons. They are also known as Inert gases. The noble gases are Helium (He). d) They have high ionization energy and high electronegativity. with low melting and boiling points. Their inertness or lack of reactivity is due to their stable electronic configuration. c) They exist as monoatomic gases due to their electronic stability. e) Their inertness is an important feature of their practical uses. showing their electron arrangements with full very stable outer shells. either as Group VIII or Group O. They are electronically very stable.Bromine. They have no ‘wish’ to share electrons to form a covalent bond or to lose or gain electrons to form an ionic bond. Argon (Ar). Properties of Noble gases a) They are all non-metallic elements. Nil Group 0 The Noble Gases form the last group of elements in the Periodic Table. Br2 Br2 + 2KI  2KBr + I2 Reddish brown solution Reddish brown solution Brown solution –black precipita te Dark brown solution Dark brown solution Dark brown solution Iodine. 5 . Trends down Group 0 a) Melting and boiling points increases down the Group. b) They are all colourless gases at room temperature and pressure. The first 3 Noble Gases. Xenon (Xe) and Radon (Rn). Krypton (Kr).

Reason: The molar mass of the elements increase with the Group. This results in stronger intermolecular forces of attraction between the atoms. thus melting and boiling point increases.Reason: The molecular mass of the elements increase down the Group. b) Density increases down the Group. c) More likely to react and form a compound with very reactive elements like Fluorine. Stable compounds of Xenon are now known and synthesized. Checkpoint: What is the necessary condition for noble gases to react forming compounds? High temperature and pressure 6 . More energy is needed to overcome these forces.