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Parts of Speech Common Nouns Name ________________________

Definition: A common noun is an idea, person, place, or thing. It can be acted upon and is
capitalized only at the start of a sentence. A common noun can be a single word, a group of
words, or a hyphenated word.
Examples: It takes self-control idea
for a teenager person
to drive to school place
in a sports car. thing
Writing Hints
henever possible, use specific common nouns rather than general common nouns.
Practice
!ort the following common nouns as an idea, person, place, or thing in the correct columns:
mountain, friendship, teacher, neighborhood, food, self"image, freedom, toy, fire"fighter, cousin,
rock, country, lamp stand, football stadium, police officer, self"confidence, grandfather clock,
family room, brother"in"law, world peace
IDEA PERSON PLACE HIN!
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App"ication
$ompose four sentences, using a common noun from each category. %se none of the common
nouns listed on this worksheet. &e as specific as possible.
idea ##########################################################################
person ########################################################################
place #########################################################################
thing #########################################################################
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Parts of Speech Proper Nouns Name ________________________
Definition: A proper noun is the name of a person, place, or thing. It can be acted upon and is
capitalized. A proper noun may be a single word, a group of words (with or without
abbreviations), or a hyphenated word.
Examples: Josh was honored person
at U.S. Memorial Auditorium place
with the Smith-Lee Award. thing
Writing Hints
$apitalize all words that make up proper nouns, except articles (a, an, and the),
prepositions, such as of, to, and from, and con*unctions, such as and, or, and but.
Practice
$ircle the proper nouns in the following story. +ake sure to circle all words belonging to each
proper noun.
,ohn -rancis left his home in &eatrice, .ebraska in /01/, shortly before the start of
orld ar II. 2raveling first by bus to $hicago, he then boarded the Southwestern Chief to ride
to 3os Angeles. At 4rand $entral !tation, ,ohn met his sister, ,ane, and immediately began
looking for part"time work and an apartment. 5e found employment at &lix 5ardware on
estern Avenue and a room to rent in nearby !outh 5ollywood.
hen war was declared, ,ohn enlisted in the army and was stationed at -ort 6rd. 5e
played trumpet in the Army &and and was promoted to the rank of !taff !ergeant. 2he %nited
!tates was fortunate to have so many young men, like ,ohn, serving their country.
After the war in /017, ,ohn enrolled in the %niversity of !outhern $alifornia, paying his
tuition with money from the 4.I. &ill. 4raduating $um 3aude with degrees in &usiness and
!ocial !cience, he continued to play trumpet in clubs all over !outhern $alifornia. %pon
marrying ,anice ,ones, he took a *ob at $alifornia -ederal !avings and 3oan and was promoted
to !enior 8ice"9resident. 5e and his wife raised two children, who both graduated from the
%niversity of $alifornia at 3os Angeles. ,ohn retired in /0:; to travel and play his trumpet.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with person, place, and thing proper nouns.
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Parts of Speech Pronouns Name ________________________
Definition: A pronoun is a word used in place of a proper noun or common noun.
Examples: 5ello. 2his is she.
Is it her basket=
Writing Hints
9ronouns are used in the first person, second person, or third person point of view. 2he first
person pronoun stands for the one speaking> the second person pronoun stands for the one
spoken to, and the third person pronoun stands for the one spoken about. Avoid first and second
person pronouns in essays designed to inform or convince your reader.
2he following chart shows how pronouns are grammatically organized:
Num%er&
Point of 'ie#
Su%(ect O%(ect Possessi)e
(before a noun)
Possessi)e
(with no noun)
Ref"e*i)e an+
Intensi)e
SIN!,LAR
-irst 9erson
!econd 9erson
2hird 9erson
I
you
he, she, it
me
you
him, her, it
my
your
his, her, its
mine
yours
his, hers
myself
yourself
himself,
herself, itself
PL,RAL
-irst 9erson
!econd 9erson
2hird 9erson
we
you
they
us
you
them
our
your
their
ours
yours
theirs
ourselves
yourselves
themselves
Practice: $ircle the pronouns in the following spooky story.
I woke up in the middle of the night to find you standing by my bed, shining your
flashlight. It shone down on me, illuminating faces full of fear, both mine and yours. e clearly
heard their voices downstairs. 2hey had come for us and what was rightfully ours.
,ohn, himself, had seen them yesterday, down by the river. !he was creeping along with
him, wearing that black hat of hers to hide her stringy, long hair, while he hid his hideous face
with a scarf. ,ohn saw a campsite of theirs, its campfire still smoldering. !uddenly?
App"ication
-inish the rest of this spooky story, using as many pronouns as possible.
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Parts of Speech A+(ecti)es Name ________________________
Definition: An a+(ecti)e describes a proper noun, a common noun, or a pronoun with how many,
which one, or what kind.
Examples: 2he fie teammates 5ow +any=
took that bus hich 6ne=
to the old arena across town. hat @ind=
Writing Hints
Ad*ectives usually are placed before nouns and pronouns. AonBt use descriptive ad*ectives
instead of well"chosen nouns and verbs. Especially avoid using ad*ectives that do not add
meaning to a sentence. -or example, ad*ectives such as interesting, beautiful, nice, and e!citing
do not help your reader understand the nouns or pronouns any better. &e specific as possible with
your ad*ectives. 2he sympathetic man is better than the nice man.
Practice
!ort the following italici"ed ad*ectives into the correct columns:
twenty-story building, most sports, #uicier hamburgers, these games, that bright color, a do"en
flowers, the muddy +issouri Civer, few announcements, this idea, those desserts, nael orange,
thousands of islands, spicy pizza, certain groups, loud rap music
Ho# -an./ Which One/ What 0in+/
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App"ication
$ompose three sentences, using an ad*ective from each category. %se none of the ad*ectives
listed on this worksheet. &e as specific as possible.
5ow +any= ###################################################################
hich 6ne= ###################################################################
hat @ind= ###################################################################
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Parts of Speech 'er%s Name ________________________
Definition: A )er% shows a physical or mental action or it describes a state of being.
Examples: !he works long hours, physical action
but knows that mental action
there is more to life than work. state of being
3inking verbs connect a sub*ect with a noun (5e looks like the man$, pronoun (!he is the one), or
predicate ad*ective (2hey are nice). 2hose that show either physical or mental actions include the
following: appear% become, feel, grow% keep% look, remain% seem% smell, sound, seem% stay% and
taste. 6ther linking verbs that describe a state of being include the Dto beE verbs: is, am, are,
was, were, be, being, and been.
5elping verbs help a verb and are placed in front of the verb &' had heard it$. 5elping verbs
include the Dto beE verbs, the Dto doE verbs: do% does% did% the Dto haveE verbs: has, hae, had, as
well as can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would.
Writing Hints
2he four verb forms are the base form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle.
Cegular verbs form a present participle by placing a Dto beE helping verb before the base form,
then adding on an (ing ending for the present participle. Cegular verbs form a past participle by
placing a Dto haveE helping verb before the base form, then adding on a ##d, ##ed, or ((en
ending. 2he past tense simply adds on a ##d or ##ed ending to the base form.
1ASE
PRESEN
PARICIPLE PAS
PAS
PARICIPLE
help(s) helping helped helped
want(s) wanting wanted wanted
An irregular verb does not form its past and past participle by adding on a ##d, ##ed% or ((en
ending. Instead, both the past and past participle change the base form vowel andFor consonant
spellings or else they use the base form. 2he appendix lists the irregular verb forms.
Practice
+atch the four verb forms to the examples by placing the capital letters in the spaces provided.
A. base ### need ### was needing ###needed ### had helped
&. present participle
<. past ### had eaten ### watches ###am
looking ### touched
A. past participle
### loved ### were talking ###had asked ### believe
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with at least two verb forms.
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Parts of Speech A+)er%s Name ________________________
Directions: An adverb describes a verb, an ad*ective, or an adverb with how, when, where, or
what degree. 2he adverb may be found before or after the word that it describes.
Examples: 2rey walked slowly 5ow=
because he had arrived early hen=
to the place where here=
he knew ery well his entire future could be decided. hat Aegree=
Writing Hints
As a matter of good writing style, place shorter adverbial phrases in front of longer ones.
Example: 2he family walks around the block after eery )hanksgiing *inner.
Explanation: 2he shorter adverbial phrase around the block is properly placed before the
longer after eery )hanksgiing *inner.
As a matter of good writing style, place specific adverbs before general ones.
Example: It should be e!actly where I described, ne!t to the desk, or somewhere oer
there.
Explanation: 2he more specific adverbs e!actly where and ne!t are properly placed
before the more general somewhere oer there.
6ften adverbs have an ly suffix, but not always. Avoid overusing the adverb, ery> it usually does
not add much meaning to a sentence.
Practice
!ort the adverbs listed below into these categories:
Ho# When Where What Degree
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often, everywhere, slowly, one oBclock, mostly, carefully, nearby, later, here, less, easily, mainly
App"ication
$ompose four sentences, using an adverb from each category. %se none of the adverbs listed on
this worksheet.
5ow #########################################################################
hen ########################################################################
here ########################################################################
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hat Aegree ##################################################################
Parts of Speech Prepositions Name ________________________
Definition: A preposition is a word that shows some relationship or position between a common
noun, a proper noun, or a pronoun and its ob*ect. 2he preposition is always part of a phrase and
comes before its ob*ect. 2he preposition asks Dhat=E and the ob*ect provides the answer.
Examples: 2he politician voted against the law. against what= ?the law
through the secret ballot. through what= ?the secret ballot
Writing Hints
9repositional phrases make up at least one"third of our writing, so they are important to
master. Iou may place a prepositional phrase at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence, but
make sure to place it close to the word it describes.
Examples: $learJ2he lady in a blue dress found my dog. %nclearJ2he lady found my dog in
a blue dress.
e often end spoken sentences with a preposition, but avoid this usage in your writing.
Example: !poken sentenceJDho will you go to=E ritten sentenceJD)o whom will
you go=E
5ere is a list of commonly"used prepositions. +emorizing this list will help you
recognize prepositions and use them in your writing. Cemember that these words can be used as
other parts of speech, if they are not followed by their ob*ects.
aboard, about, aboe, according to, across, after, against, along, among, around, as, as to, aside
from, at, because of, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, despite, down,
during, e!cept, for, from, in, inside, instead of, into, in addition to, in place of, in spite of, like,
near, ne!t to, of, off, on, on account of, onto, outside, out of, oer, regardless of, since, through,
throughout, to, toward, under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, without, but (meaning
e!cept), past (meaning by).
Practice
%nderline the prepositions, and KbracketL their ob*ects. 2hen draw an arrow from each
preposition to its ob*ect.
DI pledge allegiance to the flag of the %nited !tates of America and to the republic for
which it stands: one nation under 4od, indivisible, with liberty and *ustice for all.E 2hese words
are spoken in schools throughout America each day. 2he right hand is placed over the heart and
eyes are focused on the flag. $hildren stand to recite the pledge and give respect to our country.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with three different prepositions.
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Parts of Speech Con(unctions Name ________________________
Definition: A con(unction *oins words, phrases, or clauses together.
Writing Hints
A coor+inating con(unction connects words, phrases, or clauses with related meanings.
2he acronym, -A.&6I! (-or"And".or"&ut"6r"Iet"!o), may help you remember the common
two or three"letter coor+inating con(unctions.
Example: 2wo desserts are fine, but three are better.
Avoid overuse of the con*unction so. Also, do not use the words then and now as coordinating
con*unctions. A comma is placed before the con*unction if it *oins two or more independent
clauses.
Corre"ati)e con(unctions are pairs of con*unctions used in the same sentence that
indicate a certain relationship. $ommon correlative con*unctions include the following:
both?and not only?but also either?or whether?or neither?nor
Example: +ither we work together, or we will fail together.
A comma is placed before the second of the paired con*unctions, if the sentence ends in an
independent clause.
A su%or+inating con(unction always introduces an adverbial clause. 2he subordinating
con*unction signals the relationship between the adverbial clause and the independent clause (a
sub*ect and verb standing alone as a complete thought). &ecause the adverbial clause is always a
dependent clause, it is less important than the independent clause.
!ubordinating con*unctions include the following:
after, although, as, as if, as long as, as much as, as soon as, as though, because, before, een if,
een though, how, if, in order that, once, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when,
wheneer, where, whereer, whether, while
Example: Although my friends had already seen it, they saw the show a second time.
Adding a subordinating con*unction to one of the clauses can revise a run"on sentence. A comma
is placed after the adverbial clause, if it begins a sentence.
Practice
3abel the following con*unctions A. coordinating con*unction, &. correlative con*unction, or
$. subordinating con*unction in the space provided after each con*unction.
,heneer ### he walks or ### runs, +ike either ###brings water, or ### he brings a sports
drink. 'f ### he will be gone a long time, +ike carries both ###a nutritious snack and ### an
energy bar. 5e en*oys the exercise and ### nature, so ### he tries to go three times each week.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence or two with a coordinating con*unction, a pair of correlative
con*unctions, and a subordinating con*unction.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 34 Simp"e Su%(ect Name ________________________
Definition: 2he simple sub*ect is the common noun, proper noun, or pronoun that the verb acts
upon. 2he sub*ect is the Ddo"erE of the sentence. It tells whom or what the sentence is about.
Examples: A nurse assisted the patient. !imple !ub*ect
)he police officer helped prevent the accident. $omplete !ub*ect
hen additional words help name or describe the simple sub*ect, this is known as a complete
sub*ect.
Writing Hints
2he simple sub*ect is usually found at the start of a declarative sentence. 2o find the simple
sub*ect of the sentence, first identify any prepositional phrases and eliminate the nouns and
pronouns found in these phrases from consideration. 2he simple sub*ect of the sentence is not
part of a prepositional phrase. -reMuently, in imperative sentences, the simple sub*ect you is
implied (suggested, not stated).
Practice
• $ircle the simple sub*ects found in the story below. Add in any implied sub*ects.
8acationing in +exico, an experienced traveler will visit three famous cities. 2asco,
known as the D!ilver $ityE because of its rich silver mines, welcomes thousands of tourists each
summer to see its timeless architecture. 2he cathedral impresses visitors from around the world.
A second city, 4uadala*ara, shows off its rich colonial heritage. 5aving one of the most beautiful
town sMuares, this city gives any traveler a complete history of +exico. If given the opportunity,
do not hesitate to visit the capital. +exico $ity has many sites of archeological importance,
including pyramids of the Aztec Empire. A trip to +exico connects the traveler with his or her
historical roots, as a .orth American.
• hat is the complete sub*ect in the first sentence of the above story=
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App"ication
$ompose two sentences. In the first, circle the simple sub*ect> in the second, circle the complete
sub*ect.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 35 Compoun+ Su%(ect Name ________________________
Definition: 2he compound sub*ect has two or more connected common nouns, proper nouns, or
pronouns that one verb acts upon. 2he words Dand,E Dor,E or DnorE connect them. 2he compound
sub*ect is the Ddo"erE of the sentence. It tells whom or what the sentence is about.
Examples: 2he girl and her mother walked to the store.
Cunning Muickly down the slope were Su"anne, -ecky, and Carson.
hen additional words help name or describe the compound sub*ect, this is known as a complete
sub*ect.
Writing Hints
2he compound sub*ect is usually found at the start of a declarative sentence. 2o find the
compound sub*ect of the sentence, first identify any prepositional phrases and eliminate the
nouns and pronouns found in these phrases from consideration. 2he compound sub*ect of the
sentence is not part of a prepositional phrase.
Practice
$ircle the complete compound sub*ects and connect each pair with an arrow in the story below.
In terms of difficulty, running ': miles is Muite an accomplishment, and the marathon
always fills the stadium or arena with an eager audience. 2rack fans and casual spectators en*oy
the competition of this oldest 6lympic event. &asketball and ice"hockey also get high television
ratings. 2he DAream 2eam,E composed of the best .ational &asketball Association players, or
the %nited !tates hockey team, composed of professional hockey all"stars, always entertains the
6lympic audience. 2hese two popular events, as well as the track"and"field contests, highlight
the inter or !ummer 6lympics for most sports fans.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with a compound sub*ect.
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In the sentence above, identify the complete compound sub*ect.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 36 Simp"e Pre+icate Name ________________________
Definition: 2he simple predicate is the verb that acts upon the sub*ect of the sentence. It does the
work of the Ddo"erE of the sentence. 2he simple predicate shows a physical or mental action or it
describes a state of being. hen additional words help describe the simple predicate, this is
known as a complete predicate. 2he complete predicate consists of the rest of the sentence other
than the sub*ect.
Examples: +ichael hurt his hand. !imple 9redicates
!he had become a young lady.
2hey should hae listened to me.
An angry man tried to run me off the road. $omplete 9redicate
Writing Hints
2o find the simple predicate, first identify the sub*ect and ask Dhat=E 2he answer to this
Muestion should be the predicate. 2he simple predicate usually follows the sub*ect in a sentence.
5owever, it can be placed before the sub*ect in a Muestion &,as it your mother.s purse/$, in an
implied (suggested, not stated) sentence &Look out0$, or in a phrase or clause at the beginning of a
sentence to add special emphasis &+en more interesting was the fact that she knew it would
probably rain$.
Practice
%nderline the simple sub*ects and KbracketL the simple predicates found in the story below.
Ice"cream always has pleased young and old alike as a favorite summertime dessert. 6ne
ice"cream that pleases many is neapolitan. 2his treat has chocolate, strawberry, and vanilla all in
one. Cocky Coad delights children of all ages with small bits of marshmallows and nuts in a rich
chocolate ice"cream. -or some, the nuts or marshmallows may cause an allergic reaction. A
creamy double"scoop on a sugar or waffle cone tastes great. atch outN Eating too much ice"
cream can be an addictive behavior.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with a simple predicate. %nderline the sub*ect and bracket the
simple predicate.
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$ompose your own sentence with a complete predicate. %nderline the sub*ect and bracket the
simple predicate.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 37 Compoun+ Pre+icate Name ________________________
Definition: 2he compound predicate consists of two or more connected verbs that act upon the
same sub*ect of the sentence. 2hese verbs do the work of the Ddo"erE of the sentence. 2he
compound predicate shows a physical or mental action or it describes a state of being.
Examples: +ichael fell and hurt his hand.
!he had become and still remained a young lady.
2hey should hae asked but then listened to me.
Writing Hints
2o find the compound predicate, first identify the sub*ect and ask Dhat=E 2he answer to this
Muestion should be the predicate. A connecting word such as Dand,E Dor,E or DbutE is usually
placed between the verbs.
%sing compound predicates can help your writing become more concise (brief), clear, and
readable.
Example: Instead of the following: 1ob studied the te!tbook for the e!am. )hen% he
practiced the ocabulary for the e!am. After practicing the ocabulary% he memori"ed the
poem2all to prepare for the e!am. 2ry a compound predicate such as this: 1ob studied
the te!tbook% practiced the ocabulary% and memori"ed the poem to prepare for the e!am.
Practice
• %nderline the simple sub*ects and KbracketL the compound predicates in the story below.
6f all the books by +ark 2wain, two works stand out and are remembered as his best.
2wainBs description of life as a riverboat captain in Life on the Mississippi both entertains and
informs. After reading this book, one will learn and will understand what the phrase D+ark
2wainE means. A second novel, 3uckleberry 4inn, teaches and preaches about how badly people
can treat each other. ritten after the $ivil ar, the bookBs hero, 5uck -inn, wrestles with and
eventually triumphs over the evils of slavery.
• Cevise the following sentences into one sentence with a compound predicate.
Aebbie walked into the room. .ext, she sat down in the chair. 2hen, she heaved a sigh of relief.
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App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with a compound predicate.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 38 Simp"e Sentences Name ________________________
Definition: A simple sentence has one independent clause and no dependent clause. An
independent clause simply means that there is a sub*ect and a predicate that expresses a complete
thought. A dependent clause means that there is a sub*ect and a verb that does not express a
complete thought. !ee how the dependent clause is crossed"out in the example below.
Example: ,anie and 4eorge left class, before copying down their homework.
Writing Hints
$omplete sentences can be identified by their purposes.
A +ec"arati)e sentence makes a statement and has a period as ending punctuation.
Example: ,oanna went shopping at the mall.
An interrogati)e sentence asks a Muestion and has a Muestion mark as ending punctuation.
Example: ould you mind cooking your own dinner tonight=
An imperati)e sentence gives a command or makes a reMuest and has a period as ending
punctuation. -reMuently, the you is implied (suggested, but not stated).
Examples: AonBt tell me what to do. $ommand
+other, sing a song for us. CeMuest
An e*c"amator. sentence expresses surprise or strong emotions and has an exclamation point as
ending punctuation.
Example: I canBt believe you said thatN
Remem%er: A comp"ete sentence9
4$ tells a complete thought.
5$ has both a sub*ect and a predicate.
6$ has the voice drop down at the end of a statement and the voice go up at the end of a Muestion.
Practice
Identify the following simple sentences as declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory
in the space provided. 2he ending punctuation has been omitted.
3ook at me when I talk to you ##############################
2hat answer really shocked me ##############################
hy should I have to wait ##############################
2om asked me a Muestion ##############################
App"ication
$ompose an interrogative sentence. 2hen answer with a simple declarative sentence.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 3: Compoun+ Sentences Name ________________________
Definition: A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses but no dependent
clauses. An independent clause simply means that there is a sub*ect and a predicate that
expresses a complete thought. A dependent clause means that there is a sub*ect and a verb that
does not express a complete thought.
Example: @en asked his teacher for his homework, but he didnBt follow her advice.
Writing Hints
2he independent clauses are *oined by either a semi"colon or a comma, then a coordinating
con*unction (-A.&6I!: for% and% nor% but% or% yet% so).
5aving a variety of sentence lengths is a mark of good writing. $ompound sentences help clarify
the relationship between independent clauses.
Practice
• %se the coordinating con*unctions (-A.&6I!) to *oin together the following independent
clauses in the spaces provided below each pair. 2he ending punctuation has been omitted.
I en*oy watching old television shows the new ones are better
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Ao you want vanilla do you want strawberry
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• %se a semi"colon to *oin together the following independent clauses in the spaces provided
below each pair. 2he ending punctuation has been omitted.
.o one really wants to go they *ust feel like they must attend
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2his route takes too long there must be another way
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App"ication
$ompose your own compound sentence.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 3; Comp"e* Sentences Name ________________________
Definition: A complex sentence has an independent clause and at least one dependent clause. An
independent clause means that there is a sub*ect and a predicate that expresses a complete
thought. A dependent (subordinate) clause means that there is a sub*ect and a verb that does not
express a complete thought.
Example: 2y completed all his chores (independent clause) O after eating his lunch
(dependent clause) P 2y completed all his chores after eating his lunch.
Writing Hints
%sing different sentence structures makes your writing more interesting to read. $omplex
sentences can help define the relationship between complicated ideas. If starting a sentence with
a dependent clause, follow the clause with a comma.
9ractice recognizing these dependent clauses in reading and add them to your writing:
A+(ecti)e C"auses describe nouns or pronouns. !ignal words beginning ad*ective clauses
include who% whose% on &for% of$ whom to refer to people, that to refer to people or things, and
which to refer only to things.
Example: ?whose work is well"known
A+)er% C"auses describe an ad*ective, adverb, or verb. !ignal words beginning adverb clauses
include after% as% as if% as long as% as much as% as soon as% because% before% een if% how% if% in
order that% once% since% so that% than% unless% until% when% wheneer% where% whereer% and while.
Example: ?as long as she can wait
Noun C"auses are used as a sub*ect, a complement (the rest of the sentence besides the sub*ect
and predicate), or as the ob*ect of a preposition. !ignal words beginning noun clauses include
that% what% whateer% which% whicheer% who% whoeer% whom% and whomeer.
Example: ?whatever he demands
Practice
Cevise the following simple sentences into complex sentences in the spaces below. %se the
signal words found in the above lists of dependent clauses.
@enny will be able to go outside to play he practices his trombone
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2onight we celebrate a special young lady, achievement is, indeed, remarkable.
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App"ication
$ompose your own complex sentence.
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Wor2sheet 3< Name ________________________
Compoun+=Comp"e* Sentences
Definition: A compound"complex sentence has two or more independent clauses and at least one
dependent (subordinate) clause. An independent clause means that there is a sub*ect and a
predicate that expresses a complete thought. A dependent (subordinate) clause means that there is
a sub*ect and a verb that does not express a complete thought.
Example: After eating his lunch (dependent clause) O 2y completed all his chores
(independent clause) O and he read the newspaper (independent clause) P After
eating his lunch, 2y completed all his chores and he read the newspaper.
Writing Hints
Aependent clauses can be placed at the start, in the middle, or at the end of sentences.
Practice
Cearrange the following independent clauses and dependent clauses into compound"complex
sentences in the spaces below. Iou may need to switch around the order, add, or delete words.
,ohn told a campfire story the campers roasted marshmallows after the sun set
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the captain knew the sailor the sailor did not recognize him since the captain had a beard
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although he knew better she *ust would not listen he could not teach her
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wherever he went he had to carry it in his hands 2he packBs strap was broken
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App"ication
$ompose your own compound"complex sentence.
Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com <H
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!rammar Wor2sheet 3> Name ________________________
I+entif.ing ?ragments
Definition: A sentence fragment is only part of a complete sentence. It does not express a
complete thought. 2he fragment may be a dependent (subordinate) clause (a sub*ect and a verb
that does not express a complete thought), a phrase (a group of related words with no sub*ect and
verb), or a list of related words.
Writing Hints
3earn to recognize sentence fragments as you proofread your own writing. 6ften, sentence
fragments are found in three grammatical forms:
• $onnected prepositional phrases
Example: In +exico, during the reign of the Aztecs and before $ortez.
• Adverbial phrases
Example: 3ooking for someone to share her life.
• Aependent (subordinate) clauses
Example: Even though their friends had witnessed the entire accident.
Remem%er: A comp"ete sentence9
4$ tells a complete thought.
5$ has both a sub*ect and a predicate.
6$ has the voice drop down at the end of a statement and the voice go up at the end of a Muestion.
Practice
+ark D$!E if the sentence is complete or D-E if the sentence is a fragment.
##### /. &ecause he left school early.
##### '. !he went to the store after finishing her homework.
##### <. After losing his homework on the bus and arriving to school late.
##### 1. henever they need to know the reason for something.
##### 7. 2aking tests always makes some students uncomfortable.
App"ication
Cevise the fragments from the Practice section above into complete sentences.
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Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com <:
!rammar Wor2sheet 34@ Name ________________________
Re)ising ?ragments
Definition: A sentence fragment is only part of a complete sentence. It does not express a
complete thought. 2he fragment may be a dependent (subordinate) clause (a sub*ect and a verb
that does not express a complete thought), or a phrase (a group of related words with no sub*ect
and verb).
Writing Hints
2o change sentence fragments into complete sentences, try the following:
• $onnect the fragment to the sentence before or after the fragment.
Example: &ecause of the ice. 2he roads were a slippery hazard. -ragment
2he roads were a slippery hazard because of the ice. $omplete
• $hange the fragment into a complete thought.
Example: +ainly, the passage of time. -ragment
+ainly, she felt the passage of time. $omplete
• Cemove subordinating con*unctions.
Example: Although she found out where the boys were. -ragment
!he found out where the boys were. $omplete
Remem%er: A comp"ete sentence9
4$ tells a complete thought.
5$ has both a sub*ect and a predicate.
6$ has the voice drop down at the end of a statement and the voice go up at the end of a Muestion.
Practice
$hange the following sentence fragments into complete sentences in the space provided below.
Cunning down the hill to my friend. I saw her.
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-inally, the reason he left.
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&ecause the playground seems wet with ice.
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App"ication
Add to this dependent clause to form a complete sentence: henever I need help on a math
problem
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!rammar Wor2sheet 344 Name ________________________
I+entif.ing Run=Ons
Definition: A sentence run"on has two independent clauses connected together as if they were
one sentence. An independent clause means that there is a sub*ect and a predicate that expresses
a complete thought.
Writing Hints
3earn to recognize sentence run"ons to be able to effectively proofread your own writing.
A comma combining two sentences is called a comma splice.
Practice
In the paragraph below, underline the sentence run"ons.
+ohandis @. 4andhi has been called the most important Indian leader of this century, his
ideas about non"violent protesting helped unite the entire nation of India against
the &ritish Empire. &ecause millions of Indians refused to cooperate with the &ritish
government. 4andhi demanded independence from foreign rule. 4andhiBs ideas also influenced
the Ceverend +artin 3uther @ing, ,r. in the %nited !tates both men were murdered for their
views. .on"violent protests and boycotts (to refuse to participate) against businesses and
government agencies that practiced segregation (to separate the races) in the /07;Bs and /0G;Bs.
@ing learned much from +ohandis @. 4andhi so did many Americans.
App"ication
.ow, revise any of the above sentence run"ons as complete sentences in the spaces below.
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Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 1;
!rammar Wor2sheet 345 Re)ising Run=ons Name ________________________
Definition: A sentence run"on has two independent clauses connected together as if they were
one sentence. An independent clause means that there is a sub*ect and a predicate that expresses
a complete thought.
Writing Hints
2o change sentence run"ons into complete sentences, try the following:
• !eparate the run"on into two or more sentences.
Example: 3uis told his brother he told his sister, too. Cun"6n
3uis told his brother. 5e told his sister, too. $omplete
• Add a semi"colon between the clauses.
Example: +ary let him have it, she knew what she was doing. Cun"6n
+ary let him have it> she knew what she was doing. $omplete
• Add a comma, then a con*unction after the first sentence.
Example: I like her, she doesnBt like me. Cun"6n
I like her, but she doesnBt like me. $omplete
• Add a subordinating con*unction to one of the clauses.
Example: +ax was in*ured, he was still the best. Cun"6n
Even though +ax was in*ured, he was still the best. $omplete
• $hange the second clause to a phrase starting with an #ing word.
Example: 2hey went to school, they looked for him. Cun"6n
2hey went to school, looking for him. $omplete
Practice
$hange the following sentence run"ons into complete sentences.
,se a comma an+ then a coor+inating con(unction A?AN1OBSC9
+s. $lements always prepared well for her lesson plans the results paid off.
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,se a semi=co"on9
,onathan seemed very selfish he never shared with the other children.
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Change the secon+ c"ause to a phrase starting #ith an _ing #or+9
.icco en*oyed video games, he played only after completing his chores.
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App"ication
Cevise the first Practice sentence, using the subordinating con*unction because.
Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 1/
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!rammar Wor2sheet 346 Name ________________________
Pronouns=Su%(ect ANominati)eC Case
Definition: 9ronouns are in the sub*ect (nominative) case when they are used as the sub*ect of a
verb or when they identify or refer to the sub*ect. 2hese are the sub*ect (nominative) case
pronouns:
!ingularJ'% you% he% she% it 9luralJwe% you% they
Writing Hints
9ronouns take the sub*ect (nominative) case in three grammatical forms:
• if the pronoun is the sentence sub*ect. 2he sentence sub*ect is the Ddo"erE of the sentence.
Example: She and ' attended the concert.
• if the pronoun is a predicate nominative. A predicate nominative follows a Dto beE verb (is%
am% are% was% were% be% being% been$ and identifies or refers to the sub*ect.
Example: 2he students who got into trouble are they.
• if the pronoun is part of an appositive, such as after than or as. An appositive is a noun or
pronoun placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify or explain it.
Example: +arty is smarter than '.
2o test whether the pronoun is in the nominative case, try these tricks:
• Cephrase to check if the pronoun sounds right.
Example: 2he last one to arrive was he. CephraseJ3e was the last one to arrive.
• Arop other nouns or pronouns when there is a compound sub*ect and check if the remaining
pronoun sounds right. Cemember that English is a polite language> the first person pronouns
&'% me% ours% mine$ are always placed last when combined with other nouns or pronouns.
Example: ,ohn and ' play video games. Arop and checkJ' play video games.
Practice
Identify which grammatical form the sub*ect (nominative) case pronouns take in the following
sentences. -ill in the blanks with an ! for a sentence sub*ect, 9. for a predicate nominative, or
an A for an appositive.
2he women in the clown costumes must be she ### and her mother. e ### didnBt recognize
them at first, but at least I ### asked, Dho were they ###=E !ue and he ### arrived at the party
earlier than I ###, but no one came as early as she ###.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentences, using a pronoun as a sentence sub*ect, a pronoun as a predicate
nominative, and a pronoun as an appositive.
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Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 1'
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!rammar Wor2sheet 347 Name ________________________
Pronouns=O%(ect Case
Definition: 9ronouns are in the ob*ect case when they are used as direct ob*ects, indirect ob*ects
of verbs, and as ob*ects of prepositions. 2hese are the ob*ect case pronouns:
!ingularJme% you% him% her% it 9luralJus% you% them
Writing Hints
9ronouns take the ob*ect case in four grammatical forms:
• if the pronoun is the direct ob*ect. 2he direct ob*ect receives the action of the verb.
Example: 2he challenge excited him.
if the direct ob*ect is described by an appositive phrase (a phrase that identifies or explains
another noun or pronoun placed next to it).
Example: 2he teacher yelled at two students, Cachel and me.
• if the pronoun is an indirect ob*ect of a verb. 2he indirect ob*ect is placed between a verb
and its direct ob*ect. It tells to what, to whom, for what, or for whom.
Example: Cobert gave him a king"size candy bar.
• if the pronoun is an ob*ect of a preposition. A preposition shows some relationship or
position between a proper noun, a common noun, or a pronoun and its ob*ect. 2he
preposition asks Dhat=E and the ob*ect provides the answer.
Example: 2he fly buzzed around her and past them by me.
• if the pronoun is connected to an infinitive. An infinitive has a to O the base form of a verb.
Example: I want him to give the speech.
2o test whether the pronoun is in the ob*ect case, try these tricks:
• Cephrase to check if the pronoun sounds right.
Example: ,oe smiled at all of them. CephraseJAt all of them ,oe smiled.
• Arop other nouns or pronouns when there is a compound sub*ect and check if the remaining
pronoun sounds right. Cemember that English is a polite language> the first person pronouns
&'% me% ours% mine$ are always placed last when combined with other nouns or pronouns.
Example: !he gave @athy and me a gift. Arop and checkJ!he gave me a gift.
Practice
Identify which grammatical form the ob*ective case pronouns take in the following sentences.
-ill in the blanks with a A6 for a direct ob*ect, an I6 for an indirect ob*ect, an 69 for an ob*ect
of the preposition, or an I for a pronoun connected to an infinitive.
5e told them ### after him ###. 5e had wanted to tell us ### first, but when came to see me ###,
I said, DIou should tell him ### the news before me ###. 5e had not given it ### much thought.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with ob*ect case pronouns serving as direct and indirect ob*ects.
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Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 1<
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!rammar Wor2sheet 348 Name ________________________
Pronoun=Antece+ents
Definition: A pronoun that refers to or replaces a previous common noun, proper noun, or
pronoun is called an antecedent.
Writing Hints
• +ake sure antecedents are specific. 6therwise, the pronoun reference may be confusing.
Example: hen &obby asked for help, they asked why.
9roblemJho is they= 4et more specificJhen &obby asked for help from his
teachers, they asked why.
• AonBt have a pronoun refer to the ob*ect in a prepositional phrase.
Example: In 2wainBs )he Celebrated 4rog of Calaeras County, he uses political humor.
9roblemJho, or what, is he=
• +ake sure that the singular pronouns this and that and the plural pronouns these and those
specifically refer to what is intended. @eep these pronouns close to their references.
Example: 5e made an egg, put the dog food in its bowl, and put this on his toast to eat.
9roblemJhat is this=
• AonBt have a pronoun refer to a possessive antecedent. A possessive is a common noun,
proper noun, or pronoun that shows ownership.
Example: In !an AiegoBs famous zoo, they treat their zoo"keepers well.
9roblemJho are the they and their=
Practice
rite the capital letter in the space provided that best describes these pronoun"antecedent errors:
###/. !he ate a cookie and took an apple, and I want it back. A. pronoun reference is not
specific
###'. hen we leave @arenBs, she will follow us. &. pronoun refers to the
ob*ect of the preposition
###<. Around Iolanda and her, she always acts strangely. $. unclear this, that, these,
those references
###1. 2here are lots of ribbons and bows. Ao we need all of those= A. pronoun refers to a
possessive
###7. If +att leaves sooner than Aon, he should phone his parents.
###G. hen +ax takes +ikeBs car, he will get angry.
###H. 2he girls asked the boys if you liked their shoes.
App"ication
Cevise one of the sentences in the Practice section with clear pronoun antecedents.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 34: Name ________________________
Pronoun Pests
Writing Hints
• Is it who or whom=
2he pronoun who is in the sub*ect (nominative) case. 2he who takes the role of the sub*ect.
Example: ,ho is the best teacher=
2rickJ2ry substituting he for who and rephrase, if necessary. If it sounds right, use the who.
2he pronoun whom is in the ob*ective case. In other words, it is takes the place of the direct
ob*ect, the indirect ob*ect of the verb, or the ob*ect of the preposition.
Examples: ,hom did ,oan love=
I like whom you gave the award.
2o whom does this letter concern=
2rickJ2ry substituting him for whom and rephrase, if necessary. If it sounds right, use whom.
• Is it that or which= 2he pronoun that can refer to people or things> the pronoun which can
only refer to things.
%se the pronoun that when the clause is needed to understand the rest of the sentence.
Example: 2he movie that we watched was entertaining.
%se the pronoun which in clauses that provide additional, but not necessary information.
Example: 2hat dog, which is friendly, was easy to train.
Practice
-ill in the blanks with the following pronouns: who% whom% that% and which
/. ########## purchased that race car=
'. ,oni Erickson 2ata, ########## is both an artist and singer, has no use of her hands nor legs.
<. ,osh showed her the pants ########## she purchased at the store.
1. ith ########## do you work on this pro*ect=
7. I know ########## you love.
G. D&lowinB in the ind,E ########## is a protest song, has been recorded freMuently.
H. ########## did his sister meet at the party=
:. Everything ########## needed to be completed, has been completed.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with a who or whom and a that or a which.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 34; Name ________________________
Pronoun=1ase ?orm 'er% Agreement
Definition: 2he base form of a verb is used in the present tense (something happening or being
now), adding an s for the third person singular. 2he base form is used after the DdoE verbs: do%
does% did% and after the modal verbs: can% could% shall% should% may% might% must% will% and would.
2he base form is also used as an infinitive in the Dto O base formE construction.
Examples: run is the base form I smile often. -irst person singular
!he smiles often. 2hird person singular (adds s)
!he should smile more often. After DdoE and modals
)o smile often is preferred. Infinitive
Writing Hints
2he base forms of verbs can be found in the dictionary. hen writing about literature, always
write in present tense. +ake sure to keep the verb tense consistent throughout the writing.
2he decision to drop or keep the s when matching an indefinite pronoun to a verb can be tricky.
An indefinite pronoun does not specifically reference a common noun or proper noun and so can
act as a singular or plural to match the verb. 2hese pronouns include: anybody% anyone% anything%
each% either% eerybody% eeryone% neither% nobody% no one% nothing% one% someone% somebody% and
something. 3ook at surrounding words for singular and plural clues.
Practice
• -ill in the blanks in the following sentences with the correct base form of the verb taste.
2om likes ################# what his mom is cooking. 5er food always #################
terrific, but his mom ################# her own cooking more often. In fact, when she and
2om both ################# the cooking, they usually agree about the flavor.
• $ross out the verb errors and write the correct forms in the space above.
/. Each student can watches his or her own television program.
'. Everyone except ,ames did watched his or her own movie
<. !omeone said to watches what he or she wanted.
1. I think he watch every episode of that series.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with an indefinite singular pronoun, using a present tense verb.
Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 1G
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!rammar Wor2sheet 34< Name ________________________
Pronoun=Present Particip"e 'er% Agreement
Definition: 2he present participle adds a Dto beE verb is% am% are% was% were% be% being% been O
##ing. 2he present participle takes the present progressive form to show continuous action.
Example: is D ##ing is hiking +att is hiking the Appalachian 2rail.
Writing Hints
Avoid over"using the Dto beE verbs D ##ing in expository writing. %sually use the base forms of
verbs to write in present tense. Instead of )he author is illustrating the character.s anger, use
)he author illustrates the character.s anger.
+atching the agreement of present participles or any other verb forms to pronouns that express
amount or measurement can be singular or plural depending upon the words that follow them.
SIN!,LAR PL,RAL SIN!,LAR OR PL,RAL
A great deal, a large amount, a
lot, cents, dollars, feet, inches,
little, less, miles, much,
pounds, yards
a large number, both, few,
fewer, many, several
Singu"ar P"ura"
all the food all girls
any of this any of these
half of it half of those
more of that more boys
most of it most friends
none of that none of those
other one other friends
some child some of them
Practice
$ross out the pronoun or verb errors and write the correct forms in the space above.
/. -ew of the actors remembering his lines.
'. A great deal are known about television actors.
<. -ewer vegetables is better than many.
1. !ome of candies tasting like it is stale.
7. .one of those was looking as good as this one.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence using a present participle verb form and a pronoun expressing an
amount or measurement that could be either singular or plural.
Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 1H
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!rammar Wor2sheet 34> Name ________________________
Pronoun=Past ense 'er% Agreement
Definition: -or the past tense verb form, add a ##d or ##ed to the base form for regular verbs.
2he past tense is used for an action that took place at a specific time or times.
Example: Ismelda wasted a lot of my time yesterday.
Writing Hints
Irregular verbs donBt use ##d or ##ed to form past tense and past participle verbs. !ometimes
modifiers will get between a sub*ect and its verb, but these modifiers must not confuse the
agreement between the sub*ect and its verb.
%sually write in past tense for historically"based essays> however, use the exact tense found in
Muotations, even if this seems to make the verb tense inconsistent.
Practice
• $hange each verb to past tense and make each agree with the pronouns.
I hike in the mountains with anda and ,erry. %s will en*oy the fresh air and beauty of
nature. e wade in clear and cold streams. ,erry brung a harmonica and entertains we. anda
and I are less adventurous than he. e take naps under tall pine trees and pick wildflowers for
he. hen we will leave, ,erry says, D2he mountains are a second home for me.E
• +ake the verb tenses consistent in this historical passage:
$olumbus sailed his three ships and finds what he thinks is India in /10'. 2his explorer
will return on three more voyages. Eventually, $olumbus had believed that what he discovered is
a new land. 5e will not have found the gold for which he searches, but he did claim huge
amounts of land for the king and Mueen of !pain.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with a sub*ect (nominative) case and an ob*ect case pronoun, using
a past tense verb.
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Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 1:
!rammar Wor2sheet 35@ Name ________________________
Pronoun=Past Particip"e 'er% Agreement
Definition: 2he past participle uses a helping verb (beJ is% am% are% was% were% be% being% been),
or (haveJhas% hae% had) O a ##d, ##ed, or ((en added to the base form for regular verbs to
indicate that something happened in the past prior to another action.
Examples: I was defeated by a stronger opponent. I had eaten the food.
I had defeated my opponent. 2he food was eaten by me.
Writing Hints
%sually avoid using the past participle in place of the past tense. %sing the past participle forces
a passive voice form. In the past participle verb form, irregular verbs donBt use the a ##d, ##ed,
or ((en ending.
Example: 2he cat had caught a mouse (not catched or caughten).
Avoid putting too many words and phrases between the sub*ect and its past participle. 2hese
additional words can make identifying the sub*ect difficult for your readers.
Example: $onfusingJ,ohn had freMuently, especially on holidays, started to window
shop on his lunch hours.
$learJ,ohn had started window shopping on his lunch hours, especially
during the holidays.
Practice
Cevise the following past participle sentences, removing words that can make identifying the
sub*ect a difficult task.
I was planning on, but then you know what they say about the Dbest laid plans,E eating when the
phone call interrupted what I was, at that point in time, going to do.
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+artha had, before she asked me about it, called the auto mechanic.
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6ur stateBs ideas were usually, but not always, copied by other states.
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App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with a sub*ect (nominative) case and an ob*ect case pronoun, using
a past participle verb.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 354 Name ________________________
Short Comparati)e -o+ifiers
Definition: A modifier makes the meaning of another word or words more specific.
Example: I ate the big piece. 2he word big is a modifier, making piece more specific.
%se er for a one"syllable modifier to compare two things.
Example: bigJbigger
%se er or more &less$ for a two"syllable modifier to compare two things.
Examples: easyJeasier or graciousJmore gracious
Writing Hints
• !ome two"syllable comparative modifiers use er and some use more &less$. If adding er
sounds strange, use more &less$ instead.
• %se the words else or other to compare a member of a group with the rest of the group.
Examples: 9roblemJ&arry &onds hit more homers than any baseball player.
!olutionJ&arry &onds hit more homers than any other baseball player.
• 2hese comparative modifiers are irregular.
Examples:
Sing"e -o+ifier Comparati)e
goodFwell better
badFbadly worse (not worser)
muchFmany more
Practice
$ross out any misused comparative modifiers, and write the correct words above the errors.
/. Earth is close to the sun than is +ars.
'. !ammy works more hard than any club member.
<. 5e dresses in his uniform most often than the members of his troop.
1. 6f my brother and my sister, my brother acts worser.
7. !he is sadder than me, but she is happier than my brother.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with a one"syllable er comparative modifier. %se no modifiers
found on this worksheet.
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Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 7;
$ompose your own sentence with a two"syllable comparative modifier using the word more. %se
no modifiers found on this worksheet.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 355 Name ________________________
Short Super"ati)e -o+ifiers
Definition: A modifier makes the meaning of another word or words more specific.
Example: I ate the big piece. 2he word big is a modifier, making piece more specific.
%se est for a one"syllable modifier to compare three or more things.
Example: bigJbiggest
%se est or most for a two"syllable modifier to compare three or more things.
Examples: easyJeasiest or graciousJmost gracious
Writing Hints
• !ome two"syllable superlative modifiers use est, while some two"syllable superlative
ad*ectives use most &least$. If adding est sounds strange, use most &least$ instead.
• Avoid the common mistake of using superlative ad*ectives to compare only two things.
Example: 9roblemJ6f the two basketball players, ,ames is the most improved.
!olutionJ6f the two basketball players, ,ames is the more improved
• 2hese superlative modifiers are irregular.
Examples:
Sing"e -o+ifier Comparati)e Super"ati)e
goodFwell better best
badFbadly worse worst (not worstest)
muchFmany more most
Practice
$ross out any misused superlative modifiers, and write the correct form above each error.
/. 2he Muicker sprinter of the three was $arl 3ewis.
'. $omparing the red and green apples, the red ones are the most desired.
<. 5e chose the bigger piece of the whole cherry pie.
1. Among Ceba, ,im, and Antoinette, Ceba is the better student.
7. 2hey want the more value for all of their money.
G. 2hat was the worstest movie I have ever seen.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with an est modifier. %se no modifiers found on this worksheet.
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Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 7/
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!rammar Wor2sheet 356 Name ________________________
Long an+ __ly Comparati)e -o+ifiers
Definition: A modifier makes the meaning of another word or words more specific.
Example: I ate the wonderful pizza. 2he word wonderful is a modifier, making pi""a more
specific.
%se more &less$ for a three"syllable or longer modifier to compare two things.
Example: wonderfulJmore wonderful
Always use more or less for adverbs ending in ((ly.
Example: MuicklyJless Muickly
Writing Hints
• !ome long comparative modifiers are ad*ectives. Ad*ectives describe a proper noun, a
common noun, or a pronoun with 5ow +any= hich 6ne= or hat @ind=
Example: intelligentJ2he intelligent man was more intelligent than his father.
• !ome long comparative modifiers are adverbs. Adverbs describe an ad*ective, adverb, or
verb with 5ow= hen= here= or hat Aegree=
Example: angrilyJ!he argued angrilyJeven more angrily than her mother.
Practice
$ross out any misused comparative modifiers, and write the correct form above each error.
/. 4eometry seems difficulter than algebra.
'. 2ina did an outstandinger *ob than she had predicted.
<. !aying which one was the most incredible of the two was hard.
1. 2hat behavior is most ridiculous than ever.
7. 6f the two girls who are not here, the first one is least suspiciously absent.
G. 2he detective most suspected the blonde, rather than the brunette woman.
H. !he acted least nervously than the other athlete.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with a three"syllable more modifier. %se no modifiers found on this
worksheet.
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Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 7'
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!rammar Wor2sheet 357 Name ________________________
Long an+ __ly Super"ati)e -o+ifiers
Definition: A modifier makes the meaning of another word or words more specific.
Example: I ate the wonderful pizza. 2he word wonderful is a modifier, making pi""a more
specific.
%se most &least$ for a three"syllable or longer modifier to compare three or more things.
Example: wonderfulJmost wonderful
Always use most or least for adverbs ending in ((ly.
Example: MuicklyJmost Muickly
Writing Hints
• !ome long superlative modifiers are ad*ectives. Ad*ectives describe a proper noun, a
common noun, or a pronoun with 5ow +any= hich 6ne= or hat @ind=
Example: intelligentJ6f the many intelligent men in the group, he was the most
intelligent.
• !ome long superlative modifiers are adverbs. Adverbs describe an ad*ective, adverb, or
verb with 5ow= hen= here= or hat Aegree=
Example: angrilyJ6f the three women arguing angrilyJshe argued most
angrily.
Practice
$ross out any misused superlative modifiers, and write the correct form above each error. If the
sentence is correctly written, leave as is.
/. 2his boy is the more considerate one in the group.
'. 2hat is the less specifically planned stop of our whole vacation.
<. 6f all the pilots, he more carefully practiced his take"offs.
1. Iou more understood the problem than any student in the class.
7. 6f the four possible backpack treks, this is the simpliest planned hike.
G. 2hat airline is the less freMuently on"time airline of all %nited !tates airlines.
H. $ompared to the four runners in the medley, she passed the baton less confidently.
App"ication
Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 7<
$ompose your own sentence with a three"syllable most modifier. %se no modifiers found on this
worksheet.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 358 Present ense 'er%s Name ________________________
Definition: 2he present tense verb refers to a physical or mental action or a state of being
happening or existing now.
Examples: +atthew walks slowly around the block. !ingular !ub*ect
6ralia and Cosa walk slowly around the block. 9lural !ub*ect
Writing Hints
2ense shows the time of a verbQs action or state of being. 2he present verb tense has the
following uses:
• 2o generalize about a physical or mental action or a state of being
Example: e look for the best candidates for this office.
• 2o describe a physical or mental action that happens over and over again
Example: 5e plays the game like it is a matter of life or death.
• 2o refer to a future time in dependent clauses (clauses beginning with after% as soon as%
before% if% until% when), when will is used in the independent clause
Example: After she leaes for school, we will turn her bedroom into a guestroom.
• 2o discuss literature, art, movies, theater, and musicJeven if the content is set in the past or
the creator is no longer alive
Example: 2homas ,efferson states that Dall men are created eMual.E
Another form of the present verb tense is the present progressive. 2he present progressive
describes an ongoing action happening or existing now.
Example: !he is walking faster than her friend.
Practice
$ross out the verbs in the following sentences and substitute each with a present tense verb
above each cross"out.
/. e tried to find the best deals on the Internet.
'. 5e should have listened to what his parents have to say.
<. hen they will give her credit, she will again volunteer her time.
1. $arl !andberg said, D-og creeps in on little cat feet, and then slowly moves on.E
$ross out the verb in the following sentence and substitute it with a present progressive form.
7. I run to the corner and back.
Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 71
App"ication
$ompose a sentence with both a present tense and a present progressive verb.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 35: Name ________________________
Present Perfect ense 'er%s
Definition: 2he present perfect verb tense refers to a physical or mental action or a state of being
happening or existing before the present. 2he present perfect is formed with has or hae O the
past participle (a verb ending in d, ed, or en for regular verbs).
Example: 5e has already started his science pro*ect.
Writing Hints
2he present perfect verb tense has the following uses:
• 2o describe an action that took place at some unidentified time in the past that relates to the
present
Example: 2he students hae studied hard for todayBs test.
• 2o describe an action that began in the past but continues to the present
Example: 2he teachers hae taught these standards for five years.
Another form of the present perfect verb tense is the present perfect progressive. 2he present
perfect progressive describes the length of time an action has been in progress up to the present
time. It is formed with hae been and the #ing form of the verb.
Example: 2he students hae been writing for over an hour.
Practice
$ross out the verbs in the following sentences and substitute each with a present perfect tense
verb above each cross"out.
/. Esmerelda developed a fantastic web site.
'. 2he ladies have been reuniting in the same place to continue their friendship once every year.
<. 2he storm was threatening to strike since last night.
$ross out the verbs in the following sentences and substitute each with a present perfect
progressive.
1. I had been running for thirty minutes.
7. $oach 2emmer coached the varsity team for three years.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with a present perfect tense and a present perfect progressive verb.
Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 77
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!rammar Wor2sheet 35; Past ense 'er%s Name ________________________
Definition: 2he past verb tense is used for a physical or mental action or a state of being that
took place at a specific time or times. -or the past verb tense, add a ##d or ##ed to the base form
for regular verbs.
Example: Ismelda wasted a lot of my time yesterday.
Writing Hints
%sually use the past verb tense when the words before or after appear in a sentence.
Example: !he attended !t. ,ohnBs Academy after third grade.
Another form of the past verb tense is the past progressive. 2he past progressive describes an
action that took place over a period of time in the past.
Example: Amanda was entertaining her guests when her grandmother arrived.
Practice
$ross out the verbs in the following sentences and substitute each with a past tense verb above
each cross"out.
• 2o describe a physical or mental action or a state of being that took place at a specific time
or times (past tense)
After the $ivil ar, many former slaves were found moving to the .orth.
In the /0:;Bs, disco music was ruling the radio station playlists.
9tolemy used to think that the world was the center of the universe.
2he parents had been understanding that children must have limits to their free time.
• 2o describe an action that took place over a period of time in the past (past progressive)
It is entertaining to watch the family home videos.
Candy sang to himself in the shower most every day.
2hey watched the show each week with increasing interest.
Iou tried to prove that you were responsible enough to own a dog.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with both a past tense and past progressive verb.
Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 7G
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!rammar Wor2sheet 35< Name ________________________
Past Perfect ense 'er%s
Definition: 2he past perfect verb tense refers to a physical or mental action or a state of being
that was completed before a specific time in the past. 2he past perfect is formed with had O the
past participle (a verb ending in d, ed, or en for regular verbs).
Example: $ecil and Cae had finished their study by the time that the teacher passed out
the test study guide.
Writing Hints
2he past perfect verb tense either states or implies (suggests without stating) a specific time in
the past.
Another form of the present perfect verb tense is the past perfect progressive. 2he past perfect
progressive describes a past action that was interrupted by another past event. It is formed with
had been and the #ing form of the verb.
Example: +y dad had been driing for two hours in the snowstorm when the 5ighway
9atrol put up the D$hains CeMuiredE sign.
Practice
$ross out the verbs in the following sentences and substitute each with a past perfect tense verb
above each cross"out.
• 2o describe a physical or mental action or a state of being that was completed before a
specific time in the past (past perfect tense)
2he class was started when the student walked in tardy.
I knew by 2uesday that last weekendBs game would be canceled.
2hey had been sharing their feelings about riding skateboards without helmets.
• 2o describe past action that was interrupted by another past event (past perfect progressive)
e *ust walked outside when the phone rang.
It rained some when a cloudburst flooded the field.
I was listening to the game on the radio, but the battery went dead.
App"ication
Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 7H
$ompose your own sentence with both a past perfect tense and a past perfect progressive verb.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 35> ?uture ense 'er%s Name ________________________
Definition: 2he future verb tense is used for an action or state of being that will take place in the
future. -or the future verb tense, add a helping verb in front of the base verb form.
Example: +r. 2homas will go to the meeting tomorrow.
Writing Hints
English does not have endings for the future verb tense. Instead, use the helping verbs such as
the modals: can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would O the base verb form.
Example: I should isit my sick friend later this week.
Another form of the future verb tense is the future progressive. 2he future progressive describes
an ongoing action that will take place over a period of time in the future.
Example: Amanda will be taking reservations over the holidays.
Practice
$ross out the verbs in the following sentences and substitute each with a future tense verb above
each cross"out.
/. I leave school at two oBclock for a dentist appointment.
'. I talked to my friends, but they *ust wonBt listen.
<. Iou had been asking for the movie starBs autograph.
1. $omputer games grow more and more important to kids.
7. e had been hoping that the vacation can continue.
G. 5e looks for that gold nugget whenever he has time.
H. ,eremiah knew a good book when he finds one.
$ross out the verbs in the following sentences and substitute each with a future progressive.
:. 2he library will have been closed for extensive remodeling.
0. Iou listen to me this over the next few days.
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with both a future tense and future progressive verb.
Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 7:
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!rammar Wor2sheet 36@ Name________________________
?uture Perfect ense 'er%s
Definition: 2he future perfect verb tense refers to a physical or mental action or a state of being
that will be completed before a specific time in the future. 2he future perfect is formed with a
helping verb such as the modals: can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would O
has or hae O the present participle (a verb ending in d, ed, or en for regular verbs).
Example: e will hae walked six miles by three"oBclock this afternoon.
Writing Hints
2he future perfect verb tense either states or implies (suggests without stating) a specific time in
the future.
Another form of the future perfect verb tense is the future perfect progressive. 2he future perfect
progressive describes the length of time an action will be in progress up to a specific time in the
future. It is formed with will hae been and the #ing form of the verb.
Example: 2he students will hae been playing the same video game for two hours by the
time their friends arrive.
Practice
$ross out and substitute the verbs in the following sentences with the future progressive tense as
explained below.
• 2o describe a physical or mental action or a state of being that will be completed before a
specific time in the future (future perfect tense)
e ride bikes until our legs begin to ache.
2hey had seen three busses pass their house in ten more minutes.
Iou will do thirty push"ups by the end of this year.
• 2o describe the length of time an action will be in progress up to a specific time in the
future (future perfect progressive)
2hey are sleeping for ten hours by this noon.
+other and father have been married for twenty years this 6ctober '1
th
.
.ot one animal will perform by the time we get to the circus.
Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com 70
App"ication
$ompose your own sentence with both a future perfect tense and future perfect progressive verb.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 364 -oo+ Name ________________________
Definition: 2here are three basic moods to express the writerBs attitude: the in+icati)e states a
fact (3e droe to the beach)> the imperati)e gives a command (Leae this place)> the
su%(uncti)e expresses a condition, wish, or reMuest (' wish that were true).
Writing Hints
• 2he indicative states a fact. A fact is something said or done.
Example: 5e writes in pen.
• 2he imperative gives a command. -reMuently, the sub*ect is implied (suggested, not stated).
Example: 9lease, throw this trash in the garbage. 2he you is implied.
• 2he sub*unctive serves three purposes. It expresses the following:
/. conditions of fact, prediction, or guess beginning with if or unless in a dependent clause
Examples: -actJUnless she passes this class, she will not graduate.
9redictionJ'f we learn more, we will earn more.
4uessJ'f he were (notice?not was) happy, he might not have left.
'. a wish
-or a wish about something that has not yet happened, use the past tense or were.
Examples: I wish I had her ability. I wish that were true.
-or a wish about something that happened in the past, use the past perfect verb tense (had
O the past participle (the base verb form ending in d or ed for regular verbs).
Example: !he wishes that the season had not started.
<. a reMuest
A reMuest can be in the form of a favor, proposal, or demand. %se the base form of the
verb, whether the sub*ect is singular or plural.
Example: I recommend that he gie the note back to the girl.
Practice
+atch the purposes of the sub*unctive to the following examples:
###/. I suggest that you finish your dessert now. A. fact
###'. I wish that the movie had never ended. &. prediction
###<. If we try our best, our efforts will be rewarded. $. guess
###1. %nless we make lunch, we wonBt eat. A. wish
###7. If they were here on time, she could have helped. E. reMuest
App"ication
Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com G;
$ompose your own sentence with the sub*unctive mood.
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!rammar Wor2sheet 365 'oice Name ________________________
Definition: 2he voice reflects the relationship between the sub*ect and the action of the sentence.
Writing Hints
2he acti)e )oice is used when the sub*ect performs the action.
Example: ,ohnny uses the notes to prepare for the test.
2he passi)e )oice is used when the sub*ect receives the action.
Example: 2he notes are used by ,ohnny to prepare for the test.
rite in the active voice, not the passive, whenever possible. %se the passive voice only when
the Ddo"erE is unknown or unimportant.
Practice
Cevise each of the passive voice sentences into the active voice in the space provided below each
sentence.
+ickey was given another chance by his friends.
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3ucy has been elected by the students to serve as our !tudent $ouncil 2reasurer.
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2hose who visited +rs. +c$arthy were warmly greeted.
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$hores must always be completed before watching television.
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I have been asked by +r. 9ickett to make a speech in front of the student body.
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App"ication
$ompose two sentencesJone with the active voice...
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and one with the passive voice.
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Teaching Grammar and Mechanics ###$penningtonpu%"ishing$com G'