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Printed Thin Film Battery

General Description 1.
Today electronic applications have become
ubiquitous and will be found in all areas of
our daily life. This requires matching energy
sources with high fexibility in regard to thick-
ness, geometrical shape, voltage, capacity and
weight. Applying the appropriate functional ma-
terials to fexible substrates using mass print-
ing technologies will open new opportunities to
integrate e.g. batteries into ductile products.
The printed battery is a joint innovative de-
velopment of the department Printed Func-
tionalities of Fraunhofer ENAS and the Digital
Printing Group of the Chemnitz University of
Technology (TUC). Serial connections of bat-
teries can be printed in one step, thus integer
multiples of the nominal voltage of 1.5 V are
demonstrated (3 V, 4.5 V, 6 V). The battery is
based on a zinc manganese system which is
free of mercury, widely used and might be re-
garded as environmentally friendly. Parts of the
battery components may even be composted.
By using high effcient printing technologies
and well adapted materials / inks, the produc-
tion yield is expected to be > 90 %.
The printed batteries are especially suited for
thin and fexible products in which they can be
easily integrated. Appropriate products might
be intelligent chip and sensor cards, medical
patches and plasters for transdermal medica-
tion and vital signs monitoring or lab-on-chip
analysis systems. Furthermore the combination
with other fexible electronic modules, e.g. fex-
ible low-end displays will open further and new
felds of application. Currently frst demonstra-
tors for different applications are on the way.
The lab-scale battery developed by ENAS /
TUC has reached a promising level for frst
demonstrators and frst integration approaches
with industrial partners.
Features 2.
Low thickness, high fexibility
Low price
High layout variability
Environmentally friendly
Suggested Applications 3.
Smart Systems
Smart Cards
Semi-active RFID-Label
Medicine (smart patches)
Characteristics 4.
Primary Zn-MnO
Parameter Value Unit
Nominal voltage 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 V
Nominal capacity 2 mAh/cm
Thickness approx. 0.6 mm
Weight approx. 0.75 g
Contact 5.
Prof. Dr. Reinhard R. Baumann
Phone: +49 371 45001-234
Fax: +49 371 45001-334
Design scheme of printed battery Fig. 1:
Printed thin flm battery with 3.0 V nominal voltage Fig. 2:
Discharge curve of a printed battery Fig. 3: