Lesson One

Vocabulary
Learn the following words:

gol
dæræxt
ÇeÍm
guÍ
ketab
maÍin
Çeraq
ja
in
an
pesær
doxtær
pedær
madær
telefon
miz
dær
televiziyon
hotel
bank
Íæbnæm
reza
sælam
sælam 'ælæykom
hal
Íoma
hal-e Íoma
Çe-towr
æst
bæd
nist-æm
motæÍækker
motæÍækker-æm
mæn
hæm

€°
flower
tree
Àâca
eye
‹Æ†
ear
fº°
book
[¢§î
car
›øã¢ñ
lamp
lZ´†
place
¢á
this
›õZ
that

boy; son
´≠ü
girl; daughter
´§âa
father
c©ü
mother
ca¢ñ
telephone
›µ∏Ö
table; desk
¨øñ
door
ca
television
rºõ¨õº∏Ö
hotel
€§ò
bank
⁄ó¢Ñ
Shabnam (girl's name)
‹∫£ã
Reza (boy's name)
¢çc
hello (person beginning a conversation)
qÈä
hello (the other person)
‹∑ø∏ê qÈä
condition; health
p¢à
you (pl. or sing., polite)
¢πã
your health
¢πãI p¢à
how (question word)
º±†
is
ÀäZ
bad
©Ñ
I am not
‹§≠øó
thankful
´NÇ Ç∑Ƨñ
thank you
q´NÇ Ç∑Ƨñ
I
ݖ
also; too
‹ò

Bashiri

2

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xub
xub-æm1
mérsi
xoda
hafez
xoda hafez
be-sælamæt

[ºâ
I am fine (lit., I am good)
‹Ñºâ
thank you
·ä´ñ
God
Z©â
protector
’í¢à
bye (said by the person leaving)
’í¢à Z©â
goodbye (said by the person staying) ˖魄
good

Nouns
1. Objects
Persian does not have an equivalent for the English "the". Thus the word Àâca
'dæræxt' means both "tree" and "the tree," but not "that tree".

gol
dæræxt
ketab
maÍin
Çeraq
ja

flower [the flower]
tree [the tree]
book [the book]
car [the car]
lamp [the lamp]
place [the place]

€°
Àâca
[¢§î
›øã¢ñ
lZ´†
¢á

Where more than one object is concerned, add ¢ò '-ha' to the noun to make it plural:

gol-ha
dæræxt-ha
ketab-ha
maÍin-ha
Çeraq-ha
ja-ha2

flowers
trees
books
cars
lamps
places

¢ò €°
¢ò Àâca
¢ò [¢§î
¢ò ›øã¢ñ
¢ò lZ´†
¢ò¢á

2. People
Persian does not distinguish gender. Gender is reflected in the inherent content of
the noun. Example:

pesær
doxtær
pedær
madær

boy
girl
father
mother

´≠ü
´§âa
c©ü
ca¢ñ

3

Main Text

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Demonstrative Adjectives
in
this (pointing to an object close to you)
an
that (pointing to an object away from you)

›õZ

To form a demonstrative phrase, place a demonstrative adjective before the
singular or the plural form of the noun. Note that only the noun, not the demonstrative
adjective, assumes a plural form. Example:
singular:

in ja
in ÇeÍm
an dæræxt
in ketab
an maÍin
in Çeraq

here, this place
this eye
that tree
this book
that car
this lamp

an ja-ha
in dæræxt-ha
an ketab-ha
in maÍin-ha
an Çeraq-ha
an ÇeÍm-an

those places
these trees
those books
these cars
those lamps
those eyes

¢á ›õZ
‹Æ† ›õZ
Àâca r˜
[¢§î ›õZ
›øã¢ñ r˜
lZ´† ›õZ

plural:

¢ò¢á r˜
¢ò Àâca ›õZ
¢ªÑ¢§î r˜
¢ò ›øã¢ñ ›õZ
¢ªëZ´† r˜
r¢ñƆ r˜

Learn the following sample phrases:

in ketab
in ketab-ha
an dæræxt-an
in maÍin-ha
an gol

this book
these books
those trees
these cars
that flower

[¢§î ›õZ
¢ªÑ¢§î ›õZ
r¢§âca r˜
¢ò ›øã¢ñ ›õZ
€° r˜

Summary
So far in this lesson we have learned that:
(a) Like English nouns, Persian nouns have a singular and a plural form--the
plural is derived from the singular by adding ¢ò '-ha'.
(b) Persian does not distinguish gender.
(c) Demonstrative adjectives precede the noun. The demonstrative adjective
does not have a plural form.

Bashiri

4

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Dialog
Learn the following dialog between Reza and Shabnam:

/ ¢çc qÈä : ‹∫£ã
/ ‹∫£ã ‹∑ø∏ê qÈä : ¢Ççc
? ÀäZ cº±† ¢πãI p¢à : ‹∫£ã
? ÀäZ cº±† ¢πãI p¢à / q´NÇÇÇ∑Ƨñ / ‹§≠øó ©Ñ : ¢Ççc
/ ·ä´ñ / ‹Ñºâ ‹ò ›ñ : ‹∫£ã
/ ’í¢à Z©â : ¢ÇÇçc
/ ÀñÈ≠Ñ : ‹∫£ã
Transcription
Shabnam:
sælam reza.
sælam 'ælæykom Íæbnæm.
Reza:
hal-e Íoma Çe-towr æst?
Shabnam:
bæd nist-æm. motæÍækker-æm. hal-e Íoma Çe-towr
Reza:
æst?
Shabnam:
mæn hæm xub-æm. mérsi.
xoda hafez.
Reza:
be-sælamæt.
Shabnam:
Translation
Shabnam:
Reza:
Shabnam:
Reza:
Shabnam:
Reza:
Shabnam:

Hello Reza.
Hello Shabnam.
How are you?
I am fine (lit., I am not bad), thank you. How are you?
I am fine, too. Thank you.
Bye.
Goodbye.

Homework
1. Translate the following phrases into Persian and hand in to your instructor.
Make sure that your answers are in the Persian script!
this book
that book
these flowers
the television
these trees (two forms)
those fathers (two forms)

those telephones
these hotels
these girls (two forms)
that bank
that door
this television

(in class) Practice the dialog using students' names.5 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ those lamps the doors those mothers (two forms) those tables. Write out the dialog using other names. ¢ò¨øñ r˜ ¢òca r˜ rZca¢ñ ›õZ €° ›õZ ¢ª∏° €§ò r˜ [¢§î r˜ rZ´≠ü r˜ ¢ò ⁄ó¢Ñ ›õZ ¢ò Àâca ›õZ rºõ¨õº∏Ö lZ´† r˜ ¢ªñƆ ›õZ ¢ªëZ´† ¢ò¢á r˜ rZ´§âa ›õZ . 4. these places those eyes 2. Translate the following from Persian into English: an mizha an dærha in madæran in gol golha an hotel an ketab an pesæran in bankha in dæræxtha televiziyon an Çeraq in ÇeÍmha Çeraqha an jaha in doxtæran 3.

a lot you are welcome! Minu (girl's name) Mina (girl's name) Hassan (boy's name) Mehrdad (boy's name) blanket ©∏á ´µó a´ñ ™ë¢î nct ␣ï¢ì rºÑ¢å r¢ä¢ä ©øÆ®£Ñ ¢ì˜ ·î fiïZÄ c¢°dºñ˜ ‹äZ ·† fi† waZºáI w¢ì˜ ?©øóZ©øñ Àê¢ä fi∂øìa fi∏Ñ Úøâ ‹∫∑øñ —òZºâ º∫øñ ¢∫øñ ›≠à aZa´ªñ º§ü . hour. watch minute yes very.Bashiri 6 ___________________________________________________________________________________ Lesson Two Vocabulary Learn the following words: jeld næfær mærd kaqæz væræq qaleb 3 sabun sasan bé-bæxÍ-id aqa ki Ûale 4 amuzgar 5 esm Çi Çe aqa-ye jævadí 6 mi-dan-id sa'æt dæqiqe(h) b…le(h) xéyli xaheÍ mi-kon-æm 7 minu mina hæsæn mehrdad pætu volume (book) individual man paper sheet (of paper) bar (of soap) soap Sasan (boy's name) excuse me! mister. clock. much. gentleman who (question word) Zhaleh (girl's name) teacher name what (question word) what (literary form) Mr. Javadi do you know? time.

Persian nouns.) As mentioned. is marked by an unstressed w '-i': gól-i ketáb-i maÍín-i já-'i pætú-'i 8 a flower a book a car a place a blanket Ú° ·Ñ¢§î ·∫øã¢ñ ·ú¢á ·úº§ü When w '-i' is used with the plural form of the noun. Persian does not have a definite article. are inherently definite unless otherwise marked: gol bank flower [the flower] bank [the bank] €° ⁄ó¢Ñ An indefinite noun. however. it is the equivalent of "some" in English: miz-há-'i ja-há-'i ÇeÍm-há-'i some tables some places some eyes ·ú¢ò¨øñ ·ú¢ò¢á ·ú¢ªñƆ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ´µå Numbers The Persian numbers 0 -12 are: 9 sefr yek do se Çæhar pænj ÍeÍ hæft hæÍt noh dæh zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten ⁄õ ta fiä ¢ª† Õ∫ü —ã Àµò ÀÆò fió sa .7 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ Nouns Objects (cont. therefore.

four [units of] book) two soaps (lit. Compare: yek miz yek miz-i one table. Example: se ta miz pænj ta dær hæft ta Çeraq 1 0 three tables five doors seven lamps ¨øñ ¢Ö fiä ca ¢Ö Õ∫ü lZ´† ¢Ö Àµò . like English. Example: yek dæræxt se miz hæft televiziyon do hotel one tree three tables seven televisions two hotels Àâca ⁄õ ¨øñ fiä rºõ¨õº∏Ö Àµò €§ò ta The indefinite article w '-i' does not replace the numeral ⁄õ 'yek' "one". Compare: yek Çeraq Çæhar ta ketab do ta sabun one lamp four books (lit. a table a certain table ¨øñ ⁄õ w¨øñ ⁄õ Classifiers For counting things which come in volumes (books). w and ⁄õ are not mutually exclusive. ¢Ö 'ta' is usually left out of the translation. Example: Çæhar jeld ketab do næfær mærd pænj væræq kaqæz do qaleb sabun four volumes of books two individual men five sheets of paper two bars of soap [¢§î ©∏á c¢ª† a´ñ ´µó ta ™ë¢î nct Õ∫ü rºÑ¢å ␣ï¢ì ta Most classifiers. Persian uses classifiers.. These classifiers follow the numeral and precede the noun. however. two [units of] soap) lZ´† ⁄õ [¢§î ¢Öc¢ª† rºÑ¢å ¢Öta In translating into English. rather it introduces a degree of uncertainty about the number. In other words. or sheets (paper). bars (soap).Bashiri 8 ___________________________________________________________________________________ yazdæh dævazdæh eleven twelve 11 12 sad¢õ sadZta Numbers appear before the singular form of the noun to indicate one or more of a thing. can be replaced by the unspecified unitizer ¢Ö 'ta'. This form is not used with ⁄õ 'yek'..

In English this sense is expressed by using words like "certain" and "about" or by using forms like "several. In speaking with Persians.. Finally. we are now able to generate phrases of the type presented below: in do ta ketab an ÍeÍ ta dær in hæft ta miz an dæh ta Çeraq these two books those six doors these seven tables those ten lamps [¢§î ¢Öta ›õZ ca ¢Ö —ã r˜ ¨øñ ¢Ö Àµò ›õZ lZ´† ¢Ö sa r˜ The use of the unitizer ¢Ö 'ta' is optional. however.e. the combination of a number and the indefinite marker w '-i' imparts a sense of vagueness and uncertainty to the phrase. i. forms which are inherently vague. (c) Demonstrative adjectives are used before the numerals. Compare: Çænd ta ketab Çænd ta pætu Çænd ta ketab? Çænd ta pætu? several books several blankets how many books? how many blankets? [¢§î º§ü ? [¢§î ? º§ü ¢Ö©∫† ¢Ö©∫† ¢Ö©∫† ¢Ö©∫† When ©∫† 'Çænd' is used as a question word..e. you will find that they use ¢Ö 'ta' quite often. . the intonation pattern of the sentence must be a question intonation." i. (See the Tape Manual) Combining the points in Lesson One about the noun and the demonstrative adjectives with the information provided in this lesson about the numerals. (b) Numerals precede the singular form of the noun.9 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ The word ©∫† 'Çænd ' is interesting in that it can be used as a numeral meaning "several" or. fiä 'se' is just as good as ¢Ö fiä 'se ta' and Àµò 'hæft' does the same thing as ¢Ö Àµò 'hæft ta'..e. (d) Nouns may be classified in specific terms by using a classifier or they may be classified in vague terms by adding ¢Ö 'ta'. i. there must be a steady rise and a sharp fall. it can be used as a question word to ask "how many". But it has an equivalent for the English "a". Example: yek m…rd-i pænj ta dær…xt-i Çænd ta sabún-i a certain man about five trees several bars of soap wa´ñ ⁄õ ·§âca ¢Ö Õ∫ü ·óºÑ¢å ¢Ö ©∫† Summary So far we have learned that: (a) Persian does not have a counterpart for the English definite article "the".

Sasan: Íoma mi-dan-id sa'æt Çænd æst? Zhale: b…le. sa'æt-e hæft æst. Zhale: You are welcome. Sasan: Do you know what time it is? 1 1 Zhale: Yes.Bashiri 10 ___________________________________________________________________________________ The following chart demonstrates the order in which the elements of the noun phrase occur: Phrase noun ¨øñ ta miz ¢Ö table(s) ø num ta fiä se three dem adj ›õZ in these Dialog Learn the following dialog between Sasan and Zhaleh: ? ÀÇäZ ·î ¢ÇÇì˜ r˜ -©øÇÇÆ®ÇÇ£Ñ / ÀÇäZ ›ñ Ic¢°dºÇñ˜ ¢ÇÇì˜ r˜ ? ÀÇäZ ·Çdž ¢πÇÇã Ic¢°dºÇñ˜I ‹äZ / ÀÇäZ waZºÇÇá Iw¢ÇÇì˜ ›ñ Ic¢°dºÇñ˜I ‹äZ ? ÀÇäZ ©∫Çdž MÀÇê¢Çä ©øóZ©øÇñ ¢πÇã / ÀÇäZ ÀǵÇò IÀÇê¢ÇÇä . Zhale: xaheÍ mi-kon-æm. Sasan: Thank you very much. : : : : : : : : r¢ä¢ä fiÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇïZÄ r¢ä¢ä fiÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇïZÄ r¢ä¢ä fiÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇïZÄ r¢ä¢ä fiÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇÇïZÄ Translation Sasan: Excuse me.fiÇÇ∏Ñ / q´NÇÇÇ∑Ƨñ Úøâ / ‹∫∑øñ —òZºâ Transcription Sasan: be-bæxÍ-id. Javadi. an aqa ki æst? Zhale: an aqa amuzgar-e mæn æst. . Sasan: xeyli motæÍækker-æm. who is that man? Zhale: That gentleman is my teacher. Sasan: esm-e amuzgar-e Íoma Çi æst? Zhale: esm-e amuzgar-e mæn aqa-ye jævadi æst. It is seven o'clock. Sasan: What is your teacher's name? Zhale: My teacher's name is Mr.

Write your answers in the Persian script and hand in to your instructor : these nine trees those ten cars that one lamp this one television those several doors a bank these five hotels these books the telephone those eyes 2. Translate the following phrases into Persian. Answer the following questions by using the numbers provided. Example: 7 3 9 12 1 5 11 10 6 4 ? ÀäZ ©∫† À M ê¢ä ? ÀäZ Àµò À I ê¢ä (((( ? ÀäZ ©∫† Àê¢ä ? ÀäZ ©∫† Àê¢ä ? ÀäZ ©∫† Àê¢ä ? ÀäZ ©∫† Àê¢ä ? ÀäZ ©∫† Àê¢ä ? ÀäZ ©∫† Àê¢ä ? ÀäZ ©∫† Àê¢ä ? ÀäZ ©∫† Àê¢ä ? ÀäZ ©∫† Àê¢ä . Write your full answers in the Persian script.11 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ Homework 1. Translate the following into English and hand in to your instructor : pætu'i an ÍeÍ ta maÍin in Çænd ta dæræxt an ketabha dæræxtha ·úº§ü ›øã¢ñ ¢Ö —ã r˜ Àâca ¢Ö©∫† ›õZ ¢ò [¢§î r˜ ¢ò Àâca an hæÍt ta hotel in Çæhar ta dær se ta bank Çænd ta dæræxti hæft ta pætu'i €§ò ¢Ö ÀÆò r˜ ca ¢Öc¢ª† ›õZ ⁄ó¢Ñ ¢Ö fiä ·§âca ¢Ö©∫† ·úº§ü ¢Ö Àµò 3.

. Write your answers in the Persian script. Answer the following questions by using the names in parantheses. Combine the dialog in this lesson with the dialog in Lesson One. Example: ) ¢çc * ? ÀäZ ·† ¢πã ‹äZ / ÀäZ ¢çc ›ñ ‹äZ (((( ) º∫øñ * ? ÀäZ ·† ¢πã ‹äZ ) ¢∫øñ * ? ÀäZ ·† ¢πã ‹äZ ) ‹∫£ã * ? ÀäZ ·† ¢πã ‹äZ ) ›≠à * ? ÀäZ ·† ¢πã ‹äZ ) r¢ä¢ä * ? ÀäZ ·† ¢πã ‹äZ ) aZa´ªñ * ? ÀäZ ·† ¢πã ‹äZ ) fiïZÄ * ? ÀäZ ·† ¢πã ‹äZ 5.Bashiri 12 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Write out the new dialog. 6. (in class) Practice the dialog using your own names.

city in central Iran from (or made in) Kashan I don't know but Tabriz.13 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ Lesson Three Vocabulary Learn the following words: keyvan qali mal mal-e væ xeyr bæha æz hezar tuman aya kerman kerman-í kaÍan kaÍan-í ne-mi-dan-æm v…li tæbriz tæbriz-í pærÇæm pærÇæm-e iran Kayvan. worth from. first name (male) carpet property property of. belonging to and no price. city in SE Iran from (or made in) Kerman Kashan. city in NW Iran from (or made in) Tabriz flag the flag of Iran rZºøî Ò¢ì p¢ñ I p¢ñ t ´øâ ¢ªÑ dZ cZ¨ò r¢ñºÖ ¢õ˜ r¢ñ´î ·ó¢ñ´î r¢ã¢î ·ó¢ã¢î ‹óZ©øπó Òt ¨õ´£Ö w¨õ´£Ö ‹†´ü rZ´õZI ‹†´ü Some names of countries emrika rusiyye italiya æfqanestan hend kanada iran kore America Russia Italy Afghanistan India Canada Iran Korea ¢∑õ´ñZ fiNøätc ¢øõZ r¢§≠ó¢¥íZ ©∫ò Za¢ó¢î rZ´õZ s´î . than thousand unit of money equal to ten rials marker for question sentences Kerman.

i. may be modified by an intensifier like Úøâ 'xeyli' (very). made in the US ·úZa¢ó¢î ·ú¢∑õ´ñZ Adjectives Adjectives qualify nouns. good looking ugly. Often it also means made in a place or a country: iran-í hend-í Iranian. made in Canada American. ·ú . loud (sound) short [ºâ ©Ñ Åc¨Ñ ⁄†ºî Á∫Æì ¢£õd fºâ €…ãºâ ÂøÖ fºâ fií¢ø∂ãºâ fií¢øì ©Ñ Àãd rZ´° rZdcZ ©∫∏Ñ s¢Öºî As a rule. however. made in India w©∫ò If the form ends in a vowel.e.e.. bad looking ugly expensive inexpensive. a hamza ú precedes the w . i. large small beautiful beautiful.Bashiri 14 ___________________________________________________________________________________ The suffix w '-í' (always stressed) is used to indicate belonging to a place or being native of a town or a country. The adjectives themselves.. Example: kanada'í emrika'í Canadian. cheap tall. Here are some Persian adjectives: xub bæd bozorg kuÇek qæÍæng ziba xoÍ xoÍ-gel xoÍ-tip xoÍ-qiyafe bæd-qiyafe zeÍt geran ærzan bolænd kutah good. Examples: ziba zæn-e ziba zæn-ha-ye ziba xeyli ziba beautiful beautiful woman beautiful women very beautiful ¢£õd ¢£õdI rd ¢£õd I w¢ªód ¢£õd Úøâ . Persian adjectives follow their noun and are not declined. made in Iran ·óZ´õZ Indian. such as in Za¢ó¢î 'kanada' (Canada). nice bad big. there exists no concordance between a noun in the plural and its modifying adjectives. elegant pleasant pretty. beautiful handsome handsome.

comparative and superlative. -est" to the adjective. Example: bozorg-tærin xub-tærin beh-tærin xoÍ-qiyafe-tærin the biggest the best the best the most handsome ›õ´§°c¨Ñ ›õ´Ö [ºâ ›õ´§ªÑ ›õ´Ö fií¢ø∂ãºâ Unlike the demonstratives and the numerals which were simply added. small car [ºâ [ I ¢§î rZdcZI ⁄†ºîI ›øã¢ñ Comparison of Adjectives The Comparative degree Two degrees of comparison. add the suffix ´Ö '-tær' "more. The Superlative Degree To indicate the superlative degree. adjectives are attached to the noun (and to each other). more than one adjective may qualify a single noun. Example: bozorg bozorg-tær xub xub-tær beh-tær xoÍ-qiyafe xoÍ-qiyafe-tær 1 2 geran geran-tær Åc¨Ñ ´§°c¨Ñ [ºâ ´§Ñºâ ´§ªÑ fií¢ø∂ãºâ ´Ö fií¢ø∂ãºâ rZ´° ´Ö rZ´° big bigger good better better handsome more handsome expensive more expensive When two nouns are compared. -er" to the adjective. Example: pesær æz doxtær bozorg-tær æst 'æz' "than" is used / ÀäZ ´§°c¨Ñ ´§âa dZ ´≠ü The boy is bigger than the girl. To indicate the comparative degree. with an ezafe (see Lesson . are distinguished.15 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ The number of adjectives qualifying a noun is not limited. the comparison marker dZ before the second noun. Example: ketab-e xub maÍin-e kuÇek-e ærzan good book inexpensive. add the suffix ›õ´Ö '-tærin' "most.

If the noun ends in an Z 'ælef.' but not if the s 'he' is pronounced 'h'. Compare: hotel-e bozorg-tær dæræxt-ha-ye bolænd-tær bigger hotel taller trees ´Ö Åc¨ÑI €§ò ´Ö ©∫∏ÑI w¢ª§âca But bozorg-tærin hotel bolænd-tærin dæræxt-ha the biggest hotel the tallest trees €§ò ›õ´Ö Åc¨Ñ ¢ª§âca ›õ´Ö ©∫∏Ñ In general. if the noun ends in a s 'he' that is pronounced '-e. Instead.Bashiri 16 ___________________________________________________________________________________ I Four). This attachment may be written out as a kasra ( ) below the last consonant letter of the noun qualified.' or a t 'vav. it will be added to the last noun or adjective in that phrase.' a w 'ye' carries the ezafe kasra. it fits right in--after the noun: . Compare: re'is-e xoÍ-qiyafe-ye reza dær-e kutah-e hotel Reza's handsome boss short door of the hotel ¢çcI w fií¢øì fºâI –øúc €§òI s¢ÖºîI ca When the indefinite marker w '-i' (not stressed) is to be added to a phrase. Compare: televiziyon-e geran expensive television rZ´°I hotel-ha-ye bozorg big hotels Åc¨ÑI pætu-ye geran 1 3 expensive blanket rºõ¨õº∏Ö w¢ª∏§ò rZ´°I wº§ü The same procedure applies. the comparative degree follows the noun qualified while the superlative degree precedes it. inexpensive car ·ÑºâI [¢§î ·óZdcZI ⁄†ºîI ›øã¢ñ It should be noted that like the plain adjective. Example: ketab-e xúb-i maÍin-e kuÇek-e ærzán-i a good book a small. the adjective does not interfere with the basic structure summarized at the end of Lesson Two. however.

17 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ phrase ezafe adj rZ´° G noun ta ¨øñ num ¢Ö Õ∫ü Using this model we can generate a large number of simple phrases: 1 4 Adj Åc¨Ñ ⁄†ºî ©∫∏Ñ s¢ÖºîI Á∫Æì Àãd [ºâ ©Ñ rZ´° RZdcZ ·Ñ˜ noun ¨øñ [¢§î ›øã¢ñ Àâca lZ´† ‹†´ü rºõ¨õº∏Ö ca €§ò ›µ∏Ö €° ta num ¢Ö ⁄õ ta fiä ¢ª† Õ∫ü —ã Àµò ÀÆò fió sa sad¢õ sadZta dem ›õZ dem adj ›õZ .

Learn the following words for color: ræng xoÍ-ræng bæd-ræng sefid siyah sæbz zærd suræt-í bænæfÍ narænj-í sorx gol-í qermez ab-í qæhve'-í xakestær-í color of pretty color of ugly color white black green yellow pink purple orange red red (rose color) red blue brown gray Áóc Áóc fºâ Áóc ©Ñ ©øµä s¢øä ¨£ä acd ·Öcºå —µ∫Ñ ·¶óc¢ó `´ä Ú° ¨ñ´ì ·Ñ˜ wZ sºªì w´§≠î¢â .Bashiri 18 ___________________________________________________________________________________ Similarly. many simple phrases in the plural can be generated using the following: Adj Åc¨Ñ ⁄†ºî ©∫∏Ñ s¢ÖºîI Á∫Æì Àãd [ºâ ezafe w ha noun ¢ò ©Ñ rZ´° ¨øñ [¢§î ›øã¢ñ Àâca lZ´† ›µ∏Ö rºõ¨õ º∏Ö ca €§ò dem ›õZ Colors may be used as adjectives.

To form an abstract noun. add the suffix w '-í' (always stressed) to the noun or adjective. Compare: gol suræt narænj portæqal ab qæhve xakestær flower face orange (bitter) orange (sweet) water coffee ashes €° \cºå Õóc¢ó p¢∂Ö´ü [˜ sºªì ´§≠î¢â Learn the following simple phrases: ketab-e abi Çeraq-e sefid dær-e kutah-e sorx maÍin-e bozorg gol-ha-ye zærd hotel-ha-ye xub dær-e sefid gol-e sorx-tær dæræxt-e sæbz maÍin-e qæÍæng-tær hotel-e ærzan-tær Çeraq-ha-ye kutah-tær bozorg-tærin bank kuÇek-tærin televiziyon ærzan-tærin gol bænæfÍ-tærin miz zeÍt-tærin telefon sæbz-tærin dæræxt blue book white lamp short. greatness whiteness wa´ñ ·Ñºâ ·°c¨Ñ w©øµä In fact. the following colors are formed by adding w '-í' to concrete nouns. Example: mærd-í xub-í bozorg-í sefid-í manhood goodness bigness.19 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract Nouns and Adjectives Some nouns and adjectives can be made abstract. red door big car yellow flowers good hotels white door redder flower green tree more beautiful car cheaper hotel shorter lamps biggest bank smallest television cheapest flower most purple table ugliest telephone greenest tree ·Ñ˜I [¢§î ©øµäI lZ´† `´äI s¢ÖºîI ca Åc¨ÑI ›øã¢ñ acdI w¢ª∏° [ºâI w¢ª∏§ò ©øµäI ca ´Ö `´äI €° ¨£äI Àâca ´Ö Á∫ÆìI ›øã¢ñ ´Ö rZdcZI €§ò ´Ö s¢ÖºîI w¢ªëZ´† ⁄ó¢Ñ ›õ´Ö Åc¨Ñ rºõ¨õº∏Ö ›õ´Ö ⁄†ºî €° ›õ´Ö rZdcZ ¨øñ ›õ´Ö —µ∫Ñ ›µ∏Ö ›õ´Ö Àãd Àâca ›õ´Ö ¨£ä .

yellow flowers Phrase Juxtaposition It is possible to combine two or more phrases with the help of an ezafe (for ezafe. And the ezafe establishes the link. In such cases elements of one phrase follow those of the other. inexpensive hotels an ÍeÍ ta gol-e qæÍæng-e zærd acdI Á∫ÆìI €° ¢Ö —ã r˜ those six beautiful. black car hotel-ha-ye ærzan-e xub [ºâI rZdcZI w¢ª∏§ò good. expensive lamps do ta dær-e kutah-e zeÍt two ugly. Note that the individual members of these phrases are optional and can be left out: phrase 2 a´ñ ¢Ö mærd ta phrase 1 ta r˜ do an maÍin-e an mærd maÍin-e an do (ta) mærd in maÍin-e an mærd in pænj maÍin-e an mærd in pænj ta maÍin-e an do mærd in pænj ta maÍin-e an do ta mærd G ›øã¢ñ ¢Ö e maÍin ta Õ∫ü pænj ›õZ in a´ñ r˜I ›øã¢ñ a´ñ )¢Ö* ta r˜I ›øã¢ñ a´ñ r˜I ›øã¢ñ ›õZ a´ñ r˜I ›øã¢ñ Õ∫ü ›õZ a´ñ ta r˜I ›øã¢ñ ¢Ö Õ∫ü ›õZ a´ñ ¢Öta r˜I ›øã¢ñ ¢Ö Õ∫ü ›õZ . doors yek maÍin-e siyah-e bozorg ÀãdI s¢ÖºîI ca ¢Öta Åc¨ÑI s¢øäI ›øã¢ñ ⁄õ a large. short.Bashiri 20 ___________________________________________________________________________________ Learn the following complex phrases: in se ta ketab-e abi-ye qæÍæng Á∫ÆìI ·Ñ˜I [¢§î ¢Ö fiä ›õZ these three beautiful blue books an Çænd ta Çeraq-e sefid-e geran rZ´°I ©øµäI lZ´† ¢Ö©∫† r˜ those several white. see Lesson Four).

we have learned that: (a) Adjectives are forms that qualify nouns. (g) Some nouns and adjectives can be made abstract by adding a stressed · '-í' to them. the adjective follows the noun and is attached to it by an ezafe. (d) The comparative degree of adjectives is formed by adding ´Ö '-tær' to the adjective. (f) The superlative degree precedes the noun it qualifies. (c) More than one adjective may qualify a noun. (b) In Persian.21 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ Translation that man's car the car belonging to those two men this car belonging to that man these five cars belonging to that man these five cars belonging to those two men these five cars belonging to those two men Summary So far. (e) The superlative degree is formed by adding ›õ´Ö '-tærin'. Dialog ? ÀäZ ·îI p¢ñ Á∫ÆìI Ò¢ì r˜ / ÀäZ a´ñ r˜I p¢ñ Ò¢ì r˜ ? ÀäZ ©∫† Ò¢ì r˜I w¢ªÑ / ÀäZ r¢ñºÖ cZ¨ò r˜I w¢ªÑ ? ÀäZ r¢ñ´îI p¢ñ Ò¢ì r˜ ¢õ˜ / ÀäZ r¢ã¢îI p¢ñ Ò¢ì r˜ /´øâ ? ÀäZ ´§ªÑ ·ó¢ã¢îI Ò¢ì dZ ·ó¢ñ´îI Ò¢ì / ÀäZ w¨õ´£ÖI Ò¢ì Ò¢ì ›õ´§ªÑ Òt / ‹óZ©øπó :ºÇÇÇÇ∫ÇÇøÇÇñ : rZºøî :ºÇÇÇÇ∫ÇÇøÇÇñ : rZºøî :ºÇÇÇÇ∫ÇÇøÇÇñ : rZºøî :ºÇÇÇÇ∫ÇÇøÇÇñ : rZºøî . in this lesson.

Minu: aya an qali mal-e kerman æst? Kayvan: xeyr. an qali mal-e kaÍan æst.Bashiri 22 ___________________________________________________________________________________ Transcription Translation Minu: an qali-ye qæÍæng mal-e ki æst? Kayvan: an qali mal-e an mærd æst. Minu: qali-ye kerman-í æz qali-ye kaÍan-í beh-tær æst? Kayvan: ne-mi-dan-æm. Minu: Is that carpet a Kermani carpet? Kayvan: No. into their superlative forms w´§≠î¢âI ›øã¢ñ rZdcZI €§ò acdI lZ´† ⁄†ºîI rºõ¨õº∏Ö `´äI €° s¢ÖºîI ca ©øµäI ›µ∏Ö ·Ñ˜I [¢§î rZ´°I €§ò Åc¨ÑI ⁄ó¢Ñ . into their comparative forms b. Transform the items in (1) a. Translate the following into English: maÍine xakestæri hotele ærzan Çeraqe zærd televiziyone kuÇek gole sorx dære kutah telefone sefid ketabe abi hotele geran banke bozorg 2. Minu: To whom does that beautiful carpet belong? Kayvan: That carpet belongs to that man. Homework 1. Minu: How much is the price of that carpet? Kayvan: The price of that carpet is a thousand tumans. That carpet is a Kashani carpet. But the best carpet is a Tabrizi carpet. Transform the items in (1) into their plural forms. Minu: Are Kermani carpets better than Kashani carpets? Kayvan: I don't know. Minu: bæha-ye an qali Çænd æst? Kayvan: bæha-ye an hezar tuman æst. v…li beh-tærin qali qali-ye tæbriz-í æst. 3.

´Ö¨£äI Àâca / ´Ö s¢ÖºîI ca . Write out.⁄†ºî . in the Persian script. Transform the following comparative phrases into superlative phrases. Learn the pattern sentence. Example: ) ›ñ * ) º∫øñ * ) aZa´ªñ * ) r¢ä¢ä * ) fiïZÄ * ) ›≠à * ) ‹∫£ã * ) ¢∫øñ * )rZºøî * ? ÀäZ ·îI p¢ñ Á∫ÆìI Ò¢ì r˜ / ÀäZ ›ñI p¢ñ Á∫ÆìI Ò¢ì r˜ (((( ? ÀäZ ·îI p¢ñ ©øµäI ›øã¢ñ r˜ ? ÀäZ ·îI p¢ñ rZ´°I wº§ü r˜ ? ÀäZ ·îI p¢ñ ⁄†ºîI rºõ¨õº∏Ö r˜ ? ÀäZ ·îI p¢ñ `´äI €° ›õZ ? ÀäZ ·îI p¢ñ ©∫∏ÑI w¢ò Àâca ›õZ ? ÀäZ ·îI p¢ñ Á∫ÆìI ·Ñ˜I [¢§î ¢Ö fiä r˜ ? ÀäZ ·îI p¢ñ rZdcZI [ºâI €§ò ›õZ ? ÀäZ ·îI p¢ñ Ú°I rºÑ¢å ›õZ 7.—µ∫Ñ .rZ´° .Åc¨Ñ / wZ sºªì . Example: )`´äI ›øã¢ñ* )©øµäI ›øã¢ñ* / ÀäZ ´§ªÑ ·ó¢ã¢îI Ò¢ì dZ ·ó¢ñ´îI Ò¢ì / ÀäZ ´§ªÑ `´äI ›øã¢ñ dZ ©øµäI ›øã¢ñ (((( ) ·Ñ˜I €°* ) acdI €° * )©∫∏ÑI ca * ) s¢ÖºîI ca * ) rZ´°I €§ò * ) rZdcZI €§ò * )¨ñ´ìI ⁄†ºîI w¢ò €° * ) —µ∫ÑI ⁄†ºîI w¢ª∏° * .fií¢øì fºâ .¢£õd .©∫∏Ñ .´Ö¢£õdI ca¢ñ .·Öcºå .´Ö ÂøÖ fºâI c©ü 6. Write your answers in the Persian script.Àãd .´Ö Á∫ÆìI rºõ¨õº∏Ö .´§ªÑI ›µ∏Ö .s¢Öºî 5.fií¢øì©Ñ .[ºâ . Answer the following questions using the words in parentheses. the comparative and the superlative degrees of the following adjectives. Example: ›õ´Ö©Ñ ´Ö©Ñ :©Ñ (((( .´Ö rZdcZI €° . Example: ¨øñ ›õ´Ö Åc¨Ñ : ´Ö Åc¨ÑI ¨øñ (((( ´Ö rZdcZI ›øã¢ñ .w´§≠î¢â .ÂøÖ fºâ . then replace the appropriate words with those in parentheses.´Ö©∫∏ÑI Àâca .€…ãºâ .´Ö Åc¨ÑI €§ò .23 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Write your answers in the Persian script.rZdcZ .`´ä .

Example: ) `´ä ( ©øµä ( ¨£ä * ? ÀäZ Áóc fi† rZ´õZI ‹†´ü / ÀäZ `´ä t ©øµä -¨£ä rZ´õZI ‹†´ü (((( ) `´ä ( ©øµä ( ·Ñ˜ * ? ÀäZ Áóc fi† ¢∑õ´ñZI ‹†´ü )¨£ä ( `´ä ( ©øµä ( s¢øä * ? ÀäZ Áóc fi† r¢§≠ó¢¥íZI ‹†´ü )©øµä ( `´ä * ? ÀäZ Áóc fi† Za¢ó¢îI ‹†´ü )·Ñ˜ ( ¨£ä ( ©øµä ( `´ä * ? ÀäZ Áóc fi† ©∫òI ‹†´ü )acd ( `´ä * ? ÀäZ Áóc fi† fiNøätcI ‹†´ü )¨ñ´ì ( ©øµä ( ¨£ä * ? ÀäZ Áóc fi† ¢øõZI ‹†´ü ) s¢øä ( ·Ñ˜ ( ©øµä ( `´ä * ? ÀäZ Áóc fi† s´îI ‹†´ü . the big.Bashiri 24 ___________________________________________________________________________________ ) ›ñI rºõ¨õº∏Ö ©∫† * ) ¢πãI rºõ¨õº∏Ö ©∫† * ) ⁄†ºîI ›øã¢ñ r˜I ·ÖcºåI ca * ) Åc¨ÑI ›øã¢ñ ›õZI ·¶óc¢óI ca * ) ›ñI wZ sºªìI ¨øñ * ) ¢πãI w´§≠î¢âI ¨øñ * 8. Translate the following into English: hotele xube ærzan maÍine sefide qæÍæng dæræxte bolænde sæbz televiziyone sorxe kuÇek telefone siyahe ærzan golhaye kuÇeke bænæfÍ Çeraqe surætiye bozorg in do maÍine xakestæriye zeÍt an Çænd gole abi dære narænjiye kuÇeke in maÍine bozorg rZdcZI [ºâI €§ò ( 1 Á∫ÆìI ©øµäI ›øã¢ñ ( 2 ¨£äI ©∫∏ÑI Àâca ( 3 ⁄†ºîI `´äI rºõ¨õº∏Ö ( 4 rZdcZI s¢øäI ›µ∏Ö ( 5 —µ∫ÑI ⁄†ºîI w¢ª∏° ( 6 Åc¨ÑI ·ÖcºåI lZ´† ( 7 ÀãdI w´§≠î¢âI ›øã¢ñ ta ›õZ ( 8 ·Ñ˜I €° ©∫† r˜ ( 9 Åc¨ÑI ›øã¢ñ ›õZI ⁄†ºîI ·¶óc¢óI ca ( 10 9. blue flowers 2. purple flower 8. those five inexpensive blankets 10. expensive televisions 9. purple door 10. these nine bad trees 6. Translate the following into Persian: 1. a small. two beautiful. ten white cars 7. eight ugly. a big. Answer the following using the colors enclosed in parentheses. orange telephones 5. expensive. ugly lamp 3. those several small tables 4.

conversation no ¢ì˜ a´ñ rd fiÇN«Ñ ‹ó¢â Àäta fió¢â ºñ º≠ø° ¢ü ¢¶î ⁄õa¨ó rZcº§äc t´Ñtc I wt´Ñtc ¢π∫øä ␣øä º∏ò fióZt©∫ò r¢ó Z™ë Ò©∫å º…§µ° fió b. gentleman man.25 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ Lesson Four Vocabulary Learn the following words: a. gentleman woman.‹ó¢â . General aqa mærd zæn bæÇÇe xanom dust xane mu gisu pa koja næzdik resturan ruberu ruberu-ye sinema sib holu hendævane nan qæza sændæli goftogu næ man. lady. Family bæradær xahær 1 5 pedær-bozorg madær-bozorg zæn. wife child lady friend house hair hair (poetic) foot where (question word) near restaurant opposite opposite from movie theater apple peach watermelon bread food chair dialog. xanom brother sister grandfather grandmother wife caZ´Ñ ´òZºâ Åc¨Ñc©ü Åc¨Ñca¢ñ rd .

boss. manager. doctor (title) engineer ¢ì˜ r¢â ‹ó¢â ´§îa e©∫ªñ Ali (boy's name) Parvaneh (girl's name) Hushang (boy's name) Manizheh (girl's name) Manuchehr (boy's name) Farhad (boy's name) Bizhan (boy's name) Farkhondeh (girl's name) Loghman (boy's name) Parvin (girl's name) Mariam (girl's name) Úê fióZt´ü Á∫ãºò s»ø∫ñ ´ª†º∫ñ a¢ò´í r»øÑ s©∫â´í r¢π∂ï ›õt´ü ‹õ´ñ d.. head secretary driver driver student. Names 'æli pærvane huÍæng mæniÛe mænuÇehr færhad biÛæn færxonde loqman pærvin mæryæm . Ms. sir Khan (used after first name) (fem. of r¢â) Mrs. Titles aqa xan xanom doktor mohændes e. conductor (bus) ‹N∏≥ñ ´§îa e´ó c¢§ä´ü ·«§≠ü a¢§äZ –øúc ·Æ∫ñ ´íºã s©∫óZc a´°¢ã mister.Bashiri 26 ___________________________________________________________________________________ Íowhær hæmsær 'æmu 'æmme da'i xale husband spouse uncle (paternal) aunt (paternal) uncle (maternal) aunt (maternal) ´òºã ´≠πò ºπê fiNπê ·úZa fiï¢â c. apprentice. Professionals mo'ællem doktor ners pæræstar postÇi ostad re'is monÍi Íufer ranænde Íagerd teacher doctor nurse nurse mailman university professor director.

however. of the verb. -e mæn -e to -e u -e ma -e Íoma -e an-ha my your his/her our your their Examples: ketab-e mæn maÍin-e an-ha televiziyon-e sefid-e u miz-e bozorg-e to my book their car his (her) white television your (sing.. polite) ›ñ ºÖ tZ ¢ñ ¢πã ¢ªó˜ they We shall see these pronouns later where they will be used as subject. As such these pronouns assume a possessive meaning. etc. In this lesson.. familiar) he/she we you (pl. object.) large table ›ñI [¢§î ¢ªó˜I ›øã¢ñ tZI ©øµäI rºõ¨õº∏Ö ºÖI Åc¨ÑI ¨øñ Possession Possession is expressed in one of two ways: a) by adding a set of possessive endings to the noun representing the thing possessed. This lesson deals with these two forms of expressing possession. .. we shall study them as members of ezafe constructions.27 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ Pronouns A pronoun is a form used as a substitute for a noun or a noun equivalent. sing. b) by relating the possessor and the thing possessed by means of an ezafe. The following are the independent personal pronouns of Persian: mæn to u ma Íoma an-ha 1 6 I you (sing.

Compare: xane-æm sændæli-æm qZ fió¢â qZ Ò©∫å my house my chair but pætu-yæm pa-yæm ‹õº§ü ‹õ¢ü my blanket my foot In these cases. you (sing..). and he/she.Bashiri 28 ___________________________________________________________________________________ Possession by adding possessive endings To form the possessive form of the noun. the situation is slightly different. or sing. polite) their qG \G fG r¢ñ r¢Ö r¢ã These endings can be attached to any noun that ends in a consonant. If the form ends in s '-e(h)' or w '-i'. add the following endings to it: -æm -æt -æÍ -eman -etan -eÍan my your (sing. add an Z 'ælef' before the endings representing I.) his/her our your (pl. Example: ketab-æm ketab-æt ketab-æÍ ketab-eman ketab-etan ketab-eÍan my book qÑ¢§î ÀÑ¢§î —Ñ¢§î r¢πÑ¢§î r¢§Ñ¢§î r¢ÆÑ¢§î If the noun ends in a vowel. the following rules apply. Example: xane-æm my house qZ \Z fZ r¢ñ r¢Ö r¢ã fió¢â fió¢â fió¢â fió¢â fió¢â fió¢â .

add a w 'ye' before all the endings. maÍin-æm Íowhær-æt gisu-yæÍ mu-yæÍ gol-ha-yetan pa-yæt dust-æt dust-ha-yæt my car your husband her hair his/her hair your flowers your foot your friend your friends ‹∫øã¢ñ \´òºã —õº≠ø° —õºñ r¢§õ¢ª∏° Àõ¢ü À§äta Àõ¢ª§äta .29 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ sændæli-æm my chair qZ Ò©∫å \Z Ò©∫å fZ Ò©∫å r¢πøï©∫å r¢§øï©∫å r¢Æøï©∫å If the noun ends in t 'u' or Z 'a'. Example: pætu-yæm pa-yæm my blanket my foot ‹õº§ü Àõº§ü —õº§ü r¢πõº§ü r¢§õº§ü r¢Æõº§ü ‹õ¢ü Àõ¢ü —õ¢ü r¢πõ¢ü r¢§õ¢ü r¢Æõ¢ü Learn the following phrases.

In both cases the ezafe appears as a kasra ( I ) underneath the last letter of the noun representing the thing possessed. Example: ketab-e xub maÍin-e sorx sændæli-ye kuÇek good book red car small chair [ºâ [ I ¢§î `´äI ›øã¢ñ ⁄†ºîI Ò©∫å Other uses of the ezafe In addition to possession and qualification. the noun representing the thing possessed appears first and is marked for ezafe with a kasra. Here are some more examples: miz-e amuzgar sændæli-ye Íoma esm-e mæn dust-e to c¢°dºñ˜I ¨øñ ¢πãI Ò©∫å ›ñI ‹äZ ºÖI Àäta the teacher's desk your chair my name your friend Relationship of Qualification In this case. the noun being qualified appears first and is marked with a kasra. the ezafe is also employed for the following purposes: To relate the first name of an Iranian to his family name: Íæbnæm-e jævadi Shabnam Javadi 1 8 waZºáI ‹∫£ã To relate a nonprofessional title to the family name of an Iranian: aqa-ye jævadi xanom-e jævadi Mr. Javadi waZºáI w¢ì˜ waZºáI ‹ó¢â . in the possessor/possessed case.Bashiri 30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ Possession by adding the ezafe The ezafe construction is composed of two or more words related to each other in either a possessor/possessed relationship or in a relationship of qualification. The qualifying adjective follows. The noun representing the possessor follows. Example: ketab-e reza pætu-ye u1 7 Reza's book his/her blanket ¢çc [ I ¢§î tZI wº§ü The Possessor/Possessed Relationship As can be seen. Javadi Mrs.

the plural marker precedes the possessive ending: ketab ketab-ha ketab-ha-yæt book books your books [¢§î ¢ªÑ¢§î Àõ¢ªÑ¢§î 2) If the possessive ending is to be added to an ezafe chain.. i. the use of the possessive endings on nouns and the use of ezafe are interchangeable: ketab-æm ketab-æt ketab-æÍ ketab-eman ketab-etan ketab-eÍan = ketab-e mæn = ketab-e to = ketab-e u = ketab-e ma = ketab-e Íoma = ketab-e an-ha my book your book his/her book our book your book their book ›ñ ºÖ tZ ¢ñ ¢πã ¢ªó˜ [ I ¢§î [ I ¢§î [ I ¢§î [ I ¢§î [ I ¢§î I[¢§î ‹Ñ¢§î ÀÑ¢§î —Ñ¢§î r¢πÑ¢§î r¢§Ñ¢§î r¢ÆÑ¢§î The following rules govern the use of possessive endings and ezafe constructions: 1) If both the plural marker ¢ò '-ha' and the possessive endings are to be affixed to the same noun. Other nouns and adjectives are used after the head noun and all but the last must be marked with an ezafe. it must be added to the last member. The possessive endings do not take the ezafe: Çeraq-e bozorg-e xane-ye doktor-æm the large lamp of my doctor's house q´§îaI w fió¢â Å I c¨Ñ I lZ´† .31 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ To relate the possessive and qualitative members of an ezafe chain: ketab-e xub-e pesær-e mæn ›ñI ´≠ü [ I ºâ [ I ¢§î my son's good book Çeraq-e bozorg-e xane-ye doktor ´§îaI w fió¢â Å I c¨ÑI lZ´† the large lamp of the doctor's house In an ezafe construction.e. the head noun is the first member. The two ways of expressing possession.

. . the noun phrase has the following structure: NP . adj When the possessive endings are added to this construction.Bashiri 32 ___________________________________________________________________________________ Possession and the Noun Phrase As you recall. they will necessarily appear on the noun as follows: NP Noun ‹Ñ¢§î \Z fió¢â —ëZ´† r¢ñ¨øñ r¢§§ê¢ä r¢ã fiN«Ñ ta ¢Ö ¢Ö ¢Ö ¢Ö ¢Ö ¢Ö num Õ∫ü fiä —ã sad¢õ sadZta fió dem adj ›õZ r˜ ›õZ r˜ ›õZ r˜ Here are some more examples: ketab-æm do ta bæradær-æt in Çænd ta dæræxt-æÍ my book ‹Ñ¢§î your two brothers \caZ´Ñ ¢Öta these several trees belonging to him/her —§âca ¢Ö©∫† ›õZ In the case of possession through the use of the ezafe. noun ta num dem. the ezafe is added to the noun indicating the thing possessed: .

1 9 Finally. Finally. as you recall. 2 0 As such p¢ñ is used at the beginning of the phrase and is followed by an ezafe and the noun indicating possessor. the noun phrase can accommodate adjectives. The verb of the sentence is usually "to be". Those three trees belonging to your good brother's daughter. The adjective appears after the noun it qualifies.33 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ NP noun tZ ´§îa ¢πã waZºá w¢ì˜ ezafe I I I I noun ¨øñ Ò©∫å w fiN«Ñ w fió¢â ta ¢Ö ¢Ö ¢Ö ¢Ö num ta ©∫† Àµò sa dem adj ›õZ r˜ ›õZ r˜ Here are some more examples: ¢∫øñI ´§âaI rºõ¨õº∏Ö ¢Ö ©∫† ›õZ ¢πãI caZ´ÑI ´§âa À I âca ¢Ö fiä r˜ ›ñ aI ¢§äZ À I ätaI rZ´°I ›øã¢ñ ¢Ö ÀÆò r˜ Translation These several televisions belonging to Mina's daughter. belonging" as an indicator of ownership. a word must be said about the frequently used word p¢ñ 'mal' "property. Those three trees belonging to your brother's good daughter. Those eight expensive cars belonging to my professor's friend. It is added to the noun by means of an ezafe. Example: . Compare: ¢πãI caZ´ÑI ´§âa [ I ºâ À I âca ¢Ö fiä r˜ ¢πãI caZ´Ñ [ I ºâI ´§âa À I âca ¢Ö fiä r˜ ¢πã [ I ºâI caZ´ÑI ´§âa À I âca ¢Ö fiä r˜ Translation Those three good trees belonging to your brother's daughter. Those three trees belonging to your brother's daughter. to conclude this section on possession.

transform the following ezafe constructions into possessive constructions.) sister their books your television their cars our chairs our lamps my professor his/her nurse our teachers your secretary my boss ›ñI c©ü tZI wºπê ºÖI ´òZºâ ¢ªó˜I w¢ªÑ¢§î ºÖI rºõ¨õº∏Ö ¢ªó˜I w¢ª∫øã¢ñ ¢ñI w¢ªøï©∫å ¢ñI w¢ªëZ´† ›ñ aI ¢§äZ tZI e´ó ¢ñI w¢ªπN∏≥ñ ¢πãI ·Æ∫ñ ›ñI –øúc Drill Using the possessive endings. This car belongs to that handsome man. Learn the following ezafe constructions pedær-e mæn 'æmu-ye u xahær-e to ketab-ha-ye an-ha televiziyon-e to maÍin-ha-ye an-ha sændæli-ha-ye ma Çeraq-ha-ye ma ostad-e mæn ners-e u mo'ællem-ha-ye ma monÍi-ye Íoma re'is-e mæn my father his/her uncle your (sing. That house does not belong to my friend's brother.Bashiri 34 ___________________________________________________________________________________ / ÀäZ ¢ñI p¢ñ Àâca ©∫† ›õZ / À≠øó ›ñI ÀätaI caZ´Ñ I p¢ñ fió¢â r˜ / ÀäZ ÂøÖ fºâ aI ´ñ r˜I p¢ñ ›øã¢ñ ›õZ Translation These several trees belong to us. Example: ‹Ñ¢§î f´≠ü —õ¢ª§äta ›ñ [ I ¢§î waZºáI w¢ì˜I ´≠ü ´§îaI ´≠üI w¢ª§äta /// ¢πãI rºõ¨õº∏Ö ºÖI wºπê tZI rZcº§äc a´°¢ã ›õZI c¢°dºñ˜ ›øã¢ñI lZ´† fiïZÄI w¢òcaZ´Ñ ¢ñI w¢ò fió¢â `´äI ›øã¢ñ r˜I w¢ªëZ´† .

your reddest flowers . bæradær-e ners-e minu 4. beh-tærin Íagerd-e in mo'ællem 17. the cheapest lamps of that place 16. Íufer-e pedær-e biÛæn 11. pedær-bozorg-e mo'ællem-e sasan 5. Íagerd-e bæradær-e keyvan 12. ostad-e doxtær-e dust-e mina 9. zæn-e re'is-e bank 7. the bank director's wife 7. the best student of this 17. the doctor's more beautiful girl 13. pesær-e doktor 2. the doctor's son 2. ærzan-tærin Çeraq-ha-ye an-ja 16. Minu's nurse's brother 4. Reza's friend's mother 3.35 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ rZ´°I €§ò r˜I w¢ò Ò©∫å [ºâI rZcº§äc r˜I w¢òZ™ë w´§≠î¢âI w¢ª∫øã¢ñ r˜I w¢ò s©∫óZc Àãd aI ´ñ r˜I w¢ò rd ©∫∏ÑI rd r˜I w¢ò fiN«Ñ ⁄ó¢ÑI –øúcI ·Æ∫ñ ´§îaI ´Ö Åc¨ÑI ´≠ü ¢πã aI ´°¢ãI w fiN«Ñ Learn the following phrases 1. bolænd-tærin dæræxt-ha-ye in hotel 15. doxtær-e qæÍæng-tær-e doktor 13. Kayvan's brother's student 12. Bizhan's father's driver 11. sorx-tærin gol-ha-ye Íoma ´§îaI ´≠ü ¢çc À I ätaI ca¢ñ º∫øñI e´óI caZ´Ñ r¢ä¢äI ‹N∏≥ñ Å I c¨Ñc©ü ›≠àI ´íºãI ´òºã ⁄ó¢ÑI –øúcI rd r¢π∂ïI ·Æ∫ñI w fiN«Ñ ¢∫øñ À I ätaI ´§âa aI ¢§äZ ‹õ´ñI ´§âa Å I c¨Ñca¢ñ r»øÑI c©üI ´íºã rZºøîI caZ´Ñ aI ´°¢ã ´§îaI ´Ö Á∫ÆìI ´§âa ¢¶∫õZ ⁄ I ó¢Ñ ›õ´Ö Åc¨Ñ €§ò ›õZI w¢ª§âca ›õ´Ö©∫∏Ñ ¢¶ó˜I w¢ªëZ´† ›õ´Ö rZdcZ ‹N∏≥ñ ›õZ aI ´°¢ã ›õ´§ªÑ ¢πãI w¢ª∏° ›õ´Ö `´ä Translation 1. madær-bozorg-e doxtær-e mæriæm 10. Mariam's daughter's grandmother 10. Sasan's teacher's grandfather 5. bæÇÇe-ye monÍi-ye loqman 8. madær-e dust-e reza 3. the biggest bank of this place 14. the tallest trees of this hotel 15. Íowhær-e Íufer-e hæsæn 6. Mina's friend's daughter's professor 9. Loghman's secretary's child teacher 8. Hassan's driver's husband 6. bozorg-tærin bank-e in-ja 14.

Farhad: xéyli motæÍækker-æm. Mariam: xaheÍ mi-kon-æm. Farhad: xoda hafez. esm-e Íoma Çi æst? Mariam: esm-e mæn mæryæm æst. Mariam: be-sælam…t. (b) The ezafe is also used 1) for adding adjectives to nouns and other adjectives 2) for adding the last name of Iranians to their first name 3) to form ezafe chains (c) In the main.Bashiri 36 ___________________________________________________________________________________ Summary So far we have learned that: (a) Possession is expressed either by adding a set of possessive endings to the noun or by using the ezafe. Dialog ? ÀäZ ·† ¢πãI ‹äZ -©øÆ®£Ñ : a¢ò´í / ÀäZ ‹õ´ñ ›ñI ‹äZ : ‹õ´ñ ? ÀäZ ¢¶î ‹∫£ãI w fió¢â ©øóZa ·ñ / ‹ó¢â ‹õ´ñ : a¢ò´í / ÀäZ rZcº§äc I⁄õa¨ó ‹∫£ãI w fió¢â / fi∏Ñ : ‹õ´ñ ? ÀäZ ¢¶î rZcº§äc : a¢ò´í / ÀäZ ¢π∫øäI wt´Ñtc rZcº§äc : ‹õ´ñ ? ÀäZ cº±† rZcº§äc r˜I wZ™ë : a¢ò´í / ÀäZ rZdcZ t [ºâ rZcº§äc r˜I wZ™ë : ‹õ´ñ / q´NÇÇÇÇ∑Ƨñ Úøâ : a¢ò´í / ‹∫î ·ñ —òZºâ : ‹õ´ñ / ’í¢à Z©â : a¢ò´í / ÀñÈ≠Ñ : ‹õ´ñ Transcription Farhad: bé-bæxÍid. xane-ye Íæbnæm næzdik-e resturan æst. . Farhad: mæryæm xanom. Farhad: resturan koja æst? Mariam: resturan ruberu-ye sinema æst. possessive constructions are used after the demonstrative adjectives. mi-dan-id xane-ye Íæbnæm koja æst? Mariam: b…le. numbers and classifiers. Farhad: qæza-ye an resturan Çe-towr æst? Mariam: qæza-ye an resturan xub væ ærzan æst.

À≠øó c¢°dºñ˜ rd r˜ .À≠øó ›ÇµÇ∏Ö ⁄õ r˜ . What is your name? Mariam: My name is Mariam.fiÇó ? ÀäZ ›µÇ∏Ö ⁄õ r˜ ¢õ˜ / ÀäZ ›µ∏Ö / ÀäZ rºõ¨õº∏Ö ⁄õ lZ´ÇÇÇdž ⁄õ ›ÇõZ ¢Çõ˜ / ÀäZ lZ´ÇÇdž ⁄õ ›ÇõZ ? ÀÇäZ ·Çdž ›ÇõZ r¢ÇÇó r˜ / À≠øó [ºÇÇÇâ r¢ÇÇÇó ›õZ / ÀäZ lZ´ÇÇdž ⁄õ r˜ . Farhad: Mariam Khanom.fi∏Ñ ? ÀäZ `´ÇÇÇä €° ›õZ ¢õ˜ / ÀäZ ca¢ÇÇñ rd r˜ r˜ . Shabnam's house is near the restaurant. Farhad: Goodbye.37 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ Translation Farhad: Excuse me.fi∏Ñ ? ÀäZ º∏ÇÇò ⁄õ r˜ ¢õ˜ / ÀäZ º∏ò ⁄õ r˜ . Farhad: Thank you very much.fiÇÇÇ∏Ñ ? ÀäZ / ÀäZ [ºâ r¢ó r˜ . Do you know where Shabnam lives (lit.fió ? ÀäZ c¢°dºñ˜ rd r˜ ¢õ˜ / ÀäZ rd `´ÇÇÇä €ÇÇ° ›õZ . where Shabnam's house is)? Mariam: Yes (I do). Mariam: Bye. Farhad: How is the food at that restaurant? 2 1 Mariam: The food of that restaurant is good and inexpensive. Mariam: You are welcome. Practice Reading lZ´† ›õZ / ÀäZ Ò©∫å r˜ / ÀäZ ›µ∏Ö ›õZ / ÀäZ ¨øñ ›õZ r˜ / ÀäZ €§Çò ⁄õ ›õZ / ÀäZ [¢§ÇÇî ›õZ / ÀäZ ›øã¢ñ r˜ / ÀäZ ¨øÇÇÇÇñ ⁄Çõ ›ÇõZ ? ÀÇäZ ·Çdž r˜ ? ÀÇäZ ·Çdž ›ÇõZ / ÀÇäZ ÀÇâca ⁄Çõ a´ÇÇÇÇÇñ ⁄õ r˜ ¢ÇÇõ˜ / ÀÇäZ a´ÇÇÇÇñ ⁄Çõ r˜ / ÀÇ≠øó [¢§ÇÇÇî r˜ / À≠øó ⁄õ r˜ . Farhad: Where is the restaurant? Mariam: The restaurant is opposite from the movie theater.fi∏Ñ ? ÀäZ [ºâ r¢ó r˜ ¢õ˜ / ÀäZ [ºâ ..fió ? À≠øó [ºâ ␣øä ›õZ ¢õ˜ / À≠øó [ºâ ␣øä ›õZ / ÀäZ r˜ / ÀäZ fióZt©∫ÇÇò ⁄õ ›õZ / ÀäZ ©ÇÇÑ ␣øä r˜ / À≠øó [ºÇâ ␣øä r˜ / ÀäZ º∏ò ⁄õ r˜ .fiÇÇÇ∏Ñ ? ÀäZ .fiÇÇÇó / ÀäZ a´Çñ ⁄õ r˜ .À≠øó a´ÇÇñ ⁄õ r˜ .

Translate the following phrases into English: behtærin duste hæsæn madærhaye an do ta doxtær zæne doktore duste mæn ketabhaye ærzantære to golhaye sefidtære inja telefone abiye hotel xahære re'ise anha ostade to mo'ælleme an Íagerd doktore in bæÇÇeye kuÇek ›≠à À I äta ›õ´§ªÑ ´§âa ¢Öta r˜I w¢òca¢ñ ›ñ À I ätaI ´§îaI rd ºÖI ´Ö rZdcZI w¢ò [¢§î ¢¶∫õZI ´Ö©øµäI w¢ò €° €§òI ·Ñ˜I ›µ∏Ö ¢ªó˜I –øúcI ´òZºâ ºÖ aI ¢§äZ a´°¢ã r˜I ‹N∏≥ñ ⁄†ºîI w fiN«Ñ ›õZI ´§îa 2. Example: ) [ºâ * ? ÀäZ cº±† rZcº§äc r˜I wZ™ë / ÀäZ [ºâ rZcº§äc r˜I wZ™ë (((( ) ©Ñ * ? ÀäZ cº±† ´§âa r˜I p¢à ) rZdcZ * ? ÀäZ cº±† ›øã¢ñ r˜I w¢ªÑ . Example: ) ⁄ó¢Ñ * ) €§ò * / ÀäZ ¢π∫øäI wt´Ñtc rZcº§äc / ÀäZ ⁄ó¢ÑI wt´Ñtc €§ò (((( ) fiïZÄI w fió¢â * ) ‹∫£ãI w fió¢â * ) rZcº§äc * ) rZ´õZ ¢π∫øä * ) ¢ñI w fió¢â * ) ¢πãI w fió¢â * ) ´§îaI €§ò * ) tZI ⁄ó¢Ñ * ) ›ñI rZcº§äc * ) ·«§≠üI w fió¢â * ) ¢∫øñ aI ¢§äZI w fió¢â * ) ºÖ ⁄ I ó¢Ñ * ) ¢ªó˜I w s©∫óZc ⁄ I ó¢Ñ * ) ⁄ó¢ÑI –øúcI €§ò * 3. Use the words in parentheses to form sentences similar to the pattern provided in the example below. Use the words in parentheses in your answer and make necessary changes. Answer the following questions.Bashiri 38 ___________________________________________________________________________________ Homework 1.

seven more expensive doors 10. Translate the following phrases into Persian: 1. blue cars 5. noh ta hotele geran 3. their sons' bigger. my daughter's beautiful friends 4. Example: ) ⁄ó¢Ñ * ) rZ´õZ ¢π∫øä * / ÀäZ rZcº§äc ⁄ I õa¨ó ‹∫£ãI w fió¢â / ÀäZ ⁄ó¢Ñ ⁄ I õa¨ó rZ´õZ ¢π∫øä (((( ) ‹†´ü * ) €° * ) €§ò * ) ›øã¢ñ * ) ›µ∏Ö * ) rºõ¨õº∏Ö * ) ca * ) lZ´† * ) ¨øñ * ) Ò©∫å * ) ⁄ó¢Ñ * ) Àâca * ) Ò¢ì * ) rºÑ¢å * ) rZ´õZ * ) fiNøätc * ) r¢§≠ó¢¥íZ * ) ©∫ò * ) ¢∑õ´ñZ * ) Za¢ó¢î * 5. Çænd ta doxtære qæÍæng 4. some five red lamps 6. your (sing. bæÇÇeye doktore u 6.) teachers 2. Use the words in parentheses in the basic sentence to form new sentences. these inexpensive. Write your answers in the Persian script. pesære re'ise bank ¨£ä À I âca ¢Ö —ã rZ´°I €§ò ¢Ö fió Á∫ÆìI ´§âa ¢Ö©∫† acdI rZdcZI w¢ª∫µ∏Ö ›õZ tZI ´§îaI w fiN«Ñ º∫øñ [ I ºâI w¢ªπN∏≥ñ ⁄ó¢ÑI –øúcI ´≠ü . Translate the following phrases into English: 1. several tall boys 9.39 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ ) [ºâ * ? ÀäZ cº±† Ò¢ì r˜ Á I óc ) rZ´° * ? ÀäZ cº±† ⁄†ºîI rºõ¨õº∏Ö r˜I w¢ªÑ ) [ºâ * ? ÀäZ cº±† fiN«Ñ r˜ À I äta ) rZ´° * ? ÀäZ cº±† ¢ªï¢∂Ö´ü r˜I w¢ªÑ ) rZdcZ * ? ÀäZ cº±† fió¢â r˜I w¢ªÑ 4. purple flowers 7. his nurse's two children 6. mo'ællemhaye xube minu 7. the most beautiful. ÍeÍ ta dæræxte sæbz 2. gray tables 8. our better students 3. in telefonhaye ærzane zærd 5.

is a regular plural marker. it appears on words such as the following: singular \¢£ó '-at'. For instance. We shall return to these constructions later and discuss them in detail. There are also other plural markers borrowed from Arabic but used on Persian words as well. 1 The hyphen (-) is used to separate meaningful grammatical segments known as morphemes. Javadi's small foot 8. We do not intend to teach these plural formations here in full. The Arabic plural marker rZ '-an'. Javadi's beautiful secretary the best watermelon of those restaurants Dr. expensive television this hotel's handsome manager Dr. \Z for instance. It shows what the various components of a given word are. It is used with animate nouns and parts of the body that come in pairs: ÇeÍm-an guÍ-an dæræxt-an pesær-an doxtær-an pedær-an madær-an r¢ñƆ r¢ãº° r¢§âca rZ´≠ü rZ´§âa rZc©ü rZca¢ñ eyes ears trees boys girls fathers mothers Generally. Therefore. This suffix is usually restricted in use. Write a "new" dialog by combining the four dialogs presented so far. plural næbat \¢Ö¢£ó næbat-at plants . 2 In writing. The hyphen is not a break in the word.Bashiri 40 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ¢ò '-ha' may be attached to nouns that end in a connecting letter: ¢ª∏° . Translate the following phrases into Persian: several green trees those inexpensive grey telephones his brother's friend's child our ugly. dusthaye bæÇÇeye xahære u ºÖ À I ãdI ·¶óc¢óI ›øã¢ñ ¢ñI rZdcZI w¢ò [¢§î tZI ´òZºâI w fiN«ÑI w¢ò Àäta 7. pronounce the words as complete entities as if there were no hyphens: 'xubæm'. The student should not feel obliged to memorize all these forms at this early stage. This hyphen is not used in exercises. maÍine narænjiye zeÍte to 9. ketabhaye ærzane ma 10. words of Arabic origin may have either a regular or a broken plural. but we shall provide a few examples for each.¢ªëZ´† but ¢òc©ü . 'xub' means "good" and the suffix '-æm' means "I am".

Words such as nct 'væræq' "sheet (of paper)" and ␣ï¢ì 'qaleb' "bar (of soap)" are used here for explaining grammatical points. Furthermore. 8 9 For fractions and percentages. 28. see Lesson Nine. p. the words ‹øó 'nim' "half". ¢Ö 'ta' is usually not attached to the preceding noun. is an idiomatic phrase meaning "don't mention it!" or "please!". is not pronounced. Note the uses of the sokun and the ezafe in the exchange." . 3 The final fiÇÇÇÇÇÇ '-h' is usually written but." p. pp. see the "Writing System. 4 5 The pronunciation 'amuzegar' is also correct. They are not considered vocabulary to be memorized at this stage." 'xaheÍ mikonæm. ÷Ñc 'rob' ' "quarter" and ‹î 'kæm' "to (in telling time only)" are used as follows: sa'æt-e yek væ nim æst sa'æt-e do væ rob' æst sa'æt-e hæft rob' kæm æst / ÀäZ ‹øó t ⁄õ À I ê¢ä / ÀäZ ÷Ñc t ta À I ê¢ä / ÀäZ ‹î ÷Ñc Àµò À I ê¢ä It is half past one.41 Main Text __________________________________________________________________________________ l¢Ñ sa baq deh Where the word ends in a final fiÇÇÇÇ '-e(h). It is a quarter past two.' however. 168.. 7 The word —òZºâ ‹∫∑øñ —òZºâ 'xaheÍ' (written with a silent t 'vav' before Z 'ælef') means "request. 54-57. the definite article marker w '-i' is preceded by a ú 'hamza' when following a t 'vav' indicating the sound 'u' or an Z 'ælef ' indicating the sound 'a'. unless followed by a vowel. in telling time.. 6 For the uses of the ezafe. see Lesson Four. It is the short form of "I request that you do not. Note that in writing. . 10 11 In writing. It is a quarter to seven.' \¢á ruzname(h) Another instance is the suffix ›õ plural \¢á fiñ¢ódtc ruzname(h)-jat newspapers '-in' used on such words as: singular cºñ¿ñ ‹N∏≥ñ gardens villages '-jat' is used instead of \Z '-at' : singular fiñ¢ódtc baq-at deh-at \¢ë¢Ñ \¢òa plural mæ'mur mo'ællem ›õcºñ ¿ñ ›øπN∏≥ñ mæ'mur-in mo'ællem-in officials teachers For the broken plural.

'yek-o nim'. This form. 18 The ezafe added to the first name of Persians is not translated into English: Shabnam Javadi as opposed to the expected Shabnam-e Javadi. Note also that in spoken Persian "væ" is pronounced '-o'. 21 Note that cº±† of. both ´Ö '-tær' and ›õ´Ö '-tærin' "most" may be attached to the preceding form. Sometimes the word r¢Æõ Z 'iÍan ' "they" is used instead of ¢ªó˜ 'an-ha '. is pronounced 'xahær' and not 'xævahær' as expected.Bashiri 42 ___________________________________________________________________________________ sa'æt-e se væ pænj dæqiqe kæm æst / ÀäZ ‹î fi∂øìa Õ∫ü t fiä À I ê¢ä It is five minutes to three. furthermore. too. i. with some exceptions. 20 A literary equivalent of p¢ñ 'mal' "property" is r˜ dZ used with the ezafe. Note that the w in this example carries the ezafe.. a '-v-' is inserted between that vowel and '-o': sa'æt-e do-v-o rob' sa'æt-e se-v-o pænj dæqiqe kæm After forms ending in a final fiÇÇÇÇ '-eh'.. that when this '-o' is preceded by a vowel.?" 'Çe-towr' "how" can also be used in the sense of "What do you think .e. This word can be interpreted both as he/she and they. the comparative suffix ´Ö '-tær' "more" is written separately.. Example: 'æz an'. is in qali æz an-e mæn nist/ À≠øó ›ñI r˜ dZ Ò¢ì ›õZ This carpet does not belong to me. Note that ´òZºâ 'xahær' "sister. And. 19 Note that in all these constructions the adjective defines the preceding noun and that the possessive construction usually ends the noun phrase." written with a silent t 'vav' before Z 'ælef '. 12 13 14 15 16 17 In writing. The unitizer ¢Ö 'ta' is not used with ⁄õ .

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