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NDT Field Guides

Olympus NDT

NDT Field Guides


Meindert Anderson
Daniel Kass Michael Moles PhD Tom Nelligan
Olympus NDT
Olympus NDT 48 Woerd Avenue, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
Olympus NDT

Olympus NDT DMTA-20003-01ZH A


2012 Olympus NDT, Inc. Olympus NDT, Inc.

Phased Array Testing: Basic Theory for Industrial Applications


DMTA-20003-01EN A 2010 11
2010 Olympus NDT, Inc.

2012 5

............................................................................................... 1
.................................................................................. 1
Olympus ........................................................................... 2
.................................................................................. 2

1.

...................................................................................... 5
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

2.

....................................................................
....................................................................
....................................................................
............................................................................
............................................................................
............................................................
........................................................
............................................................................
........................................................

11
14
20
22
23
26
29
30
31

.................................................... 33
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8

4.

5
7
8
9

........................................................................ 11
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9

3.

..........................................................
..............................................................
..................................
..................................................

A ............................................................................
B ............................................................................
B ........................................................................
................................................................................
C .....................................................................................
S .....................................................................................
........................................................................
............................................................

34
35
36
37
39
41
43
44

........................................................................ 47
4.1
4.2

Olympus

........................................................................ 47
................................................................ 54

iii

5.

............................................ 59
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

........................................................
................................................................
................................................................
S ....................................................................
........................................................................

59
62
65
67
72

A .......................................... 77
B ...................................................................... 83
C .......................................................... 85
D .............................................................. 87
D.1
D.2
D.3
D.4

EPOCH 1000
............................................................................................ 88
OmniScan UTPAECECA
................................................................................ 90
TomoScan FOCUS LT UT
........................................................................................ 91
TomoView UT ............................. 92

............................................................................. 93
............................................................................. 97
............................................................................................. 99

iv

Olympus

Olympus

A B C
4

Olympus

info@olympusndt.com

Olympus
Olympus
Olympus

Olympus

X
NDT

Olympus NDT

www.olympus-ims.com

NDT

ASME

S

Olympus NDT
OmniScan EPOCH 1000

ASMEIIWE


C

S

Olympus


S A
TVG TCG

ASME

S
C

Olympus

1.

1.1

NDT

1801

1-1

1. Olympus NDT ISO


Olympus

Q =
Q =

1-1

1-2

1-2

Olympus

1.2

16 256
1-3 1-4
2

2 MHz 10 MHz

1-3

Olympus

1-4

1.3

4 32

/ 1-5
1-6

Olympus

ns

PA

1-5

16

128

1-6

1.4

Olympus

C
/
UT 10

10

Olympus

2.

2.1

2-1

++++++++++++++++++
++++++++

2-1

Olympus

11

kHz MHz 500 kHz


20 MHz
50 kHz 200 MHz

NDT

6 dB

2-2

2-2

2-3

2-3
2-4

N N

12

Olympus

2-4

k L2 f
N = -----------4c

k L2
N = --------4

N
k
L
f
c

=
=
=
=
=

c
= = ---

2-1

2-1

Olympus

1.0

1.37

0.9

1.25

0.8

1.15

0.7

1.09

13

2-1
/

0.6

1.04

0.5

1.01

0.4

1.00

0.3

0.99

k D
D2 f
N = --------4c

D2
N = -----4

N
29 2.7

2.2

17

2-5

N
0

2N

3N

4N

2-5

2
2
= D-----f = -D--4c
4

14

Olympus

D
f
c

=
=
=

= = ---

c
f

6 dB
0.514 c
= sin 1 ------------------
fD

L
0.44 c
= sin 1 ---------------
fL

0.44
= sin 1 ---------------
L

2-6 2-7

5850 m/s 0.230 in./s 3 mm 0.125 in.


5.0 MHz
2-6 3

Olympus

15

5850 m/s 0.230 in./s 13 mm 0.5 in.


5.0 MHz
2-7 13
2-8
2-9

5850 m/s 0.230 in./s13 mm 0.5 in.


2.25 MHz
2-8 2.25

5850 m/s 0.230 in./s13 mm 0.5 in.


10.0 MHz
2-9 10

Np/cm

16

Olympus

p = p 0 e ad

P
p0

=
=

e
a
d

=
=
=

NDT


Z2 Z1
R = -----------------Z2 + Z1

R
Z1

=
=

Z2

100 %

17

Olympus

17

YS

YZ

2-10
sin
sin rl
sin rs
---------------i- = ----------------- = -----------------

ci

c rl

c rs

rl

rs

ci

crl

crs

R
L

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

2-11

18

Olympus


90

90
90
2-12 2-13
2-14

2-12 10

2-13 30

Olympus

19

2-14 65

2.3

2-15

NDT
/

2-16

20

Olympus

2-16

NDT

10 dB
30 dB

2-17

2-17

2 MHz 10 MHz

16 128
256

Olympus

21

N
2-18

A
H
P
e
g

=
=

=
=
=

2.4

2-19

22

Olympus

2-19

2-20

2-20

2.5


2-21a
180
2-21c 0 180
2-21b

Olympus

23

2-21

2-22

24

Olympus

2-22
4 32

Olympus

25

2.6

NDT

1 MHz 15 MHz

0.2

16 32
64

UT

/
2-23

26

Olympus

2-23

2-24

16

16
4

2-24
6 dB

Olympus

27

sin st = 0.514 ---

sinst =

=
=
64
9

32
18

16
36

2-25 16

0.2 16 0.2 3.2


6.4 32

28

Olympus

D2 f
D2
= ----- = ---4c
4

D
f
c

=
=
=

c
= = ---

13 14

2.7

2-26

2-26

6 dB
----------F---c
6 dB = -1.02
fD

Olympus

29


F
c
D

=
=
=

2-27

10
16
10 10 16 10

32
32 10

2-27

2.8

30

Olympus

2-28
0.4
6 1 3
30

6 0.4

3 1

2-28

2.9

16

Olympus

31

UT

Olympus
www.olympus-ims.com/en/probes/pa/

32

Olympus

3.

16 256

UT

Olympus

33

3.1

=
A

3-1
A A

34

Olympus

3-1 A

3.2

A B

Olympus

35

3-2 B

3-2 B

3.3

B
B
A

36

Olympus


A

3-3

3-3 B

3.4

Olympus

37

3-4 64
16
16
49
1.5

3-4
3-5
65 5.3
64 45
60 70

38

Olympus

3-5

3.5

C C
C X

XY

C C

Olympus

39


3-6 64 5 MHz
C 16
49
37 1.5
3-6 C

3-6 64 C

3-7 64 2.25 MHz


4560 70

C
Y X

40

Olympus

3-7
A

3-7 64 2.25 MHz


60

3.6

3-8

Olympus

41

3-8 30 +30 S

30 70

3-9

42

Olympus

3-9 +35 +70 S


A

S S

3.7

Olympus

43

A S C
/ B 3-10 A
S C

3-10

3.8

B C

PRF

3-11

44

Olympus


1.

> ----------------------

2. A

< ----------------------

> ----------------------

20 /

10/

3-11

Olympus

45

4.

4.1

/
A



dB dB
B

Olympus

47


USB

XX:YY XX = YY =

XX:YY 16:16 32:128


/

XX:YY
/
64
3 40 70 2 50
1 31 2 16 4
8 4-1
4-2 4-3

48

Olympus

4-1 40 70 S 1 31

4-2 40 70 S 2 16

Olympus

49

4-3 40 70 S 4 8
4-1

4-1

50

16

13

16

32

29
25

32

16

32

17

64

61
57

64

16

64

49

128

121

16

128

113

256

249

16

256

241

Olympus

=
4-4 4 60 Hz

150 ns

150 ns

150 ns

4.15 ms

PRF = 240 Hz

8.30 ms

PRF = 240 Hz

150 ns

150 ns

12.45 ms

PRF = 240 Hz

16.6 ms

PRF = 240 Hz

= 60 Hz

4-4 4

A A
A
A
A

RF

Olympus

51

5 MHz64
1 16 40 70
64 60 16
1

A S

4-5 S
A

BIP /

4-5

52

Olympus

4-6 S

45 60 70 A 80%

4-6
4-7
A S

4-7

Olympus

53

4.2

Olympus

Olympus ACG
TCG ASME
4-8 65
45

54

Olympus

4-8

4-9

Olympus

55

4-9
TVG/DAC DAC A

TVG/TCG
DAC
UT

56

Olympus

TVG
TVG DAC S
TCG/TVG

Olympus

57

5.

5.1

5-1 OmniScan

Olympus

59


1.

2.

S
3.

1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.

UT
A

60

Olympus



Z =
X =
Y =
X
Y

5-2

UT

Olympus

61


S 3


5.2

B
32 64

5-3
5L64-A2 64 5 MHz
0.6
16
16
1 1 16 2 2
17 3 3 18 49

62

Olympus

5-3
3 5-4
A
30 49
30 46
A

Olympus

63

5-4
A
A

A
A
A 4

5-5
A A
3

5-5 A
A A

64

Olympus

5.3

5-6

16

128

5-6
5-7 45 3
BIP
A
S

Olympus

65

5-7 A

5-8

66

Olympus

5-8

25
2
4

5.4

Olympus

67

5-9 5 MHz 45

5-10

5-9
5-10
25

68

Olympus

5-10
5-11
25

0 50

5-11
5 MHz 40
70
S A A

Olympus

69

5-12 5-13 5-14 S


40 70
3 58
69

42

5-12 58

70

Olympus

5-13 69

Olympus

71

5-14 42

5.5

1 2
3


5-15a
5-15b

72

Olympus

5-15 a b

BIP
5-16

RA
PA
DA
SA

5-16
DA
PA
RA
SA

= A
=
=
=


5-17
5-18

Olympus

73

5-17

5-18

5-19

74

Olympus

B0

T1

45

5-19

Olympus

75

A-1

/ / /
0.5
E(1 )
v L = ------------------------------------------

( 1 + ) ( 1 2 )

/ / /

A-2

E = [N/m2]
= [kg/m3]
(E 2G)
= = -------------------2G
G = [N/m2]

0.5
E
v = -----------------------T
2 ( 1 + )

A-2
/ / /

( 0.87 + 1.12 )
v R = --------------------------------------- v T
(1 + )
/ / /

n
f = ---
t

10 6
MHz = 10 6 Hz = -------s

c
f = --

A-3

PL
v
= --- = ------ /
CN
f
PL = v 20dB /
CN =

Olympus

77

A-1

/ / /
( D2 2 )

A-4

N 0 = ---------------------- ;
4
D
D2 f
--- > 10 N 0 = --------- /
4v

D = /

A-5

k L 2 f
N = ----------------4v

cos 2
D2 f
N eff = ----------- --------------- /
4 v cos

L cos 2
k --------------------------- f L
cos
v
N eff = ------------------------------------------------ --------------------------4 v
v

D = /
= []
= []
L = /
L = UT /
v =
/ / /
v =
/ / /
k =
2k z
dB = ----------------------------- [1] /
D

z = UT /
z
(6dB) PE = -----D

2k z
( dB )W = ----------------------------W

W = /

78

Olympus

A-1
/ / /

2k z
( dB )L = ----------------------------L

k dB
dB = asin ------------------ [rad/]
D

0.5
(3dB) = (6dB) -----------D
[rad / ]
kdB = [1]

(6dB)L = asin ( 0.44 L )

[rad/]

(6dB)W = asin ( 0.44 W )

[rad/]

Z = v [kg/m2 s = Rayl]

106 [MRayl]
A-2

( Z2 Z1 )
R = ---------------------( Z1 + Z2 )

2Z 2
T = ---------------------( Z1 + Z2 )

4Z 1 Z 2
G = 10log 10 ------------------------( Z1 + Z2 ) 2

v1
sin
------------= ----v2
sin

Olympus

[dB]

79

A-2

SAE 20 / 30

HDPE

LDPE

PVC
Rexolite

1020
4340
302
347

Ti 150A

20 C

80

in./s
m/s

in./s
m/s

kg/m2s 106

0.107

2,730

0.056

1,430

3.22

0.249
0.508
0.174
0.183
0.709
0.076
0.229

6,320
12,900
4,430
4,660
18,000
1,920
5,820

0.123
0.350
0.083
0.089
0.485
-----0.119

3,130
8,880
2,120
2,260
12,320
-----3,020

17.06
23.50
37.30
41.61
63.35
2.42
49.47

0.138

3,500

0.087

2,200

25.00

0.220

5,600

0.126

3,200

40.00

0.232
0.085
0.106
0.246

5,890
2,160
2,680
6,250

0.128
0.028
0.050
0.132

3,250
700
1,260
3,350

30.70
24.29
3.16
63.75

0.069

1,740

------

------

1.51

0.222
0.087

5,630
2,200

0.117
0.043

2,960
1,100

49.99
2.40

0.102

2,600

0.047

1,200

3.10

0.097

2,460

0.051

1,295

2.36

0.082

2,080

0.025

645

1.91

0.092

2,340

0.046

1,160

2.47

0.094

2,395

0.042

1,060

3.35

0.092
0.063
0.379
0.058
0.232
0.230
0.223
0.226
0.131
0.240
0.204
0.058
0.164
0.183

2,330
1,610
9,620
1,485
5,890
5,850
5,660
5,740
3,320
6,100
5,180
1,480
4,170
4,650

0.045
-----0.206
-----0.128
0.128
0.123
0.122
0.066
0.123
0.113
-----0.095
0.089

1,155
-----5,230
-----3,240
3,240
3,120
3,090
1,670
3,120
2,870
-----2,410
2,250

2.47
2.43
22.50
1.56
45.41
45.63
45.45
45.40
24.20
27.69
99.72
1.48
29.61
30.13

Olympus

A-3 UT

[MHz]

Olympus

[mm]

[in.]

[mm]

[in.]

[ ]
1.5
0.059

2
4
5
10

0.75
0.4
0.3
0.15

0.030
0.016
0.012
0.006

1
2
4
5
10

(Hamikleer) [ ]
1.9
0.075
0.95
0.037
0.48
0.019
0.38
0.015
0.19
0.008

1
2
4
5
10

[ ]
2.7
0.106
1.35
0.053
0.75
0.030
0.54
0.021
0.27
0.011

1
2
4
5
10

Rexolite [ ]
2.3
0.091
1.15
0.045
0.58
0.023
0.46
0.018
0.23
0.009

1
2
4
5
10

[ ]
5.9
0.232
3
0.118
1.5
0.059
1.2
0.047
0.6
0.024

3.2
1.6
0.8
0.6
0.3

0.126
0.063
0.032
0.024
0.012

1
2
4
5
10

[ ]
6.1
0.240
3
0.118
1.5
0.059
1.2
0.047
0.6
0.024

3
1.5
0.8
0.6
0.3

0.118
0.059
0.032
0.024
0.012

81

A-4
[MHz]
5

[mm]
10
12

20

24

68
136
272
340
680

96
192
384
480
920

1
2
4
5
10

4.2
8.4
17
21
42

v = 1.5 mm/s
6
17
24
12
34
48
24
68
96
30
85
120
60
170
240

1
2
4
5
10

1
2
4
5
10

v = 5.9 mm/s
1.5
4
6
3
8
12
6
16
24
7.
20
30
15
40
60

16
32
64
80
160

24
48
96
120
240

1
2
4
5
10

2
4
8
10
20

v = 3.2 mm/ s
3
8
12
6
16
24
12
32
48
15
40
60
30
80
120

32
64
128
160
320

48
96
192
240
480

1
2
4
5
10

1.3
2.6
5
6.5
13

v = 4.7 mm/s
2
5
8
4
10
16
8
20
32
10
26
40
20
52
80

20
40
80
104
208

32
64
128
160
320

1
2
4
5
10

1
2
4
5
10

v = 6.3 mm/s
1.4
4
6
3
8
12
6
16
24
7
20
30
14
40
60

16
32
64
80
160

24
48
96
120
240

A-5 mm mm -6 dB []
v = 3,250 m/s
[MHz]
1
2
4
5

82

66

89

N0

N0

N/A
9
N/A
20

N/A
6
N/A
2.5

8
15
30
40

10
5
2.5
2

16 16
N0

20 22
N0

32
64
128
160

45
90
180
225

5
2.5
1.2
1

4
2
1
0.8

Olympus

B-1

1 mm

1 cm
1 m

= 39.37 mils
= 0.03937 in.
= 0.3937 in.
= 39.37 in.
= 3.28 ft

1 cm2

= 0.155 in.2

1 m2

= 10.7639 ft2

1 mm/s
/

= 0.03937 in./s
/

1 m/s /

= 3.28 ft/s /
= 196.85 ft/min
/

1 g

= 0.03527 oz

1 kg

Olympus

1 kg/m3
/

= 35.2739 oz
= 2.20462 lb
= 0.062428 lb/ft3
/

83

B-1

1 kg/m2s /

84

= 0.001423 lb/in.2s /

= 0.204816 lb/ft2s /

= (5/9) (F 32)

C 1.8 + 32

= F

Olympus

Olympus

www.olympus-ims.com/en/forum/

Olympus IMS www.olympus-ims.com


Olympus
Olympus

> >

> > >

> > >


Olympus IMS

>
Olympus

Olympus

85

> >

86

Olympus

16

256
Olympus NDT

www.olympus-ims.com/en

EPOCH 1000
OmniScan UTPAECECA
TomoScan FOCUS LT UT
TomoView UT

Olympus

87

D.1 EPOCH 1000

EPOCH 1000
EPOCH 10001000iR1000i
VGA
EN12668-1 EPOCH 1000
EPOCH 1000i


EN12668-1
37
6 kHz


/
IP66


VGA
ClearWave Visual Enhancement A

SureView

88

Olympus

DAC/TVG
DGS/AVG

Olympus

89

D.2 OmniScan UT PA
EC ECA
OmniScan Olympus NDT

OmniScan

OmniScan


4.6 10.1
8.4 60 Hz A SVGA
800 600

16:16 16:16M 16:64M 16:128 32:32 32:128
A B C
S

90

Olympus

D.3 TomoScan FOCUS LT


UT
TomoScan FOCUS LT UT

UT

TomoScan FOCUS LT
TomoScan FOCUS LT 3U

PC TomoView

UT TOFD + P/E
1 GB
100Base-T 4 MB/s
64:128
PRF 20 kHz

Olympus

91

D.4 TomoView UT
TomoView PC

TomoView
Olympus PA UT

TomoView Microsoft WindowsXPWindows VistaWindows 7

1 GB
TomoView OmniScan .oud .opd
OmniScan

UT

OmniScan

A B C D S


TomoView Olympus TomoView Lite
TomoVIEWER
TomoView Lite OmniScan TomoView
TomoView

TomoVIEWER
TomoView OmniScan PA UT

92

Olympus

RF
ACG
S
S

B B B
B

NDT

Olympus

93

6 dB

C
/
E
E

94

Olympus

1632 64

20 dB

A
A

Olympus

95

6 dB

6 dB

S
S

96

Olympus

1. Olympus NDT. Introduction to Phased Array Ultrasonic Technology


Applications: R/D Tech Guideline
Waltham, MA: Olympus NDT, 2007. xviii, 356 p.
2. Olympus NDT. Advances in Phased Array Ultrasonic Technology
Applications Waltham, MA:
Olympus NDT, 2007. xvi, 394 p.
3. R/D Tech Corp. Phased Array Technical Guidelines: Useful Formulas,
Graphs, and Examples
Waltham, MA: R/D Tech Corp., 2005. x, 186 p.
4. Olympus NDT. EPOCH 1000 Series: Users Manual EPOCH 1000
910-269-EN. Waltham, MA:
Olympus NDT 2009 2 x,358 p.
5. Olympus NDT. OmniScan MXU-M Software: Users Manual
OmniScan MXU-M DMTA08101EN. Qubec, Canada: Olympus NDT 2009 10 . x, 284 p.
6. Olympus NDT. TomoViewUsers Manual TomoView
DMTA079-01EN. Waltham, MA: Olympus NDT, 2009 11
. viii, 160 p.
7. Olympus NDT. Phased Array Probes and Wedges
920-165C-EN. Waltham, MA: Olympus NDT, 2009 . 24 p.
8. Olympus NDT. Panametrics Ultrasonic Transducers: Wedges, Cables,
Test BlocksPanametrics
920-041D-EN. Waltham, MA: Olympus NDT, 2009 . ii, 50 p.
9. Davis, J. M. Advanced Ultrasonic Flaw Sizing Handbook
USA: The Art Room Corporation, 1998. 38 p.
10.Krautkrmer, Josef, and Herbert Krautkrmer; in collaboration with
W. Grabendrfer [et al.]. Ultrasonic testing of materials
Translation by J. D. Hislop in consultation with J. Krautkrmer.
4th fully rev. ed. Berlin; New York: Springer-Verlag, c1990. xvi, 677 p.

Olympus

97

2 7

ACG 54
93
ASME 54
A 34
93
34, 35 3-1
BIP 52, 60, 65,
72, 73 5-15
B
B 35
B 93
93
B 36, 37
3-3
93
36 3-2
CN 77
C 2, 39
94
40 3-6
10
DAC 57
TVG
E ( 77
EPOCH 1000 88
88
E 2
94
FOCUS LT TomoScan 91
91
G 77
m 77
NDT 5
Olympus 2
OmniScan 90
90
.opd 92

Olympus

.oud 92
PL 77
PRF 44
r 77
S 3, 9, 10, 41
30 +3042 3-8
35 +7043 3-9
96
1 49
4-1
2 49
4-2
4 50
4-3
67
TCG 3, 54, 57
TomoScan FOCUS LT 91
91
TomoView Lite 92
TomoVIEWER 92
TomoView 92
92
TVG 3
TVG/DAC 57
B
79
95
10, 26
13
52
35, 44
2

88
90
77
81
80
83
ASME

99

82
82
77
31
94
31
96
77, 81
60
14
14

51
25 2-22
12
A 34
m77
C
60
80
44
44
52

61
22
2-18
61, 61 5-2
47
78
82
82
79
77
13
12
95
13
94
8
11
77
33

95
12
44
79
17

100

17

A 64
5-5
38 3-4
, 62, 63 5-3

64 5-4
51
D

93
12
65
83
2, 41, 95
95
41 3-7
B 35
E 77
E77
74
5-17
2, 85

69 5-11
75 5-19
60
69
5-10
10, 26
94
26
26
26
26
28
2-25
95

94
21
10
48
17, 24
6
8
95

67 5-8
5

Olympus

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53 4-7
44
3-10
52
F
60
94
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48
61
27 2-23
79

74 5-17
74 5-18
72
17, 79
3, 96
93
17

96
95
96
95
85

77
83
85
87
21
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6 1-1
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60
91
60
77

77

52
52 4-5
53 4-6

94
54
56
4-9

Olympus

55 4-8
54
H
9
60
77, 80
B 36
93
36
96
60
11
83

14
14, 24
95
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52
51
52
52
48
48
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51
48
51
48
51
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47
47
48
47
48
85
31
G77

59
94
60
25 2-22
96
95
52 4-5
53 4-6

101

96
9 1-5
60
68
5-9
65
66 5-7
ACG54
93
47
12
95

82
78
78
78
82
11
82

82
82
26
22
26
26, 60
95
21, 26, 60
15
82
82
2 7
7
29
30
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60
94
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48
61
50
27 2-23
9
1-6
29 2-26
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14
26

102

93
26
96
27, 27
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75
5-19
69
5-11
69
5-10
78
13
14
94
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12
94
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60
54
85
M
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PL77
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P
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96
85
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60
60
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44

Olympus

95
95
95

Q
60
73 5-16

69
5-11
69 5-10
R
44
60

TomoView 92
92
TomoView Lite 92
TomoVIEWER 92
92
77
S
79
82

2
62
64 5-4
2, 41, 95
95
3, 96
93
65
3
96
3
3, 96
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95
63
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96
10
44
45
3-11

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3
S
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Olympus

S
74
5-18
87
88
91
92
90
59
61
59
60
60
60

14
18 2-10
18
2-11
60
13 2-4

79
29 2-26
78
79
78
29 2-26
28
2-25
62
10
94

4272 5-14
5870 5-12
6971 5-13
29
30
2-27
14, 14 2-5
94
14 2-5
BIP52, 60, 65,
72, 73 5-15

10 MHz 16 2-9
13 mm 16 2-7
2.25 MHz 16
2-8
3 mm 15 2-6

103

65
65
66 5-7

63 5-3

21
94
26
26
26
26
26
12 2-2
31
2-28
12
2-3
12

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60
60
77, 80
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77
80
77
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TVG3
TCG3, 54, 57
51
48
11
2
93
2
A 34
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92
44
44
16
17
53 4-6
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73
5-16

104

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44
/
51
44
T
5, 7, 22 2-18

12
61
12
12
21
24 2-21
22
21
11, 21
12
12, 21
7
13 2-4
14
2-5
12
51
11
20
11
2-1
21
60
7, 11, 21
2-16
11
21 2-17
23 2-19
31
7 1-3
77
20
10
7
48
79
51
44
12 2-2
12
. 5
W
85, 87

Olympus

85
2

.opd 92
.oud 92
NDT5
X
17
17
7
S 67
59
47
2, 38
62
64
5-4
38
3-4
95
39
3-5 , 65
66 5-7
50
51 4-4
7
23

95
59
93
22 2-18
59
6
1-2
33
10
9
48
52
51
52
52
48
48
/
51
48
51
48
51

Olympus

8
87
7
10
9
5
7, 11, 20 2-15
, 21 2-16
11
21 2-17
22 2-18
23 2-19
31
7 1-3
22
2-18
7
22
47
54
47

24 2-21
6
60

54
94
54
94
60
61, 61 5-2
23
22
23 2-19
94
10, 26
26

94
26
26
26
26
26
96
27 2-23
31
Y
21

105

11
11 2-1
21
60
93
5
E77

54
47
47
59
60
60
60
6
85
9
9
85
27, 27 2-24
14, 24
95
7
7
7
82
7

106

96
13
94
85
Z
54
56
4-9
55
4-8
34
31
18 2-10

10 19 2-12
30 19 2-13
65 20 2-14
20
7
78
r77
CN77
95
95
18 2-10 , 19
60
77, 80
79, 80

Olympus


2012 5
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