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Qus 1) What does .NET framework comprised off?




ANS: The .NET Framework is Microsoft's platform for building applications that have visually stunning user
experiences, seamless and secure communication and the ability to model a range of business processes. The
.NET Framework consists of :

Common Language Runtime - provides an abstraction layer over the operating system.

Base Class Libraries - pre-built code for common low-level programming tasks Development frameworks and
technologies - reusable, customizable solutions for larger programming tasks.

Qus 2)Which are the platform technologies supported by .NET framework?
ANS: The platform technologies mainly supported by .NET framework are ADO.NET, internet technologies and
interface designing.
Qus 3) How the windows programming is different from .NET programming?


ANS: In windows programming the application program calls the windows API function directly. The application
runs on the windows environment ie operating system itself. These type of application are called unmanaged or
unsafe application. In .NET programming the application program call .NET Base Class Library function which will
communicate with the operating system. The application runs in .NET Runtime environment. These type of
application are called managed or safe application. The .net Runtime starts code execution, manages thread,
provides services, managesmemory etc. The .NET Base Classes are fully object oriented. It provides all the
functionalities of traditional windows API along with functionalities in new areas like accessing database, internet
connection and web services.

Qus 4)What is the function of CTS? Explain the classification of types in CTS with a diagram.??
ANS: The Common Type Specification (CTS) performs the following functions:Establishes a common framework
that enables cross language integration, type safety and high performance code execution.Provides an object-
oriented model.defines rules that a language must follow, so that different language can interact with other
language.The classification for types of CTS








Qus 5)What are assemblies? What are static and dynamic assemblies?


ANS: Assemblies are the building blocks of .NET Framework applications; they form the fundamental unit of
deployment, version control, reuse, activation scoping, and security permissions. An assembly is a collection of
types and resources that are built to work together and form a logical unit of functionality. An assembly provides
the common language runtime with the information it needs to be aware of type implementations. To the runtime, at
type does not exist outside the context of an assembly.

Static assemblies can include .NET Framework types(interfaces and classes), as well as resources for the
assembly (bitmaps, JPEG files, resource files, and so on). Static assemblies are stored on disk in PE files. You can
also use the .NET Framework to create dynamic assemblies,which are run directly from memory and are not saved
to disk before execution. You can save dynamic assemblies to disk after they have executed.


Qus 6)Explain general structure of c#?


ANS: C# programs can consist of one or more files. Each file can contain one or more namespaces. A namespace
can contain types such as classes,structs, interfaces, enumerations, and delegates, in addition to other
namespaces. The following is the skeleton of a C# program that contains all of these elements.

// A skeleton of a C# program.
using System;
namespace MyNamespace1
{
class MyClass1
{
}struct MyStruct
{
}
interface IMyInterface
{
}delegate int MyDelegate();
enum MyEnum
{
}
namespace MyNamespace2
{
}
class MyClass2
{
public static void Main(string[] args)
{
}
}
}
Qus 7)How do namespaces and types in c# have unique names? Give examples.


ANS: Namespaces are C# program elements designed to help you organize your programs. They also provide
assistance in avoiding name clashes between two sets of code. Implementing Namespaces in your own code is a
good habit because it is likely to save you from problems later when you want to reuse some of your code. For
example, if you created a class named Console, you would need to put it in your own namespace to ensure that
there wasn't any confusion about when the System. Console class should be used or when your class should be
used. Generally, it would be a bad idea to create a class named Console, but in many cases your classes will be
named the same as classes in either the .NET Framework Class Library or a third party library and namespaces
help you avoid the problems that identical class names would cause. Namespaces don't correspond to file or
directory names. If naming directories and files to correspond to namespaces helps you organize your code, then
you may do so, but it is not required. For exp-mynamespace1, mynamspace2 etc.
Qus 8)What is delegate? What is the use of it? Give example.


ANS: A delegate is a type that references a method. Once a delegate is assigned a method, it behaves exactly like
that method. The delegate method can be used like any other method, with parameters and a return value.A
delegate is extremely important for C# as it is one of the four entities that can be placed in a namespace. This
makes it shareable among classes. Delegates are fully object oriented as they entirely enclosed or encapsulate an
object instance and a method. A delegate defines a class and extends System. Delegate. It can call any function as
long as the
methods signature matches the delegates. This makes delegates ideal for anonymous invocation. The methods
signature only includes the return type and the parameter list. If two delegates have the same parameter and return
type, that is, they share the same signature; we consider them as different delegates Public delegate int Perform
Calculation (int x, int y);
Qus 9) Write a program to demonstrate use of enums in C#?


ANS:
=== Example program that uses enums (C#) ===
Using System;
Class Program
{
Enum Importance
{
None,
Trivial,
Regular,
Important,
Critical
};
static void Main()
{
// 1.Importance i1 = Importance. Critical;
// 2.
If (i1 == Importance. Trivial)
{
Console.WriteLine("Not true");
}
Else if (i1 == Importance. Critical)
{
Console.WriteLine ("True");
}
}
}Output of the program True


Qus 10)What is the use of attributes in C# programs?
ANS:
The advantage of using attributes resides in the fact that the information that it contains is inserted into the
assembly. This information can then be consumed at various times for all sorts of purposes:

An attribute can be consumed by the compiler. The System.ObsoleteAttribute attribute that we have just
described is a good example of how an attribute is used by the compiler; certain standard attributes which are only
destined for the compiler are not stored in the assembly. For example, the Serialization Attribute Attribute does not
directly mark a type but rather tells the compiler that type can be serialized. Consequently, the compiler sets
certain flags on the concerned type which will be consumed by the CLR during execution such attributes are also
named pseudo-attributes.
An attribute can be consumed by the CLR during execution. For Example the .NET Framework offers the
System.ThreadStaticAttribute attribute. When a static field is marked with this attribute the CLR makes sure that
during the execution, there is only one version of this field per thread.
An attribute can be consumed by a debugger during execution. Hence,the
System.Diagnostics.DebuggerDisplayAttribute attribute allows personalizing the display of an element of the code
(the state of an object for example) during debugging.
An attribute can be consumed by a tool, for example, the .NET framework offers the
System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisibleAttribute attribute. When A class is marked with this attribute, the
tlbexp.exe tool generates a file which will allow this class to be consumed as if it was a COM object.
An attribute can be consumed by your own code during execution by using the reflection mechanism to access
the information. For Example, it can be interesting to use such attributes to validate the value of fields in your
classes. Such a field must be within a certain range. Another reference field must not be null. A string field can beat
most 100 characters. Because of the reflection mechanism, it is easy to write code to validate the state of any
marked fields. A little later, we will show you such an example where you can consume attributes by your own
code.
An attribute can be consumed by a user which analyses an assembly with a tool such as ildasm.exe or Reflector.
Hence you could imagine an attribute which would associate a character string to an element of your code. This
string being contained in the assembly, it is then possible to consult these comments without needing to access
source code.
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Qus 1. What are the categories of operations under E-Commerce? Explain.
ANS: The following categories of operations came under e-commerce.

the service provider network (like ISP).With suitable encryption of data and security for transaction, entire
operation of selling/buying and settlement of accounts can be automated.

ted at different locations.





eded for legal purposes, including taxation, legal suits etc.
marketing.

Qus 2. What is the role of encryption in E-Commerce? Explain.
ANS: Messaging services offer solutions for communicating non-formatted (unstructured)data-letters, memos,
reports as well as formatted (structured) data such as purchase orders, shipping notices, and invoices. It
supports both synchronous (immediate) and asynchronous (delayed) message delivery and processing. It is not
associated with any particular communication protocol. No preprocessing is necessary, although there is an
increasing need for programs to interpret the message. Messaging is well suited for both client-server and peer-to-
peer computing models.
The main disadvantages of messaging are the new types of applications it enables which appear to be more
complex, especially to traditional programmers and the jungle of standards it involves. Also, security, privacy,
and confidentiality through data encryption and authentication techniques are important issues that need to be
resolved.
3. Explain the architecture frame work of electronic commerce?
ANS: The electronic commerce application architecture consists of six layers of functionality, or functionality, or
services: (1) applications; (2) brokerage services, data or transaction management; (3) interface and support layers;
(4) secure messaging,security, and electronic document interchange; (5) middleware and structured document
interchange; and (6) network infrastructure and basic communications services.

The application services layer of e-commerce will be comprised of
existing and future applications built on the innate architecture. Three district classes of electronic commerce
applications can be distinguished; customer-to-business, business-to-business, and intra-organization.

The information brokerage and management layer provides service
integration through the notion of information brokerages, the development of which is necessitated by the
increasing information resource fragmentation. We use the notion of information brokerage to represent an
intermediary who provides service integration between customers and information providers, given some
constraint such as a low price, fast service, or profit maximization for a client.Information brokerage does more
than just searching. It addresses the issue of adding value to the information that is retrieved. For instance, in
foreign exchange trading,information is retrieved about the latest currency exchange rates in order to hedge
currency holdings to minimize risk and maximize profit. With multiple transactions being the norm in the real world,
service integration becomes critical.
The importance of the fourth layer, secured
messaging, is clear. Broadly defined,messaging is the software that sits between the network infrastructure and the
clients or electronic commerce applications, masking the peculiarities of the environment. In General, messaging
products are not applications that solve problems; they are more enablers of the applications that solve
problems.Messaging services offer solutions for communicating non-formatted (unstructured)data-letters, memos,
reports as well as formatted (structured) data such as purchase orders, shipping notices, and invoices. It
supports both synchronous (immediate) and asynchronous (delayed) message delivery and processing. It is not
associated with any particular communication protocol. No preprocessing is necessary, although there is an
increasing need for programs to interpret the message. Messaging is well suited for both client-server and peer-to-
peer computing models.
Middleware is a relatively new concept that emerged only recently. With the growth of
networks, client-server technology, and all other forms of communicating between /among unlike platforms, the
problems of getting all the pieces to work together grew.In simple terms, middleware is the ultimate mediator
between diverse softwareprograms that enables them talk to one another.
Another reason for middleware is the computing shift from application centric to data centric. To achieve data
centric computing, middleware services focus on three elements: transparency, transaction security and
management, and distributed object management and services.
Transparency implies that users should be unaware that they are accessing multiple systems.
Transparency is essential for dealing with higher-level issues than physical media and interconnection that the
underlying network infrastructure is in charge of. The ideal picture is one of a virtual{ network: a collection of
work-group,departmental, enterprises, and inter enterprise LANs that appears to the end user or client application
to be a seamless and easily accessed whole. Transparency is accomplished using middleware that facilitates a
distributed computing environment. The goal is form the applications to send a request to the middleware layer,
which then satisfies the request any way it can, using remote information.
Interface and Support Services: Interface and support services, will provide interfaces for electronic commerce
applications such as interactive catalogs and will support directory services functions necessary for information
search and access. Interactive catalogs are the customizedinterface to consumer applications such as home
shopping.An interactive catalog is an extension of the paper-based catalog and incorporatesadditional features
such as sophisticated graphics and video to make the advertisingmore attractive.

4. List the OMCs [order Management Cycle] generic steps.?
ANS: OMC [Order Management Cycle] has the following generic steps:

Order Planning and Order Generation
Cost Estimation and Pricing
Order Receipt and Entry
Order Selection and Prioritization
Order Scheduling
Order Fulfillment and Delivery
Order Billing and Account / Payment Management
Post-sales Service
5. Explain mercantile models from the merchants perspective?
ANS: The order-to-delivery cycle from the merchants perspective has been managed with an eye toward
standardization and cost. To achieve a better understanding, it is necessary to examine the order management
cycle (OMC) that encapsulates the more traditional order-to-delivery cycle. OMC has the following generic steps.
.i. Order Planning and Order Generation: The business process begins long before an actual order is placed by the
customer. The first step is order planning. Order planning leads into order generation. Orders are generated in
number of ways in the e-commerce environment. The sales force broadcasts ads (direct marketing), sends
personalized e-mail to customers (cold calls), or creates a WWW page.

ii.Cost Estimation and Pricing: Pricing is the bridge between customer needs and company capabilities. Pricing at
the individual order level depends on understanding, the value to the customer that is generated by each order,
evaluating the cost of filling each order; and instituting as system that enables the company to price each order
based on its valued and cost. Although order-based pricing is difficult work that requires meticulous thinking and
deliberate execution, the potential for greater profits is simply worth the effort.

iii.Order Receipt and Entry: After an acceptable price quote, the customer enters the order receipt and entry phase
of OMC. Traditionally, this was under the purview of departments variously titled customer service, order entry, the
inside sales desk, or customer liaison. These Departments are staffed by customer service representatives, usually
either very experienced, long-term employees or totally inexperienced trainees. In either case,these representatives
are in constant contact with customers.

iv. Order Selection and Prioritization: Customer service representatives are also often responsible for choosing
which orders to accept and which to decline. In fact, not all customer orders are created equal;some are simply
better for the business than others.Another completely ignored issue concerns the importance of order selection
and prioritization.Companies that put effort into order selection and link it to their business strategy stand to make
more money.

v. Order Scheduling: During the ordering scheduling phase the prioritized orders get slotted into an actual
production or operational sequence. This task is difficult because the different functional departments sales,
marketing, customer service, operations, or production-may have conflicting goals.Communication between the
functions is often nonexistent, with customer service reporting to sales and physically separated from production
scheduling, which reports to manufacturing or operations. The result is lack of interdepartmental coordination.

vi. Order Fulfillment and Delivery: During the order fulfillment and delivery phase the actual provision of the
product or service is made. While the details vary from industry to industry, in almost every company this step has
become increasingly complex. Often, order fulfillment involves multiple functions and locations. The more
complicated the task the more coordination required across the organization.

vii.Order Billing and Account / Payment Management: After the order has been fulfilled and delivered, billing is
typically handled by the finance staffs, who view their job as getting the bill out efficiently and collecting quickly.
viii.Post-sales Service: This phase plays an increasingly important role in all elements of a companys profit
equation: customer value, price, and cost. Depending on the specifics of the business,it can include such elements
as physical installation of a product, repair and maintenance, customer training, equipment upgrading and
disposal. Because of the information conveyed and intimacy involved, post sales service can affect customer
satisfaction and company profitability for years.
6. What are the three types electronic tokens? Explain.
ANS: Electronic tokens are of three types:

Cash or real-time. Transactions are settled with the exchange of electronic currency. An example of on-line
currency exchange is electronic cash (e-cash)

Debit or prepaid. Users pay in advance for the privilege of getting information.Examples of prepaid payment
mechanisms are stored in smart cards and electronic purses that store electronic money.
Credit or postpaid. The server authenticates the customers and verifies with the bank that funds are adequate
before purchase. Examples of postpaid mechanisms are credit / debit cards and electronic checks.
7. What is e-cash? Give the properties of e-cash.
ANS: Electronic cash (e-cash) is a new concept in on-line payment systems because it combines computerized
convenience with security and privacy that improve on papercash. Its versatility opens up a host of new markets
and applications. E-cash presents some interesting characteristics that should make it an attractive alternative for
payment over the Internet.E-cash focuses on replacing cash as the principal payment vehicle in consumer-oriented
electronic payments. The predominance of cash indicates an opportunity for innovative business practices that
revamps the purchasing process where consumers are heavy users of cash. To really displace cash, the electronic
payment systems need to have some qualities of cash that current credit and debit cards lack. For example, cash is
negotiable,meaning it can be given or traded to someone else. Cash is legal tender, meaning the payee is obligated
to take it. Cash is a bearer instrument, meaning that possession is prima facie proof of ownership. Also, cash can
be held and used by anyone even those who dont have a bank account, and cash places no risk on the part of the
acceptor that the medium of exchange may not be good.Properties of e-cash: E-cash must have the following four
properties
Monetary value

Interoperability

Retrievability
Security

E-cash must have a monetary value; it must be backed by either cash (currency), bank-authorized credit, or a bank-
certified cashiers check. When e-cash created by one bank is accepted by others, reconciliation must occur
without any problems. Stated another way, e-cash without proper bank certification carries the risk that when
deposited, it might be returned for insufficient funds.E-cash must be interoperable that is, exchangeable as
payment for other e-cash, paper cash, goods or services, lines of credit, deposits in banking accounts, bank notes
or obligations, electronic benefits transfers, and the like. E-cash must be storable and retrievable. The cash could
be stored on a remote computers memory, in smart cards, or in other easily transported standard or special-
purpose devices. Because it might be easy to create counterfeit cash that is stored in a computer, it might be
preferable to store cash on a dedicated device that cannot be altered. This device should have a suitable interface
to facilitate personal authentication using passwords or other means and a display so that the user can view the
cards contents.E-cash should not be easy to copy or tamper with while being exchanged; this includes preventing
or detecting duplication and double-spending.
Counterfeiting poses a particular problem, since a counterfeiter may, in the Internet Environment, be anywhere in
the world and consequently be difficult to catch without appropriate international agreements. Detection is
essential in order to audit whether prevention is working. Then there is the tricky issue of double spending
(DFN88). For instance,one could use e-cash simultaneously to buy something in Japan, India, and England.
Preventing Double-spending from occurring is extremely difficult if multiple banks are involved in the transaction.
For this reason, most systems rely on post-fact detection and punishment.