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S470 Summer 2014

Annotated Bibliography
For inpatients receiving attention in the intensive care setting, does the use of technology to
monitor and resuscitate patients hinder nurses moral judgments or critical thinking skills
compared with relying on acquired skills and nursing intuition?
Browne, M., & Cook, P. (2011). Inappropriate trust in technology: implications for critical
care nurses. Nursing I n Critical Care, 16(2), 92-98. doi:10.1111/j.1478-
Mike Brown, who is a registered nurse and a senior lecturer at Liverpool John Moores
University, and Penny Cook, a researcher from the Center for Public Health of Liverpool,
composed a research article reviewing intensive care nurses manner in relying on
medical equipment to monitor patients. Evidence from their research reveals that nurses
are inclined to trust the accuracy of technology, which can be faulty, leading to errors and
patient harm. Many works are cited that support the researchers hypothesis, and the
authors use those works to present a bias-free and balanced research article that states
factual information, making the article relevant.
Funk, M. (2011). As healthcare technology advances: benefits and risks. American J ournal
Of Critical Care, 20(4), 285-291. doi:10.4037/ajcc2011810
Marjorie Funk is a professor at Yale University School of Nursing and a registered nurse
who presented her work about the benefits and risks of technology advances at the
AACN National Teaching Institute. The author argues that the use of technology is
essential in providing care, especially for critically-ill patients but must also be carefully
monitored and used appropriately. She discusses many examples of improper use of
S470 Summer 2014
Annotated Bibliography
technology that she has experienced herself. Additionally, she conducted various
experiments that revealed how clinicians have used technology, suggesting that if the
equipment is not used appropriately, it may be better to not use the equipment at all than
risk the complications from it. Her style of writing was very readable and unbiased, and
she indicated her qualifications as she explored topics, making the article very useful in
answering the PICO question. Her many references are cited at the end of the article.
Lapum, J., Fredericks, S., Beanlands, H., McCay, E., Schwind, J., & Romaniuk, D. (2012).
A cyborg ontology in health care: traversing into the liminal space between
technology and person-centered practice. Nursing Philosophy, 13(4), 276-288.
The authors, professors and researchers at various nursing schools in Canada who are all
registered nurses, use the analogy of cyborgs to philosophically explore the nursing
practice and its relationship with technology. They discuss the idea that clinicians are
shaped by the technology that they use, as it facilitates their healthcare practices. So,
they encourage practitioners to embrace the fact that technology is unavoidably part of
the profession. The article is written at an elevated level and uses much jargon but is
relevant to answering the research question, as it is the antithesis to the theory. Since the
work is philosophical research, the authors are more biased in their arguments and
simply urge readers to accept the integration of technology rather than scrutinize it. The
article closes with a citation of many academic sources from which the authors gained
information from.

S470 Summer 2014
Annotated Bibliography
O'Keefe-McCarthy, S. (2009). Technologically-mediated nursing care: the impact on moral
agency. Nursing Ethics, 16(6), 786-796. doi:10.1177/0969733009343249
Sheila OKeefe-McCarthy is a registered nurse and a faculty member at the University of
Toronto School of Nursing. O-Keefe-McCarthy focuses on the ethical aspects of
technology and argues that technology changes the dynamic of the patient-nurse
relationship but is vital to patient care in the intensive care setting. In her research, the
nurses attention is drawn to the technology, distancing them from the patient and even
changing a nurses moral outlook. Further, she believes that since nurses can use
technology to ultimately control a patients life, that control can impede a nurses ability
to make moral judgments. She reasons that in order to ensure patient-centered care, a
nurse can reflect on their own moral practices while using these technologies to do what
is best for that patient. The author was unbiased in that she gives factual information,
making the article relevant to answering the PICO question. She explores the good and
bad that technology can offer, making recommendations for improvement, and cites
many sources at the end to support her thesis.