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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................3
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

OBJECTIVES.........................................................................................................4
2.1
2.2
2.3

CLOSED LOOP TRAVERSE...........................................................................3


LEVELLING.....................................................................................................3
STADIA TACHEOMETRY................................................................................4
TOTAL STATION @ EDM TACHEOMETRY..................................................4

CLOSED LOOP TRAVERSE...........................................................................4


LEVELLING.....................................................................................................5
TACHEOMETRY.............................................................................................5

WORKING PROCEDURE AND STEP TAKEN.....................................................5


3.1 CLOSED LOOP TRAVERSE............................................................................5
3.1.1 COMMENTS AND PROBLEM FACED DURING FIELD WORK...............5
3.1.2 EQUIPMENTS/INSTRUMENTS................................................................7
3.1.3 PROCEDURE..........................................................................................10
3.1.4 PRECAUTION STEPS.............................................................................12
3.2 LEVELLING...................................................................................................13
3.2.1 COMMENTS AND PROBLEM FACED....................................................13
3.2.2 EQUIPMENTS / INSTRUMENT USED...................................................15
3.2.3 PROCEDURE..........................................................................................16
3.3 STADIA TACHEOMETRY..............................................................................17
3.3.1 COMMENT AND PROBLEM FACED......................................................17
3.3.2 EQUIPMENTS/INSTRUMENT.................................................................18
3.3.3 PROCEDURE..........................................................................................19
3.4 TOTAL STATION TACHEOMETRY...............................................................21
3.4.1 COMMENTS AND PROBLEM FACED....................................................21
3.4.2 EQUIPMENTS/INSTRUMENT.................................................................22
3.4.3 PROCEDURE..........................................................................................23

EDM TACHEOMETRY.........................................................................................24
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3

COMMENTS AND PROBLEM FACED....................................................24


EQUIPMENTS/INSTRUMENT.................................................................25
PROCEDURE..........................................................................................25

RESULT AND ANALYSIS....................................................................................26


5.1
5.2
5.3

CLOSED LOOP TRAVERSE.........................................................................26


LEVELLING...................................................................................................27
STADIA TACHEOMETRY..............................................................................28
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5.4 TOTAL STATION...........................................................................................34


5.5 EDM TACHEOMETRY.................................................................................39
5.5.1 CONCEPT OF TOTAL STATION / EDM..................................................39
5.6 SKETCHES...................................................................................................43
6

CONCLUSION......................................................................................................44
6.1
6.2
6.3

RECOMENDATION..............................................................................................45
7.1
7.2

CLOSED LOOP TRAVERSE.........................................................................44


LEVELLING...................................................................................................44
TOTAL STATION @ EDM TACHEOMETRY................................................45

CLOSED LOOP TRAVERSE..........................................................................45


LEVELLING...................................................................................................46

REFERENCES.....................................................................................................47

1 INTRODUCTION
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1.1 CLOSED LOOP TRAVERSE

Geomatic

engineering involved various field of work for managing,

measuring, presentation and analyzing the geospatial data relating the earth. That
data can be obtained from various sources including observation of satellite orbiting
the earth as well as terrestrial instrument.
Traverse is essentially a series of straight lines connecting points along the
path of a survey. The lengths and directions of the lines are measured in the field,
and the positions or co-ordinates of the points computed. These points, called
traverse stations, are commonly marked with wooden pegs, stakes, nails or iron
pipes. There are many types of traverse, but in this task, we need to do a closed
loop traverse.
Closed loop traverse have a polygon shape. This type of traverse is doing by
starting and ending with the same point. This closed traverse is usually practiced and
can check the accuracy.
After we do a closed loop traverse, we need to know the linear misclosure of
the survey. These discrepancies represent the difference on the ground between the
position of the point computed from the observations and the known position of the
point. By itself the linear misclosure only gives a measure of how far the computed
position is from the actual position (accuracy of the traverse measurements).

1.2 LEVELLING
Levelling is the process of using optical level and levelling staff to calculate
height. Height can be measured by levelling to a precision better than 0.01m, but
fieldwork tend to be slow. Levelling is widely used to establish a vertical control
network, and small project which required the determination of few height points.
The level we used is tilting level which is foot screws are used to centre the
circular bubble, there by approximately setting the telescope in a horizontal plane.
When the telescope has been focused on the staff, the line of sight is set more
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precisely horizontal using the highly sensitive tubular bubble using the tilting screw
which is raises or lowers one end of telescope

1.3 STADIA TACHEOMETRY


As a surveyor, we need to know all the method to make observation at the
project site. In this assignment we required to do stadia (theodolite) tacheometry.
This method helps to obtain the position and height of point with relatively quick and
accurate mean by taking theodolite observation onto the levelling staff. It is therefore
best used in obtaining the spot height in the production of contoured site plan.

1.4 TOTAL STATION @ EDM

TACHEOMETRY

. In this assignment we required to do total station and electronic distance


measure (EDM) tacheometry. This method helps to obtain the position and height of
point with relatively quick and accurate mean by taking total station observation onto
the prism. It is therefore best used in obtaining the spot height in the production of
contoured site plan.

2 OBJECTIVES
2.1 CLOSED LOOP TRAVERSE

To ensure student would be able to know the differences of all traverse and
know all the purpose of the traverse.

To study and understand about the meaning of the open traverse and closed
traverse, and also the calculation of latitude and departure.

To study and understand about the linear misclosure and the adjustment of
the traverse with Transit rule or Bowditch rule.

Each student able to recognize type and sources of error as well as minimize
the errors during taking the measurement.

To make sure student can communicate and help each other.

2.2 LEVELLING

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To determine the level of each point in that was established in the field work
before, from the nearest benchmark.

To make us familiar to the basic thing while doing the practical on levelling.

To make students know how to use equipment well and know the function of
each equipment.

2.3 TACHEOMETRY

Make sure to understand what is needed to be observed and recorded in the


total station tacheometry procedure

Able to decide the best point for the spot height


Understand all the calculation needed in determining all the details

coordinates and reduced level of points


Understand and know how to set the total station properly before taking

measurement
Make sure to understand what is needed to be observed in the stadia
tacheometry procedure.

3 WORKING PROCEDURE AND STEP TAKEN


3.1 CLOSED LOOP TRAVERSE
3.1.1 COMMENTS AND PROBLEM FACED DURING FIELD WORK
3.1.1.1 WEEK 1

Arrived UKK lab approximately at 0730H, but lab assistance said that all
group member must be there before they can hands to us all the equipments. This is
because we are new to total station and prism. We had some briefing about how to
handle the equipment safely without cause any defect. After all group member arrive,
we carry all the equipment to the traverse site where had been ramdomly given by
our beloved lecturer: En Usmuni.
Before start the traverse work, En Usmuni ask some group members to have
lecture on how to use the total station. While awaiting the lecture is done, others
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member of the group survey the location of traverse and do some pacing before
decided where to put the point or station.
We got no problems to put 3 station near M40 and M41, but not near to M36
and M35. This is because there are trees and bushes blocking the view from station
to another. After dicussing, we agreed to put the station beside M36 where it is quiet
far from the station near M41 but its is still viewable. Then all the station is
confirmed.
We started our work at station near to M41( station 1). After all the work is
done, we pack all the instrument carefully. We went to UKK lab to return want we
borrow.
3.1.1.2 WEEK 2

Our entire group member has arrived at UKK Lab. We check the instrument
first before we borrow from UKK Lab. Then we start walking to our project site and at
the same time we can see a few groups also walking to their project site. After
almost 15minutes walking, we arrived at our project site. We start discussing with our
group members for what we need to do and dividing task for each person in our
group. We decide to give each person 1station to take the reading and familiar with
the total station.
After we already find the suitable place for us to make the station, we start to
set up our instruments. While observing at station 1 to station 2, we dont face any
problem but when observing at station 2 to station 3, we have a little problem which
is the area are quite bushes and a lot of mosquito there. We dont face any problem
for observation at station 3, but at station 4 we have a small flower tree that blocking
our observation sight from total station to prism and we overcome this problem by
one of our group members pull the tree until the tree not blocking the observation
sight.
After we have finish taking observation from all the station, we calculated the
data we get from each station and start packing the instrument before we going back
to UKK Lab.

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3.1.1.3 WEEK 3

We have started the project quite late because during that morning got a
rainfall. Our group arrived at UKK Lab around 7.45am, but we are not allowed to
borrow the instrument because its still raining and we cant do the fieldwork during
raining. So we must wait until the rain stop before we can borrow the instrument and
start our fieldwork. After the rain has stopped, we borrow the instruments and go to
our project site immediately.
When arrived at project site, all our group seat together and start discussing
what we need to do, but we face a problem where all our group members dont know
how to do this 2nd project, so we overcome this problem by asking a few group near
us to explain how to do this project. After we get all the information and clear with
what we need to do, we divide the duty among us and start the project.
For this week, we need to share the datum point with others group near us,
so we need to wait until our turn to make the observation from the datum point to our
station. For our station 3, we need to find other suitable place to replace our station 3
because we cant observe the datum point from our station 3, so we find another
place to build the station where we can observe the datum point and others station
from this new station. For the others station we dont have any problem, we
successfully finish our project before afternoon during that day.

3.1.2

EQUIPMENTS/INSTRUMENTS

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TOTAL STATION @ ELECTRONIC DISTANCE MEASUREMENT


(TOPCON 5)
( to measure horizontal and vertical angle of the point )
[ 1 unit ]

PRISM
( as the target plate and pair to the total station to measure distance)
[ 2 units ]

TRIPOD
( to hold the prism and total station )
[ 3 units ]

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MEASURING TAPE
( to measure the distance for each stations )
[ 1 unit ]

WOODEN PEG
( will be planting to the ground to mark every stations )
[ according to need ]

HAMMER
( to planting the wooden peg into the ground )
[ 1 unit ]

3.1.3 PROCEDURE
3.1.3.1 SETTING UP THE THEODOLITE

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1. This is first time field work in this 2 nd semester and we used the total station
2.

instrument to measure bearing and distance.


To determine the station, we do pacing and make sure three stations can

be seen from the observation point (total station).


3. During setting up the total station, a few steps must be followed by us
before we can use it to measure the bearing and angle.
4. The first step we do is called centring.
5. Firstly we find the ground mark, a station where we set up our tripod and
total station.
6. After that, we adjusted the tripod head until its position approximately
centred above the ground mark.
7. Then, when the tripod is centred, we take the total station and attached to it
8. We were holding the total station until we tighten the screw that holds total
station on tripod.
9. In order to centre the total station, we put one of our legs beside the ground
mark as an indicator when we observe the ground mark through the eye
piece for optical plummet.
10. When the tripod is centred, we continued setting up our total station with
levelling steps.
11. For this step, we need to refer from two important indicator which called
spherical level and plate level.
12. Each of these indicators contains a bubble on it.
13. First thing that we do in levelling steps is we try to insert a bubble on a circle
mark in spherical level.
14. In order to centre the bubble and insert it on a circle mark, we use a tripod
legs by adjusted its height.
15. After that, we continue the adjusting using a foot screw until the bubble
properly inserted on the circle mark and centred of spherical level.
16. Then, we continue the levelling step by refer to the plate level.
17. Same as spherical level, we centred the bubble on plate level by using a
foot screw.

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Bubble Centring

18. After both bubbles on spherical level and plate level is centred, we loosen a
little bit the screw that holds total station on tripod.
19. This is because we want to centre the total station back by observing the
ground mark through eyepiece for optical plummet.
20. After that, we switched on the electronic part of the total station.
21. After we step up the total station, we continue by setting up two prisms at
different station.
22. The method for setting up the prism is still same with total station which is it
also have the tripod. We need to levelling and centring the tripod and prism.
23. After we have done with cantering and levelling the prism, we directed total
station to the 1st station using the collimator.
3.1.3.2 ANGLE READING

1) 5 stations were set up, labelled as station 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.


2) Bearing of station 1 to 5 was determined using the prismatic compass.(week 1)
3) The theodolite was set up at station 1 with the circle faced left. The bearing of
station 1 to 5 was set on the theodolite and the theodolite was pointed to station
5.
4) The theodolite is then pointed to station 2. The angle between is obtained and
recorded as horizontal angle. The vertical angle was also observed and recorded.
5) Without removing the theodolite from station 1, the horizontal angle was obtained
with the circle facing right this time.
6) Step 3 till 5 was repeated as the theodolite was set on other station ( station 2, 3,
4, and 5).
3.1.4 PRECAUTION STEPS

1. While taking the readings on the dial for bearings of a line, it must be ensured
that readings are taking from the correct end.
2. Always take the readings on the dial after the needle has come to rest. If the
needle oscillates too much, it may be brought to rest by gently pressing the
brake pin, provided under the object vane of the prismatic compass.
3. The compass top should be gently tapped if the needle appears to be
sluggish, so that it may destroy the effect of any possible adhesion to pivot or
friction due to dust upon it.
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4. As the magnetic needle is affected by the presence of a metallic substance, it


is better that no keys or pins or steel spectacles be brought in close proximity
of the magnetic needle.
5. When the work of prismatic compass finished the magnetic needle should be
raised off the pivot by closing down the object vane, which automatically
pressed the small button which raises the needle off its bearing.
6. While taking the readings for bearings, the compass should not be touched
with hand.
7. While making the observations with the prismatic compass, the observer
should not keep the leg of the prismatic stand is between his own legs. He
should stand with both the legs away from the leg of the tripod.
8. Before observations for bearing are made, the compass should be tested with
the help of the small circular pencil if it is perfectly horizontal.
9. When it is required to close the compass the reflecting mirror provided on the
object vane should be slide to the top of the object vane and then folded.
10. While working with prismatic compass, do not rub the glass cover, as it
produces static charges of electricity; a moistened finger pressed against the
will remove such charges.

3.2 LEVELLING
3.2.1 COMMENTS AND PROBLEM FACED
On our 2nd project, our task is to do the levelling from the nearest bench mark
to our station. As usual, our group arrived at UKK Lab around 7.45am.Then we start
borrow the instrument and the weather for that day is quite good for us to do the field
work. After borrowed the instrument, we started to go to our project site where our
reference temporary bench mark (TBM2) is located. When arrived at project site, we
see many groups already waiting for their turn to make the reading at TBM2 because
we share the same TBM2 as reference point to start our levelling task. During our
turn, we start to take the reading from the change point that we built to the TBM2.
Our group decide to rotate during taking the reading using levelling instrument to
make sure all our group members know how to read the reading and setup the
instrument.
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During taking the reading and booking, we confused either we need to take
the upper and lower reading or not because for the last semester, we take the upper
and lower reading during doing the levelling but our lecturer for this semester said
we are not required to take the lower and upper reading, then all our group sit
together to discuss and we decide to take the middle reading only. We also asking a
few group either they are taking the middle reading or not, some of them say yes and
the others are not.
Then we continue our levelling until our station, we do not face a lot of
problem with the instrument or the check point. But we only face a problem with 1 of
our station where the location is quite bushes and there are a lot of aides mosquito
surrounding the station, all our group members has been bitten with a lot of aides
mosquito and we take this problem as a challenge for us. Then we continue the
levelling until we return to our reference TBM2 and we successfully done this 2nd
project with accepted result. But we have 1 experience during this 2nd project where
1 of our group members has been suspect being infected by dengue fever and we
suspect it is because 1 of our station that are located at the bushes area, but when
he do the blood test, the result is negative.
We feel thankful that he is not being infected by dengue fever and we take all
this as an experience during the field work.

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3.2.2 EQUIPMENTS / INSTRUMENT USED

I.

Automatic Level [ 1 unit ]

Used to read the graduated mark on the


staff
II.
Figure 3.2.1
Automatic Level

Level Tripod [ 1 unit]


Hold automatic level on the ground

III.

Staffs [ 2 units ]
Measure the reduced level at the point

IV.

Staff Bubble [ 2 units ]

Help to make sure staff is in approximate


90o position on the ground
V.
Figure 3.2.2 Level
Tripod

Safety Vast [ 3 units ]

Make us easily visible by motorist and


others
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VI.

Field Book [ 1 unit ]

Record all measurement and data

Figure 3.2.4
Staff Bubble

Figure 3.2.5
Safety Vast

Figure 3.2.3 Staffs

Figure 3.2.6 Field


Book

3.2.3 PROCEDURE
3.2.3.1 TEMPORARY ADJUSTMENT

1. The level is attached to the tripod and the tripod head is adjusted by moving
the tripod leg so that it is approximately level. Tripod leg is then fixed firmly on
the ground.
2. Since the level is provided with only circular bubble, the bubble is placed
directly into the middle by rotating the level screw.

Figure 3.3.1: Temporary Adjustment

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3.2.3.2 SHORT FORM USED

1. TBM Temporary Bench Mark


A point placed to provide a temporary reference point
2. BS Back sight
Staff reading taken on a point of known elevation.
3. FS - Foresight
Reading taken on a point for which the elevation is to be
established
4. CP Change Point
An intermediate point between TBM which provide temporary point of
known elevation for a level circuit
3.2.3.3 FIELDWORK PROCEDURE

1. The level is set up someplace (station L1) where the staffs at TBM2 and at FS
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

are observable. The BS and FS are approximately equal.


Reading of staff at TBM2 (BS) is taken.
An IS reading is taken.
Then, reading at FS is taken, marked as CP1.
After that, the level is set up again, the CP1 is now become BS.
Steps 2-5 are repeated 13 times during the fieldwork to close back at TBM2,
where the path of levelling is passed through traverse stations that are
established weeks before (Project I).

3.3 STADIA TACHEOMETRY


3.3.1 COMMENT AND PROBLEM FACED
On the 3rd project, our group members arrived at UKK Lab quite early around
7.20am because we want to borrow the Topcon Theodolite.We want to get the
Topcon theodolite because its easy to use compare with the Pentax theodolite but
the quantity of Topcon theodolite is quite limited. After all the instrument borrowed,
we start walking to our project site. When arrived at project site, we do our routine
which is sit together to discuss what we need to do and dividing task for each
person.
Firstly we find the place where it is suitable to locate as a spot height, then
we observed the edge of building. But we have a problem when observing some the
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edge of M40 building because the staff cannot be fully elongated when the end of
staff stuck with the roof, so we cannot read the reading on the staff. So to overcome
this problem, we downward the vertical reading on theodolite and we just measure
the first layer on the staff. We also face the problem during observing the edge of
M41 building because the building is under renovation and its quite busy with the
worker doing their work at that building. We try to finish measuring the height of edge
M41 building as fast as we can because we dont want to disturb the worker doing
renovation at that building.
The weather of that day is very hot but we take this as a challenge for us to
finish our field work.After finish with 2 station, we decide to stop our work and
continue on next week with total station.We packing our instrument and going back
to UKK Lab.
3.3.2 EQUIPMENTS/INSTRUMENT

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STAFFS

MEASURING
TAPE

STAFF

TRIPOD

PRISM
THEODOLITE

BAG

3.3.3 PROCEDURE
3.3.3.1 SETTING UP THE THEODOLITE

1. In this Theodolite Tacheometry, we used optical theodolite to obtain the


position and height of points.
2. During setting up the theodolite, a few steps must be followed.
3. The first step we do is called centring.
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4. Firstly we find the ground mark which we had use before and we chose to use
Station 5 to set up our tripod and theodolite.
5. After that, we adjusted the tripod head until its position approximately centred
above the ground mark.
6. Then, when the tripod is centred, we take the theodolite and attached to it
7. We were holding the total station until we tighten the screw that holds
theodolite on tripod.
8. In order to centre the total station, we put one of our legs beside the ground
mark as an indicator when we observed the ground mark through the eye
piece for optical plummet.
9. When the tripod is centred, we continued setting up our total station with
levelling steps.
10. For this step, we need to refer from two important indicator which called
spherical level and plate level.
11. Each of these indicators contains a bubble on it.
12. First thing that we do in levelling steps is we try to insert a bubble on a circle
mark in spherical level.
13. In order to centre the bubble and insert it on a circle mark, we use a tripod
legs by adjusted its height.
14. After that, we continue the adjusting using a foot screw until the bubble
properly inserted on the circle mark and centred of spherical level.
15. Then, we continue the levelling step by refer to the plate level.
16. Same as spherical level, we centred the bubble on plate level by using a foot
screw.

17. After both bubbles on spherical level and plate level is centred, we loosen a
little bit the screw that holds theodolite on tripod.
18. This is because we want to centre the total station back by observing the
ground mark through eyepiece for optical plummet.

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3.3.3.2 SETTING UP THE PRISM

1. After we step up the theodolite at station 5, we continued by setting up one


prism at back station, Station 4.

2. The method for setting up the prism is still same with total station which is it
also have the tripod. We need to levelling and centring the tripod and prism.
3. The prism is used at the back station to get the true bearing of our station.

3.3.3.3 TAKING DATA IN SPECIFIC SEQUENCE

1. After we have got the true bearing, we measured the height of theodolite
which taken from the ground to the middle of the theodolites telescope using
measuring tape.
2. Then to collect planimetric features around 20 metres from our station and we
started levelling with building M40 which a levelling staff is held vertically at
the edges of the building and the readings were taken as M40.1 until M40.5.
3. The area also has parking site so we measured and take reading of that
parking site and the reading were collected as P1.1 until P1.6.
4. After that building M41 were measured and recorded as M41.1 until M41.3.
5. We also took several spot heights around the station which were need to
define the topography. The readings were taken as S1 until S15.
6. Steps 1 to 5 were repeated when the station changed to Station 1.

3.4 TOTAL STATION TACHEOMETRY


3.4.1 COMMENTS AND PROBLEM FACED

On our next project, our task is to do the detail survey by using total
station in our station. As usual, our group arrived at UKK Lab around
7.45am.Then we start borrow the instrument and the weather for that day
is quite good for us to do the field work. After borrowed the instrument, we
started to go to our project site where usually same site with a project
one. When arrived at project site, we direct go to a station one to set up
the instrument. At station one we are setup a total station, and at a
station five we set up a prism to get a back sight bearing.

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In this project we must use two methods which are EDM detail
surveys and total station detail survey. Our group has used a total station
method at a station one. In order to do this, the total station must be
configure before it can be used which are enter the coordinate of the
station, enter the height of the total station, enter the height of prism pole
and enter the reduced level of the station. Before we start observed, we
must take height of total station and height of prism. After that, we
observed each point and each spot height where is established. Each
point we must observed a northing, easting and reduced level.
During doing this project has some another group asked our
member of group to do this project but another member of group stilled
doing a project. While observed at station one, weather is very hot.
Around ten o`clock we are finished observed at station one, and we are
rested in ten minutes. Then we continue our detail survey at station two,
we still used a same method for doing a detail survey at this station. In
this station we only face a problem with 1 of our station where the
location is quite bushes and there are a lot of aides mosquito and many
insect surrounding the station, all our group members has been bitten
with a lot of aides mosquito and we take this problem as a challenge for
us.
Then we continue the detail survey, the procedure still same with at
the station one. Make sure before begin an observed we need to take
height of total station and prism. Our group has taken a northing, easting
and reduced level still we finished observed each point. For the next
station we must continue another method which is by using EDM detail
survey.
3.4.2 EQUIPMENTS/INSTRUMENT

TOTAL STATION @ ELECTRONIC


DISTANCE MEASUREMENT
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(TOPCON 5)
( to measure horizontal and vertical
angle of the point )
[ 1 unit ]

PRISM
( as the target plate and pair to the total station to
measure distance)
[ 2 units ]

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TRIPOD

MEASURING TAPE

(to hold the prism and total


station)

(to measure the distance for


each stations)

[ 2 units ]

[ 1 unit ]
PRISM POLE
(hold prism when taking the
details)
[ 2 units ]

3.4.3 PROCEDURE

1. After we have set the true bearing, we measured the height of


theodolite which taken from the ground to the middle of the
theodolites telescope using measuring tape.
2. Before all the measurement are made from station 1, the total
station is set to:
a. Coordinate (8078.270 E, - 52796.402 N)
b. Height of total station (1.55 m)
c. Height of prism pole (1.60 m)
d. Reduced level of station (32.883 m)
3. We continued to measure all the details at station 1 as we do not
finished on the week before.
4. To collect planimetric features around 20 metres from our station
and we started with the edge of building M41 which a prism that is
hold with pole is held vertically at the edges of the building and the
readings were taken as M41.1, M41.2 and so on.
5. After that, we proceed to record the spot heights ( recorded as S1,
S2, ...) with sometimes we take some details of man made structure.
6. After that building M41 were measured and recorded as M41.1 until
M41.3.
7. Steps 1 to 5 were repeated relatively when the station changed to
Station 2 and station 4.

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4 EDM TACHEOMETRY

4.1.1 COMMENTS AND PROBLEM FACED


For this week we are still doing a same project use method. As usual, our
group arrived at UKK Lab around 7.45am.Then we start borrow the instrument and
the weather for that day is quite good for us to do the field work. After borrowed the
instrument, we started to go to our project site where usually same site with a project
one. When arrived at project site, we direct go to a station two to set up the
instrument. At station two we are setup a total station, and at a station one we set up
a prism to get a back sight bearing.
For this week we continue to finished detail survey at point two by used
method total station. After we finished detail survey at station two, we continue at
station three. For this station we are used EDM method to taken a data. For EDM
method has a different procedure, we must set back site bearing only. In addition, for
to taken data for detail survey by using this method we just only take horizontal
bearing, vertical bearing and slope distance. After we finished at station three by
used EDM method we also continued our detail survey at station four, we still used a
total station method for doing a detail survey at this station. After we taken all data at
this station, we are finished this entire project. But after we go back and input all of
data take in AutoCAD has some problems.
The data taken from this project has some errors, so that we are needed to do
again this project at station two and four. We just done this project again on 10
Februarys 2010, and our group has enter a correction data in AutoCAD, we looked it
result is correct.
4.1.2 EQUIPMENTS/INSTRUMENT

Same with total station tacheometry.

4.1.3 PROCEDURE
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1. After we have set the true bearing, we measured the height of


theodolite which taken from the ground to the middle of the
theodolites telescope using measuring tape.
2. We continued to measure all the details at station 3.
3. All the reading displayed on the screen of EDM is recorded which
are:
a. Horizontal angle
b. Vertical angle and
c. Slope distance
4. To collect planimetric features around 20 metres from our station
and we started with the spot height (S1) which a prism that is hold
with pole is held vertically at that point and continued till S16.
5. After that, we proceed to record the road (marked with J) and with
sometimes we take other details of man made structure.

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5 RESULT AND ANALYSIS


5.1 CLOSED LOOP TRAVERSE

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5.2 LEVELLING

*A, B C, D and E are traverse point


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5.3 STADIA TACHEOMETRY

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5.4 TOTAL STATION

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5.5 EDM TACHEOMETRY


5.5.1 CONCEPT OF TOTAL STATION / EDM
A total station is an instrument that able to measure horizontal and vertical angles, slope and horizontal as well as vertical
distance. It used infrared rays to determine distance and microprocessor to calculate all the data.
It is firing an infrared laser beam to the reflector (prism) which is mounted on the stadia rod. Based on the time taken for the
beam to be reflected back to the total station, the distance is measured. As the result, X, Y and Z is produced and recorded by the
total station;

X-value
: easting
Y-value: northing
Z-value
: elevation

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From the diagram, the height of the observed point can be computed as follows:
Sin = V/D
hi = height of EDM

V = D sin

hp = height of prism

H = D kos

D = slope distance

H = hi + V hp

= vertical angle

Reduced level at Prism = Reduced Level Station + H

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5.6 SKETCHES

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6 CONCLUSION
6.1 CLOSED LOOP TRAVERSE
After doing this task, our group members should be able to know about the
differences of the traverse and purpose of the traverse. This thing is important
because as a good student, we need to know all new things and with that, we can
learn something. We can also know the meaning of open traverse, closed traverse,
and know how to calculate the latitude and departure. To calculate the linear
misclosure of the traverse, we must know the simple thing like to calculate the
latitude and departure. During this task is carried out, many errors that have made
and this things should be prevent because it will corrupted all project of surveying.
From this task we have been teach how to reduce the error and the data that we
produce should be almost same with the real value. The result of the project of the
traverse should be accurate if the error is small. This can be corrected by the
adjustment of the traverse using Bowditch Rule. Besides that, the cooperation of
each group members should be praised because without all of group member
participating, this project could not be successful.

6.2 LEVELLING
In conclusion, all our group members know how to do the levelling procedures
which is started with setup the instrument until read the reading using levelling
instrument. We also take a few step of precaution to avoid a bigger misclosure value
such as we make sure the instrument is setup properly and we do the double check
during taking the reading. Our group cooperate very well during the field and this is
the secret for our successfully every time do the task that given to us.

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6.3 TOTAL STATION @ EDM

TACHEOMETRY

As a conclusion, the coordinate and reduced level of any point of detail can be
determined by using total station. For our group the project will be held at M40 and M41 of
Kolej Tun Dr Ismail. In this project, we use instruments with two functions which is EDM
and total station.

The diagram above shows the total station that we use for
the last week project. Our lecturer, Encik Usmuni Din
taught our group how to use this total station as well and
then how to do the calculation for this project. We use the total station and the prism to get
the reduced level and also the spot height. From the data of spot height that we get, we can
calculate the height of the area and also can produce the plan or maps from this detail. So, we
can conclude that from this experiment, we can learn more about the way to compute the
reduced level and how to use total station.

7 RECOMENDATION
7.1 CLOSED LOOP TRAVERSE
In surveying, we cannot avoid by doing error or mistakes. We can solve these
by minimize the error. At the end of this project, our project has found some errors or
mistakes that happened when surveying and plotting. Firstly, we found that natural
errors affecting our project at first week we did surveying at location 11. The hot day
and mistake in setting up the total station and prism can cause measure error. We
coped this problem by resurvey on the second week . We find some of our station is
not suitable and we had made a new other station and helped us solve this project.
We need suggest that we have to think and choose the best station before start our
project.
Secondly, we had problem in how to centre the instrument. We handle this
problem by double check the centring every time before measurement is taken.
Besides that, the error in this project can be caused by misreading and wrongly
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booking . Then, we recorded a number incorrectly. This problem we cope by saying


out loudly while recording and the other tape person should listen. In plotting plan,
we faced with some problem; we got different plan A4 paper AO paper. We take on
this problem by checking of plan and scale

7.2 LEVELLING

Make sure the necessary equipment are complete and fulfilled the list of

equipment.
Check all the equipment so that they are damaged-free before doing any
measurements to avoid any problem or some obvious error.

Weather can influence the test result, because it will make the plumb bob
move and the reading will not be accurate. Thus make sure the survey is
done in a calm weather (not windy).

Make sure the bubble of total station is centred to avoid instrumental error.
This to ensure that the plate bubble remains in the same position in its tube

when the total station is rotated through 360 .


Make sure the total station is properly centred on the station mark with an
optical plummet or otherwise the angle will not be measured at the point to

which the sighting was taken from the previous station.


The reading between face left and right must not exceed 30.
Try to avoid parallax error while taking the reading.
The basic requirement for any level is that when it is set up and levelled the
line sight will be horizontal. Adjustments are of two types :
a) Temporary adjustments, which are concerned with the leveling up of
the instrument and the focusing of the telescope.
b) Permanent adjustment, which are necessary to provide the basic

requirement of a level.
The check on the levelling observations is made by always closing a run of
levels on to another bench-mark or back to the same starting point.

8 REFERENCES
Our lecturer:
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Mr Usmuni bin Din and his informational lecture note

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