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Natural Anti-RetroViral Defense Herbs &

Supplements (ie; Ebola, HIV)

Rubiaceae Medicinal
Rubiaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the coffee, madder, or bedstraw
family. The family contains about 13,000 species in 611 genera.
Ophiorrhiza rugosa var. prostrata (Mongoose plant, Indian snakeroot, sarpagandha).
containing camptothecin (CPT), an alkaloid used in the treatment of cancer & has been
found comparable to the CPT in 'Mappia foetida', a tree known for its anti-cancer
properties. Cancer chemo-preventive potential of Luteolin-7-O-Glucoside isolated
from Ophiorrhiza mungos Linn.
Borreira and Spermacoce (False Buttonweed) are genera of Rubiaceae. Some biological activities of
some isolated compounds and extracts of both genera. Ethnomedicinal and phytochemistry uses include
the treatment of malaria, diarrheal and other digestive problems, skin diseases, fever, hemorrhage,
urinary and respiratory infections, headache, inflammation of eye, and gums. To date, more than 60
compounds have been reported from Borreria and Spermacoce species including alkaloids, iridoids,
flavonoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. Studies have confirmed that extracts
from Borreria and Spermacoce species as well as their isolated compounds possess diverse biological
activities, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, larvicidal, antioxidant, gastrointestinal, anti-
ulcer, and hepatoprotective, with alkaloids and iridoids as the major active principles.

The bark of trees in the genus Cinchona is the source of a variety of alkaloids, the most familiar of
which is quinine, one of the first agents effective in treating malaria. Woodruff (Galium odoratum) is a
small herbaceous perennial that contains coumarina natural precursor of warfarinand the South
American plant Carapichea ipecacuanha is the source of the emetic ipecac. Psychotria viridis is
frequently used as a source ofdimethyltryptamine in the preparation of ayahuasca, a psychoactive

Asafoetida was used in 1918 to fight the Spanish influenza pandemic. In 2009, researchers reported
that the roots of Asafoetida produce natural antiviral drug compounds that demonstrated potency
against the H1N1 virus in vitro and concluded that "sesquiterpene coumarins from F. assa-
foetida may serve as promising lead compounds for new drug development against influenza A
(H1N1) viral infection"
Medicinal mushrooms Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus vesicular, contain -
glucans and it has been suggested that these active compounds may have the
immunomodulatory effects contributing to the overall anti-cancer property.
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3), which originated from traditional medicines as a single
agent and has emerged as an effective adjunct therapy in a few hematological

Coriolus mushroom is a fungus. People have used the fruiting body and other parts as folk
medicine for a long time. Recently, researchers have started to isolate and identify substances
in coriolus that might act like pharmaceutical drugs. Two of these substances are
polysaccharide peptide (PSP) and polysaccharide krestin (PSK). Scientists think these
chemicals might be able to fight cancer and boost the immune system.

Coriolus mushroom, PSP, and PSK are used for stimulating the immune system;
treating herpes, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), hepatitis, and pulmonary disorders; reducing
phlegm; improving bodybuilding results; increasing energy; curingringworm and a skin condition
called impetigo; treating upper respiratory, urinary, and digestive tract infections;
curing liver disorders including hepatitis; reducing the toxic effects and pain
of chemotherapy and radiation therapy; increasing the effectiveness of chemotherapy;
prolonging life and raising the quality of life of cancer patients; and increasing appetite.
How does it work?
Coriolus contains polysaccharide peptide (PSP) and polysaccharide-K (PSK, krestin), which
may be able to fight tumor growth as well as boost the immune system.

Chrysin belongs to a class of chemicals called flavonoids. It occurs naturally in plants such as
the passionflower, silver linden, and some geranium species; and in honey and bee propolis

Chrysin is used for bodybuilding; for treating anxiety, inflammation, gout, HIV/AIDS,erectile
dysfunction (ED), and baldness; and for preventing cancer.
How does it work?
Athletes are interested in chrysin for bodybuilding because laboratory research suggested that
chrysin might increase the male hormone called testosterone and improve bodybuilding results.
But research in humans hasn't found any effect on testosterone levels. The amount of chrysin
that is absorbed from the intestine may be very small, which would make treatment effects
Hyssop has antiviral activity against herpes simplex and HIV-1. .... The Chinese herbs are
yingchen, huangqi and ganchao with pluak rak mon (mulberry root bark)
Schizandra Schizandra is commonly found in traditional Chinese medicine. It is highly antiviral
and has been used successfully against viral hepatitis. Capsules are the most commonly found form
of schizandra, but some herb markets may carry the dried berries.
Mullein A lot of health benefits can be derived from the mullein plant. It provides antiviral, anti-
inflammatory, calming, expectorant, antihistamine, and emollient properties. For viruses that come
with congestion, it is an excellent choice. Mullein is available as a tea, syrup, infusion, tincture, and
Antioxidant -- There is evidence suggesting that patients infected with human
immunodeficiency virus are under chronic oxidative stress and thus may
benefit from antioxidant vitamins.
Vitamin D - HIV carriers with vitamin D deficiency are more likely to die than
those with sufficient vitamin D in the blood.
Multivitamins - Research from Africa suggests that basic multivitamin and
selenium supplements lower the risk that untreated people with the AIDS virus
will get sicker over a two-year period. Nov. 27, 2013, Journal of the American
Medical Association.
Green Tea -- Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the components of
green tea has been suggested to have antiviral activity. To determine the
effects of EGCG on HIV infection, peripheral blood lymphocytes infected with
HIV were incubated with increasing concentrations of EGCG. EGCG strongly
inhibited the replication of the HIV virus.
Glutamine, the amino acid, could be helpful for those on anti-HIV
medicines. Glutamine-antioxidant nutrient supplementation can increase body
weight, body cell mass, and intracellular water when compared with placebo
in HIV patients.
Mangosteen is sold online on the internet at a reliable shopping site Physician
Hyssop has antiviral activity against herpes simplex and HIV-1.
Licorice may be helpful.
Olive Leaf extract has anti-HIV activity
Rooibos tea has anti-HIV activity.
Echinacea herb may be of some benefit.
Ginseng CD4+ T cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patients
are maintained or even increased when treated with Korean red ginseng. High doses of
ginseng can be overly stimulating and cause insomnia.
Catuaba, an Amazonian plant, has anti-HIV activity.
Bovine Colostrum may reduce the severity of diarrhea in HIV patients.
Marigold herb
Fish Oils - Fish oil (omega-3 fatty acid) diet supplements appear to be an
effective way to lower high triglyceride levels that are associated with
antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients. HIV therapies and HIV itself can cause
concerning increased in triglycerides, which may place the individual at risk for
cardiovascular disease. Fish oil has been found in people without HIV
infection to reduce triglycerides and also to prevent cardiovascular disease.
It's probably best not to exceed 3 capsules a day.
Zinc for children with HIV
DHEA in low dosage is useful to treat mild depression in those with HIV.

There is very little information on how these herbs interact with antiviral
medicines used to treat HIV or AIDS.
Zinc, HIV and Children
Zinc supplements could be a simple and safe way to reduce illnesses such as
diarrhea in children infected with HIV.
St Johns wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a well-known herbal remedy for depression and is used
traditionally to help wound healing and to ease the pain of neuralgia, fibrositis and sciatica.
Laboratory studies have revealed that it also has antiviral activity against influenza, herpes simplex
and HIV. Hypericin and pseudohypericin, chemicals found in St Johns wort, are active against
enveloped viruses. These are viruses that tear off a piece of cell membrane when they leave an
infected cell and wrap themselves in it, as a way of fooling the bodys immune system. Herpes
viruses, HIV and hepatitis C are all enveloped viruses. Hypericin and pseudohypericin appear to
attack these fragments of cell membrane (but dont attack the membranes of living cells). There are
as yet no data on clinical trials against viral diseases.
Pau darco (Tabebuia impetiginosa), also known as lapacho or ipe roxo, is a huge canopy tree native
to the Amazon rainforest. It is known as the divine tree by indigenous people in Brazil and has long
been used in folk medicine to treat a wide range of illnesses, including colds, influenza, herpes and
viral stomatitis. The inner bark contains a high proportion of chemicals called quinoids. One of the
most studied of these compounds is lapachol, which has been found in laboratory tests to be active
against various viruses, including herpes simplex types I and II (responsi-ble for oral and genital
herpes), influenza, polio virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus. The mechanism of action of pau darco,
like that of olive leaf and green tea, is thought to be through inhibition of DNA and RNA polymerase
and retrovirus reverse transcriptase. It is reported that lapachol decreases the replication of viruses
in human subjects, but no clinical data are available.
The SARS epidemic last year spurred the search for active antiviral compounds to treat the disease.
Researchers at the Institute of Medical Virology at Frankfurt tested four pharmaceutical drugs
(including ribavirin, the recommended treatment) and glycyrrhizin, a compound found in the root of
the liquorice plant (Glycyrrhiza glabra), against samples of coronavirus from SARS patients. The
results, published in The Lancet, showed that glycyrrhizin out-performed all four drugs in inhibiting
the virus. Unlike ribavirin, it was also non-toxic to virus-infected cells. Glycyrrhizin was found to
reduce replication of the virus and to inhibit both the absorption of viruses on the outside of cells and
their ability to penetrate cells. Liquorice has also shown an ability to inhibit reproduction of HIV in
laboratory studies. Clinical trials have shown that injections of glycyrrhizin may have a beneficial
effect on AIDS and there is preliminary evidence that orally administered liquorice also may be safe
and effective for long-term treatment of HIV infection. A preliminary trial involving people with acute
and chronic viral hepatitis found that taking 2.5 grams liquorice three times per day (providing 750
mg glycyrrhizin) was superior to the antiviral drug inosine poly-IC. Entire liquorice extract (not de-
glycyrrhizinated liquorice or DGL) may well be an effective treatment for other viral illnesses.
The common black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) has long been used as a food and is also one of
natures oldest remedies. It appears to be particularly effective against the influenza virus. In a
double-blind clinical trial, more than 90 per cent of the 15 patients taking elderberry extract (60 ml a
day for adults and 30 ml a day for children) showed a significant reduction in influenza symptoms
after two days and complete recovery after three days. However, in the control group it took six days
before 90 per cent of patients showed an improvement. The group taking elderberry extract also had
higher levels of influenza antibodies in their blood than the control group, indicating an enhanced
immune response. In an independent study conducted in Norway, elderberry extract was shown to
significantly reduce the duration of influenza symptoms by approximately four days. The use of other
medication (pain relievers, etc.) was significantly less in the group receiving elderberry extract than
in the placebo group. Elderberry extract is believed to act by binding to, and so disarming, the tiny
protein spikes on the surface of the virus, by which it penetrates living cells. Flavonoids, including
quercetin, may also be involved in the therapeutic actions of elderberry according to other studies.
These flavonoids include anthocyans that are powerful antioxidants and protect cells against
damage. The activity of elderberry against other viral infections, including HIV and herpes, has also
been studied. It was found to significantly reduce the infectivity of HIV strains in laboratory tests and
to completely inhibit the replication of four strains of herpes simplex virus, including two strains
resistant to the drug acyclovir (Zovirax).
Silver has been utilised medicinally since ancient times and from 1900 until 1940 various forms of
silver were in mainstream use to treat hundreds of ailments. Recently, there has been renewed
interest in the use of colloidal silver. A colloid is a suspension of ultra-fine particles that neither
dissolve nor settle out, even with changes in concentration. The colloidal silver used in modern
supplements is a suspension of pure metallic silver in water. It is thought to work by interfering with
the enzymes that enable viruses, bacteria and fungi to utilise oxygen to put it simply, it suffocates
them. Although clinical trials have yet to be conducted with oral administration of colloidal silver,
initial case studies have indicated that injections of a silver-protein compound dramatically reduce
the activity of the HIV virus in AIDS patients. There are also numerous anecdotal accounts of
colloidal silvers efficacy against the hepatitis C virus.

Echinacea (also known as purple coneflower) is one of the most widely studied herbs. Tests have
repeatedly demonstrated that one of its key ingredients, alkylamides, reduces inflammation and
fevers plus boosts white cell production. White blood cells, as we mentioned in the beginning of this
book, are part of your bodys infantry that surround and eat foreign invaders such as bacteria and
viruses. Another active ingredient in echinaceapolysaccharidesspeeds production of a natural
protein called interferon. This special protein is secreted by infected host cells to stop the viral
invader from spreading to adjacent cells.

Astragalus, a mighty member of the bean family, has been shown to boost the immune system and
inhibit certain viruses, such as the Cocksackie B virus. It enjoys a long history of preventing and
treating colds and various other respiratory-related conditions.

reishi mushrooms offer an added medicinal bonus. The reddish-orange type is the best choice
because its polysaccharides contain the highest levels of immune-stimulating properties. Studies
confirm reishis good results, especially in treating hepatitis and bronchitis.

Lomatium, a member of the parsley family, is a potent modulator of the immune system. It is a
favorite amongst herbalists for colds, flus, and other viral infections.

Genuine licorice root, not that red candy that shares the same name, has been a key ingredient in
most Chinese herbal formulas for more than 3,000 years. Research indicates that licorices two
primary ingredients-glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acidboost production of interferon. Active
ingredients- hypericin and pseudohypericin, are phytochemicals that display strong antiviral
properties enough to overpower herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, certain flu viruses (influenza A
and B), and EBV.

Boswellia (Boswellic Acids)

Boswellia is an herbal extract available widely and inexpensively which may provide
important therapeutic benefits for brain tumor patients in a variety of areas, including
the control of edema, tumor growth and proliferation.
Extracts of the Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carterii plants, both in the
frankincense family, have been used for hundreds of years in traditional medicine for
the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as bowel disease and joint pain.
For brain tumor patients, especially those using corticosteroids like dexamethasone
(Decadron) to control peritumoral edema, boswellia is an important substance to
discuss. Unfortunately, boswellia is virtually unknown amongst mainstream North
American doctors, however it has been designated an orphan drug by the European
Commission for the treatment of peritumoral edema resulting from brain tumors.

The effects of Boswellic Acids are very complex and the ideal dosage is a topic of
great debate, with the range of possibilities rather dramatic. There is evidence that
Boswellic Acids can cross the blood-brain barrier based on in vivo animal studies
and it has been shown to have significant effects on the invasiveness of GBM cells in

From a wide variety of studies, boswellic acids have been shown to:
Inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis
Inhibit 5-lipoxygenase
Inhibit topoisomerase I
Inhibit topoisomerase IIalpha
Induce apoptosis in glioma cells
Inhibit NF-kappaB
Reduce diarrhea
Further research into the constituent components of boswellia indicate that it is also
directly cytotoxic to brain tumor cancer cells. Boswellia extracts have been shown to
be both cytotoxic to glioma cells and anti-proliferative in a dose-dependent manner
during studies with rats
Clinical trials have demonstrated promising benefits from boswellic acids in
rheumatoid arthritis, chronic colitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and bronchial
asthma, in addition to benefits for brain tumor patients
. Burning boswellia resin has
also been shown to have anti-depressive and anti-anxiety effects
Boswellia extracts are usually made from the tree's resin or gum and extracts from the
Boswellia carteri tree contain at least 15 triterpene acids
. The most potent anti-
inflammatory boswellic acids are acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) and 11-
keto-beta-boswellic acid (KBA).
Boswellic acids have a variety of molecular targets in addition to 5-lipoxygenase (5-
Lox), the primary enzyme in leukotriene biosynthesis. Other potentially therapeutic
targets of boswellic acids include topoisomerases, angiogenesis, and cytochrome p450
. In addition, boswellic acids may stimulate or inhibit mitogen-activated
protein kinase (MAPK), especially p38, depending on the type of cell affected
Perhaps one of the most important studies of boswellia aside from all the anti-
inflammatory, anti-edema research, is a German study of boswellia's effects against
topoisomerases I and IIalpha
. Amazingly, the authors showed that the aceytl-
boswellic acids are "more potent inhibitors of human topoisomerases I and IIalpha
than camptothecin, and amsacrine or etoposide, respectively." Camptothecin is the
organic alktylator from which CPT-11 (irinotecan) is derived. Both CPT-11 and VP-
16 (etoposide) are common chemo agents in brain tumor therapies. Human
topoisomerases I and IIalpha bind directly to an immobilized derivative of acetyl-
boswellic acids. One of the authors of this study, Prof. Thomas Simmet, has
reportedly suggested that patients using pharmaceutical topoisomerase inhibitors such
as CPT-11 should not concomitantly use boswellia extracts, but there is no
independent confirmation of this statement to date.
Another study demonstrated that boswellia extract contains at least 2 other constituent
substances with therapeutic potential, incensole and incensole acetate, which inhibit
nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)
. NF-kappaB can transcriptionally activate genes
leading to the synthesis of anti-apoptotic, chemoresistant, growth promoting, and
angiogenic proteins in gliomas, in which NF-kappaB has been shown to be
Boswellic acids are known to inhibit several important cytochrome P450 metabolizing
enzymes, including CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. To what extent the P450 inhibition may
affect the metabolizing of other substances and drugs is unknown. Such inhibition can
be either positive or detrimental to other therapies. In one study, boswellic acids were
identified as "moderate to potent inhibitors" of several P450 enzymes, however they
were found to not be the principle inhibitory constituents of whole boswellia extract
Historically, boswellia is known for its lack of contraindications with other substances
and appears to be a safe adjuvantsubstance, however clearly more research needs to be
done in this area.
The boswellic acids with a keto group have been shown in vitro to inhibit Pgp, or P-
glycoprotein, however this inhibition probably does not inhibit availability through
the blood brain barrier of other Pgp substrates, however it remains to be tested
whether these boswellic acids create drug interactions at the gastrointestinal level
Another potential benefit to cancer patients taking boswellia may be diarrhea control.
Boswellia extract has been shown to reduce diarrhea in vivo in rats without slowing
intestinal motility in healthy animals, both in the small and in the large intestine. The
mechanism behind this effect may be due primarily to 3-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic
acid (AKBA)
. Interestingly, the calcium-channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine
may inhibit this effect.
The mechanisms of boswellic acids are not completely understood, however their
chemical similarity to steroids is the subject of much research. Boswellic acids (all?)
are pentacyclic triterpenic acids, like the chemical squalene. In humans, squalene is
processed biosynthetically into lanosterol, the structural precursor of all human
steroids. Many pentacyclic triterpenes have antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects
against different tumor types.

The elimination half-life of 11-Keto beta-boswellic acid (KBA), one of the two
primary anti-inflammatory boswellic acids identified, is about 6 hours. This suggests
that boswellic acids should ideally be given orally every 6 hours to maintain
maximum plasma levels
. Administration with a high-fat meal has been shown to
increase plasma levels by several fold
. KBA has been found to be extensively
metabolized in the liver via oxidation to hydroxylated metabolites, however no
metabolites of AKBA have been discovered
. This reinforces the need to improve the
bioavailability of AKBA, especially since it is the most potent anti-inflammatory
boswellic acid.
Determining effective boswellia dosages is a largely unexplored area, with very few
human dosing schedules described in published literature. One Swiss study used a
maximum dose of 126 mg/kg/day (126 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) in
children for 9 months without any side-effects.
This study used a German brand of
boswellia called H15, which is thus far very difficult to get outside Europe. Such a
dosage would translate to about 10 grams (10,000 mg) per day for a 180-pound adult.
One popular AKBA standardized extract is the branded product called 5-Loxin. This
standardized extract is intended to provide a significantly higher concentration of
AKBA compared to other standardized, "whole" boswellia extacts. 5-Loxin was
developed at the Laila Research Center in Vijayawada, India, as a partnership between
the Laila Group and PL Thomas. The manufacturer claims 5-Loxin provides a
standardized 30% AKBA, which is approximately 10 times the concentration of
AKBA in other boswellia extracts. Since it is a standardized extract, 5-Loxin should
be identical in all manufactured products.
Taking the manufacturer's concentration claims into consideration, when you are
calculating an overall boswellia dosage, mulitply the standardized amount of 5-Loxin
by 10 first, and then add that quantity to the quantity of other standardized boswellia
in the dosage. Based on the available benefits of various boswellia constituents, the
ideal boswellia protocol might include both standardized whole extracts in
combination with 5-Loxin products.
Most whole boswellia extracts contain standardized concentrations of 65% or 70%.
The results of independent, private lab research indicates that standardized
concentrations higher than this should be considered only with extra scrutiny.
Bioavailability is a critical issue for patients taking boswellia because studies have
shown very low plasma blood levels after oral consumption. Sterk, et al, showed in
2004 that "food intake profoundly affects the kinetic profile of BA plasma levels, as
high-fat meal strongly increases the plasma concentrations of various boswellic acids
as compared to the fasted state." This included both KBA and AKBA.

Dr. Mona Tawab, Head of Research and Development at the Central Laboratory of
German Pharmacists, confirmed this in a 2008 study of the pharmacokinetics of
boswellia. In private discussions, Dr. Tawab noted that "the concentrations of KBA
and AKBA achieved in plasma after the intake of a fat rich meal is still below the
identified in vitro concentrations relevant for therapeutic activity."
Her teams studies found that the low bioavailability of AKBA and KBA were due to
separate mechanisms. Low AKBA bioavailability is primarily due to poor absorption
in the GI tract, while extensive hepatic metabolism is responsible for KBA's poor
. Unfortunately, the specific hepatic enzymes responsible for
metabolizing KBA are still unknown, however this research is underway.
The combination of low bioavailability for AKBA and KBA, the very low rate of
adverse side-effects, and the dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against cancerous
cells, all lead to the possibility that relatively high doses of boswellia are necessary to
gain therapeutic benefit.
Boswellia extracts have been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic medicine with
few or no adverse side-effects. Most brain tumor patients experience no side-effects
from boswellia, however several areas of potential problems should be noted.
There is some research indicating that boswellia extracts may have the potential to
increase blood clotting. In one limited, in vitro study, beta boswellic acids were
reported to "strongly stimulate the platelet-induced generation of thrombin", which
thus results in platelet aggregation and increased risk of clotting
. Interestingly, the
authors did not find the same for boswellic acids with a keto group, such as acetyl-11-
keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA). The authors wrote that keto boswellic acids such as
AKBA "do not cause aggregation or significant generation of thrombin." Thrombin is
the enzyme generated by blood platelets to initiate blood clotting. Beta boswellic
acids may also help release arachidonic acid, which can also increase platelet
In addition, there is evidence from pharmaceuticals which inhibit 5-lipoxygenase (5-
Lox), that 5-Lox inhibition can increase thromboxanes and thus increased clotting.
Anti-inflammatory substances such as boswellia suppress the body's natural reaction
to many types of disease, and although most research has shown benefits to
suppressing inflammation, some theoretical scenarios exist in which this may not be
beneficial. Several studies link blocking 5-Lox with increased pathogen burdens in
various infections ranging from tuberculosis to HIV
. Inhibiting leukotriene
biosynthesis through 5-Lox is thought to inhibit the ability of white blood cells to
release anti-microbial peptides called cathelicidins (or LL-37)
. How and whether
this affects brain tumor patients in practice is completely unknown, but anecdotal and
historical evidence from thousands of patients would seem to indicate that the
infection potential is not significantly increased by taking anti-inflammatories.
However, this is certainly an area deserving significant research, especially in patients
with natural or chemo-suppressed immune systems.
Other potential problems with boswellia include attempts to ingest the resin powder
directly (not in capsule form), which may burn the esophagus. Some patients have
also reported mild upset stomach with boswellia. In general, whenever a new herbal
supplement is introduced into a patient's protocol, it is wise to begin with small doses
and then work up to the target dose gradually. Conversely, suddenly stopping a long-
term, high dose regimen of boswellia could potentially result in a rebound effect,
exacerbating the potential for peritumoral edema.
For brain tumor patients, boswellia appears to be an ideal over-the-counter
supplement providing therapeutic benefits for several symptoms. The combination of
an anti-edema drug with cytotoxic activity against the tumor, combined with
boswellia's extremely low toxicity, makes boswellia a key supplement for brain tumor