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Deejesh Subramanian

Geography Culminating Activity

Grouping World Countries

Three Levels of Development:
Developing: Afghanistan, Egypt, U.A.E, North
Newly Industrializing: India, China, Mexico,
Developed: US, UK, Canada, Japan

Six Criteria for Grouping Countries:
Life Expectancy- This indicates the development
of a countrys healthcare and social system.
Wealth- The GDP per capita (PPP) measures the
total value of goods and services a country
produces in one year per person
Natural Increase Rate- Birth Rate-Death Rate: In
developed countries, women have control over
how many children they have. People with
effective healthcare and elderly homes do not
feel the need to have many children to support
them in their old age.
Food Supply- Foo supplies energy to the body and
the energy needed varies from country to country
based on average body size, age composition of
the population, and climate
Education Level- Developed countries have a
higher literacy rate
Healthcare- An effective healthcare is very
important. You can see that by knowing how
many people, on average, a doctor must look
Developing Countries:
Economies are dominated by primary industries
and agriculture.
New development is based on manufacturing.
Service sector is poorly developed since most
people have little money to spend on schools,
hospitals, and theaters.
Citizens earn little cash income.
Since citizens cant pay taxes, the government,
cant provide money for healthcare, education,
or economic development, and must depend on
foreign aid.
Newly Industrializing Countries:
This is a transition stage between developing and
developed countries. The economies were once based
on agriculture. As the industries grow, the service
industry will also increase in size and the standard of
living will improve.
Developed Countries:
Citizens have highest standard of living.
Their economies are based on the service
sector and have well-developed services like
education, healthcare, banking, transportation,
and information technologies.
Manufacturing and primary industries less
important economic activities than in the past.

Canadas International Relationships

Peacekeeping Peacemaking
Must be agreed to by the
Security Council (China, Russia,
France, US, UK)
Occurs where parties in conflict
have agreed to work toward
Less dangerous
Occurs where there has
been no peace agreement
and military operations may
be necessary to create
Between two countries or
civil war in one country
Very dangerous/bombs
The United Nations:
Canada was one of the 50 founding
members when the United Nations was
formed in 1945.
Now includes more than 190 countries
UN often has difficulty resolving major
international crises because of political
differences among its members
Provides a forum for discussions which
might have prevented a third world war
Acts as worlds peacekeeper
Canada has been involved in more
peacekeeping operations than any other
Over 90,000 Canadian armed forces
personnel (along with smaller numbers
of Royal Canadian Mounted Police and
other police officers) have served as
peacekeepers in Eastern Europe, Cyprus,
the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia,
and Latin America
Other United Nations Programs/Organizations:
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)- has headquarters in
Montreal and has responsibilities such as coordinating air traffic
control and setting standards for air-flight security
United Nations International Childrens Fund (UNICEF)- provides
emergency relief aid and promotes the role of children
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)- raises levels of nutrition,
improves production, and distributes food
The World Health Organization (WHO)- directs and coordinates
activities, promotes research, and supplies drugs and equipment
where needed

Foreign Aid:
Financial assistance provided to developing countries from other countries, usually developed countries
Much of Canadas foreign aid is managed by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), which follows four
principles in its operation:
- Deal with poverty first
- Promote development
- Help people to help themselves
- Build partnerships
Government-provided foreign aid or official development assistance (ODA) is one of the ways in Canada helps poorer
Canadians also give their time and money to non-governmental organizations (NGOs):
- Red Cross- provides a wide range of aid around the world
- Free the Children- created to help children in developing countries
- Help Lesotho- created to provide aid to a tiny country in Africa

Foreign Trade: Canadas Economy

Canadas Imports:
Import- product that is brought into a country
from another country
4 categories of Canadas imports:
- High-technology products (computers)
- Motor vehicle parts (wheels, engines)
- Goods produced only in warmer climates (fruits)
- Low-cost goods (clothes)

Canadas Exports:
Export- product or service produced in one country for sale
in another country
3 categories of Canadas exports:
- Products based on our natural resources (oil)
- Motor vehicles (cars, motorcycles)
- Specialized manufactured goods (phones)
Canada must export:
- To pay for the things that we import
- To keep our economy healthy
- To lower the prices of Canadian-made goods for Canadians
Free Trade vs Protectionism:
Tariff- tax on an import
Protectionism- a governments policy of using
tariffs and having rules that limit imports
Free trade- a government policy that eliminates
tariffs and other laws designed to restrict trade
World Trade Organization (WTO):
After WW2, to avoid protectionism, major trading
countries, including Canada agreed on a set of rules to
govern and encourage trade. The General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade (GATT) came into effect in 1947 and now
includes more than 120 countries
The World Trade Organization (WTO) - was designed to
resolve disputes under the rules of the GATT, but is not
always very effective.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
The move to increase Canadas free trade with the US
started in 1998 with the creation of a free trade agreement
with the US. In 1993, the arrangement was expanded to
include Mexico under NAFTA.

The Future of Canadas Trade
Most of our exports are related to our rich
natural resources.
We must keep creating new products.
We could continue to increase our production
and international sale of movies, shows, and
We should not increase our trade with the US
because we are easily harmed by downturns in
the American economy or protectionist policies
from the US.
Cultural Connections

United States of America Canada
Key Phrase in American Declaration of
Independence, 1776: Life, Liberty, and the
pursuit of Happiness
Key Phrase in Canadian Constitution Act, 1867:
Peace, order, and good government
Right of the individual Role of the individual as a member of society
Significance of this on:
Gun control:
- Lax gun control laws and right to bear
- Right of the individual to own a firearm is
more important than the right of society
to restrict it
National public healthcare:
- Private responsibility
- 45 million have no health coverage
- Prevailing attitude that individuals should
be responsible for themselves and their

Significance of this on:
Gun control:
- Strict gun control laws
- Laws reflect idea that fewer guns will
make a safer, more peaceful and orderly
- Individuals right to own guns is limited
National public healthcare:
- All citizens are covered by government-
paid healthcare
- Prevailing attitude that Canadians have a
collective responsibility for the provision
of healthcare to all citizens and accept
this by authorizing government to pay for
all healthcare services with taxes
Former Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau
described Canadas relationship with the US:
Living next to the United States is in some ways
like sleeping with an elephant. No matter how
friendly and even-tempered is the beast one is
affected by every grunt and twitch.
Culture: what makes a nation unique
- The arts
- Media
- Entertainment

Canadian and American Culture Similarities:
- The Canadian ecumene contains over 95% of Canadians and is within 600 km of the United States
- Travel between the two countries is routine.
- Many Canadians have relatives and friends who live in the United States.
- Cable and satellite television offer a vast selection of American television programs and news to
Canadians in even the most remote parts of the country.
- The vast majority of movies shown in our theaters come from American studios such as Universal,
Paramount, and Disney.
- Many of the most popular books and magazines in Canada are published in the United States.
- Most of the fast-food chains and retail chains in Canada are American-owned.

Geopolitical Conflicts around the World
Nation(s) Occurrence of conflict, key players, and involvement of
other countries
Pakistan and India - India and Pakistan are fighting over Kashmir, a
state in the north tip of India
- India signed the Instrument of Accession in 1947
for the British state of Kashmir to join India
- Pakistan opposing this due to large Muslim
population in Kashmir
- Kashmir wants own independence
- Indo-Pakistani wars and other conflicts as a
- Obama wants this to end but said it should be
sorted out between Pakistan and India and the
US is not sending help
- mass murder/ genocide
- rival clans fighting for power, wealth, and food;
men with guns eat first
- American soldiers killed
Rwanda - Hutu attacking Tutsie
- No action taken; 800,000 killed
- Killing the rich, religious, and educated
Cambodia - Civil war; corrupt government
- Khmer Rouge leading
Angola - Worst place to live (UN)
- Civil war; government does not know what to do
- 3 million refugees in capital city
- 70% live in poverty
- 8% of US oil import
Sudan - Iraq unleashed poison gas attacks against Iran
- US supplying weapons to Iran.