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# Sampling

## Sampling is a process of selecting units from a population or universe of interest. Mostly,

researcher selects only few items from universe for the study. If the researcher select whole
universe for his/her study that is known as Census which is not possible to all study. If the
universe is very large it is not possible to researcher to collect data from them so they select
either probability sampling or non-probability sampling to select respondents to collect the
data for the study.
There are certain conditions which should have to conduct probability sampling those
conditions are:
There should be complete list of subjects
The size of the universe should be known
All elements should have equal chance to get selected
Probability sampling
There all universes have equal opportunity to get selected which we cannot see in non-
probability sampling. The researcher may use
I. Simple random sampling
This is the simplest form of random sampling. The main objective of the Simple
random Sampling is to select sample size units out of Population size. This
sampling method give equal opportunity to responds to the researcher. This type
of sampling is known as Chance Sampling or Probability sampling where each
and every item in the population has an equal chance to inclusion in the sample.
Steps follow to achieve a Simple Random Sampling
a. Assign number to each population unit
b. Decide the sample size
c. Required sampling unit can be selected either by lottery method or using
random number table.
II. Systematic random sampling
This is a method of selecting a sample when a list of the units of the population to
be sampled is available. There are the general steps needed to follow in order to
achieve a systematic random sampling:
a. Assign number to each population unit
b. Decide the sample size
c. Obtain sample interval
d. Randomly select first integer between interval size
III. Stratified random sampling
This technique is applied if the population from which a sample is to be drawn
does not constitute a homogenous group. In this techniques population stratified
into a number of non-overlapping sub-population or strata and sample items are
drawn from each stratum adopting simple random sample of fraction. If the item
selected from each stratum is based on simple random sampling the entire
procedure, First stratification and then simple random sampling.
IV. Cluster random sampling
Cluster or area sampling is used when the researcher does not have complete
information of population but has information about cluster. It is the grouping of
population and then selecting the cluster/groups rather than individual
elements/units for inclusion in the sample.
Steps followed in Cluster sampling
a. Divide population into cluster
b. Randomly select the cluster into non-overlapping area
c. Measures all units within selected clusters
V. Multi-Stage Random sampling
This technique is applied for a big inquiries extending to a considerably large
geographical area. Under this sampling first researcher select large primary
sampling units such as regions, then zones, then districts, then VDCs then Town
then individual. By combining different methods researcher is able to achieve a
rich variety of probabilistic sampling methods that can be used in a wide range of
social research context.
Non-Probability Sampling
sample itself are desired. They are quick, inexpensive, and convenient. There are also other
circumstances, such as in applied social research, when it is unfeasible or impractical to
conduct probability sampling. The following are the techniques to use Non-Probability
sampling:
I. Convenience Sampling
A sample is selected from a readily available list like telephone directory, voters
list; however do not follow random selection procedures. The researcher studies
all sampling items which are most conveniently available. Most of the pilot tests
and pre-tests use connivances sampling. This sampling is easy and less expensive
compared with other methods.
II. Purposive sampling
In this sampling, the researcher sample with a purpose in mind. And usually
would have one or more specific predefined groups that the researcher is seeking.
Purposive sampling can be very useful for situation where the researcher need to
reach a target sample quickly and where samplings for proportionally is not the
major concern. This sample method is considered desirable when the universe
happens to be small and known characteristics.
III. Quota sampling
The quota sampling method is the non-probabilistic analogue of stratified random
sampling. However, it differs in how the units are selected. In Quota sampling the
units are selected by the interviewers. This result in selection bias. Thus, quota
sampling is often used by market researcher.
IV. Volunteer sampling
This method is highly applicable when the sample has pleasant measurement
procedures such that probability sampling methods cannot be used.
V. Snowball Sampling
In snowball sampling, the researcher may begin by identifying someone who
meets the criteria for inclusion in the selected research problems. The researcher
then asks them to recommend others who they may know and also meet the set
criteria. Although, this method would hardly lead to representative samples, there
are times when it may be the best method available. The researcher begins the
research with few respondents whom are known and available. This method of
sampling is especially useful when members of universe cannot easily be located
or hard to find by probabilistic procedures. An important bias in this sampling is
that the more other who know a given person the more the likely the person is to
be selected in the sample.

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