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ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE

Conference Paper Abstracts



EPIC AND TRAGIC TALES OF CHANGE: A CASE STUDY OF A
FURTHER EDUCATION COLLEGE
Brown, Andrew D.; U. of Nottingham; andrew.brown@nottingham.ac.uk
Humphreys, Michael; U. of Nottingham; michael.humphreys@nottingham.ac.uk
A qualitative study of organizational change at a UK college of further education (Alpha Community
College) revealed divergent understandings expressed in narrative form. Members of the Senior
Management Team (SMT) told a narrative of epic change in which they cast themselves as adept
managers seeking to overcome a series of obstacles with enlightened policies that would ultimately lead
to a better college. Other administrative and teaching staff authored a narrative of tragic continuity in
which they represented themselves as the victims of flawed strategies with potentially disastrous
consequences. Our research reconstructs these emergent narratives and discusses their implications for
our understanding of sensemaking processes and their potential for hegemonic domination.
Keywords: narrative, sensemaking, hegemony

A MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS OF NETWORK EFFECTS: CHINESE
PRIVATE ENTERPRISES DURING MARKET TRANSITION
Zhou, Wubiao; Cornell U.; wz23@cornell.edu
Based on a multilevel analysis of Chinese private enterprises, I argue that on average, social networks do
help private firms improve economic performance through legitimating status and securing financial
resources, raw materials and sales markets. I also argue that network effects vary under different
contexts. That is, networks help private firms improve economic performance more when the market
environment is still weak than after the market environment has become strong. Also, network effects are
found to have negative relations with economic development in the environment. The results show a
tendency of convergence between reforming China and market-developed countries.
Keywords: network effects, hierarchical linear model, Chinese private enterprises

CREATING AN ADAPTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Livigni, Rosemarie; IBM; rosemari@us.IBM.com
This study followed a firm as it underwent a seven year organizational culture change activity. This firm
took an active role in managing the creation of a new culture following a merger. This resulted in
improved morale, retention and profitability as reflected in customer and leadership surveys. Overall,
Madisons culture is described by its major stakeholders, as planned, adaptable, open, flexible, one
where people take individual initiative and commitment seriously. This research discusses the key
success factors following an organizational culture change activity. These success factors include the
following propositions: (a) you must actively create culture; (b) you should create culture that embraces
second order change; (c) you must clarify the values of the organization in the process; (d) you must
include all participants or stakeholders in the transformation; (e) you must emphasize voice from local
leadership; and (f) you must create coherence without silencing subcultures.
Keywords: merger, culture, adaptation
ODC Paper Abstracts--1
Table of Contents Paper Abstracts Index Find (Cntl-F)

THE LOGIC OF SANCTIONED INERTIA DURING INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY CHANGE
Schwarz, Gavin M.; U. of New South Wales; g.schwarz@unsw.edu.au
I present a model explaining structural inertia in organizations implementing information technology. The
model depicts institutionalization at the organizational subsystem level as reflecting a stratified validation
process, based on the strength of reflexive interpretive schemes. Focusing on the process of accorded
agency in exploring why some technology changes eventuate and others do not, it reconsiders barriers to
structural change. In doing so, I discuss the institutional alignments created when introducing technology.
The model reiterates that change strategists - the group of executives responsible for initiating technology
programs -restrict technology-enabled structural change based on an embedded process of identity
validation. They do this despite the potential folly of such an approach. In this respect, strategist
motivation reflects a self-interested behavior of normative institutionalization. I suggest that inertia is a
multi-part entity representing a variety of limited change outcomes, dependent on institutional context
during technology deployment.
Keywords: Organizational Inertia, Change Management, Information technology Change

CHANGE & FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE
Sheaffer, Zachary; Open U., Israel; rsso112@uvm.haifa.ac.il
Yeheskel, Orly; Tel Aviv U.; orlyy@post.tau.ac.il
Ganzach, Yoav; Tel Aviv U.; yoavgn@post.tau.ac.il
This study focuses on the longitudinal dynamic linkage between radical change, ideological
embeddedness, demographic depletion and financial performance in a macro organisational setting:
Israeli kibbutzim. We propose that consonant with tenets of inertia and processual change theories,
implementation of crisis-triggered radical changes results in poorer performance. Crisis-engendered
demographic depletion and ideologically embedded organisations negatively impact performance.
Results indicate that turnaround measures exemplified by radical transformation of governance and
remuneration policies worsen rather than improve performance. Older and larger kibbutzim tend to lesser
change intensity and improved financial performance thereof, notwithstanding, stronger embeddedness
results in poorer performance.
Keywords: Performance, Change, Ideology

MANAGING IMPROVISATION WITHIN THE MANAGEMENT OF
CHANGE: SOME LESSONS FROM UK FINANCIAL SERVICES
Leybourne, Stephen Ashley; U. of Plymouth; stephen.leybourne@plymouth.ac.uk
This paper considers data collected within a study of project-managed change in the UK financial
services sector. One remarkable finding is the extent of improvisation taking place, notwithstanding the
basic project management paradigm of plan, then implement. Having identified that improvisational work
practices are widespread in the implementation of change, and documented the reasons for this, there is
a desire to investigate and understand how a range of organisations operating within a highly regulated
sector manage such issues. This dichotomy is particularly interesting given the highly risk-averse nature
of some financial services organisations. The format of the paper follows a conventional model. Firstly,
the subject area is introduced. Secondly, the literature relating to organisational improvisation is
considered metaphorically, temporally, and with regard to future directions. Thirdly, the study is briefly
described, before the findings relating to the use and management of improvisational work practices
within the six case study organisations are detailed. Fourthly, the comparative findings across the
organisations are drawn together. Finally, there is a discussion section, and final conclusions are drawn.
ODC Paper Abstracts--2
Keywords: Change, Projects, Improvisation

CHANGE SANS TEARS: UNDERSTANDING CHANGE
PROCESSES FOR FRONTLINE EMPLOYEES IN SERVICE
ORGANIZATIONS
Ye, Jun; Case Western Reserve U.; jxy38@po.cwru.edu
Singh, Jagdip; Case Western Reserve U.; jxs16@po.cwru.edu
Marinova, Detelina; Case Western Reserve U.; dxm81@po.cwru.edu
This study proposes a theoretically grounded model of continuous change processes that emphasizes
three aspects: (1) antecedents of continuous change located in unit and organizational management
efforts to respond to market and institutional forces by maintaining a balance between economic and
service goals, (2) multifaceted modeling of change processes by including the inter-relationships among
perception of change, role ambiguity and depersonalization tendencies, and (3) change outcomes
including performance and psychological wellbeing. Moreover, the proposed model adopts a Frontline
Employee (FLE) perspective, partials out the positive and negative effects of change, and conceptualizes
the moderating role of FLEs participation in decision-making for the change process. Using data from five
not-for-profit service organizations (i.e. hospitals) involving 957 frontline service employees, the authors
examine proposed hypotheses by using Structural Equation Modeling technique. The results indicate that
(1) a mediating mechanism, involving FLEs perception of change, role ambiguity and depersonalization,
explains the relationship between organizational adaptations and an employees behavioral and
psychological outcomes, (2) the intended positive effects of change are represented by the direct effect of
FLEs perception of change, while the unintended negative effects of change originate from employees
depersonalization fostered by change and ambiguity, (3) FLEs participation in decision-making for the
change process enhances the positive effects and alleviates the negative effects of change.
Keywords: change, ambiguity, healthcare

LISTENING TO JACK: GES CHANGE CONVERSATIONS
WITH SHAREHOLDERS
Palmer, Ian; U. of Technology, Sydney; ian.Palmer@uts.edu.au
King, Adelaide Wilcox; U. of Virginia; adelaide@virginia.edu
How organizations communicate with shareholders during times of great uncertainty, such as during
transformational change, is a relatively neglected area within the change management literature. We use
the concept of change conversation (Ford & Ford, 1995) and speech act theory (Searle, 1979) to
analyze GEs letters to shareholders 1980-1999. We found five consistent change conversations through
which GEs management sought to reassure shareholders and reduce their uncertainty around the
expected outcomes of GEs transformational changes: (1) warnings, (2) actions, (3) explanations, (4)
achievements, and (5) predictions. These were underpinned by three types of speech acts: assertives,
expressives, and commissives. We suggest that internally and externally oriented change conversations
differ, the former being best characterized as operational change conversations and the latter as
supportive change conversations. We suggest that successful change managers engage in both types of
change conversations.
Keywords: GE, Change Conversations, Speech Act Theory

EMOTIONAL SEQUENCING IN STRATEGIC CHANGE
Huy, Quy Nguyen; INSEAD; quy.huy@insead.edu
ODC Paper Abstracts--3
Thoughtful management of employees emotions during strategic change processes is little understood
and even less systematically practiced in organizations. But for organizations faced with the stress of
strategic change to improve declining performance, skillful management in all areas is required. I suggest
that the solution transcends emotional intelligence at the individual level. Managers have to develop
organizational action procedures (routines) that sequentially attend to employees emotional responses to
major changes and innovation. The process of emotional sequencing is discussed in this article.
Keywords: emotion, emotional intelligence, strategic change

CONVERSATIONAL LEARNING IN TEAMS: A DYNAMIC
MODEL FOR INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP DEVELOPMENT
Wyss-Flamm, Esther D.; Case Western Reserve U.; edw@po.cwru.edu
Conversational learning is emerging as a vital team process in the context of knowledge creation and
organizational learning and development. It is rooted in team members' experience and bridges individual
(tacit) and communal (social) realms. As a team process, it is fueled by team members' experience of
difference encountered as they work together. This paper proposes a four-phased model derived from
research conducted with six parallel work/learning teams encompassing forty-five members. The four
phases, situated on a spiral, are based on team members' articulation of their experience together, and
encompass (1) experiencing difference as a gut feeling; (2) articulating difference in the form of a
juxtaposition of ideas; (3) re-experiencing difference and increasing tension; and (4) resolving difference
through integration or contrast affirmation. Implications for individual, team, and organizational
development are briefly discussed.
Keywords: conversation, team learning, knowledge creation

CONSTRUCTING SYNERGIES IN MERGERS AND
ACQUISITIONS: TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE INTEGRATION
PROCESS
Bahde, Keith P.; Benedictine U.; kbahde@cooperlighting.com
This paper presents the results of a grounded theory development process aimed at proposing a mergers
and acquisitions (M&A) integration process. Informed by the literatures on M&A, strategy development,
and organization development (OD), the proposed integration process is based on the perspective of the
social construction of reality. From this perspective, combined organizations can be socially constructed
from the critical success factors (CSFs) present in each of the combining organizations so that synergistic
combinations of complementary resources can be constructed to create economic value. Qualitative data
sources used to develop the integration process include several years of participant observation based
the authors experience as an M&A integration manager, and semi-structured interviews with thirty
professionals experienced in M&A integration. The results include the identification of nine key themes
related to successful M&A integration processes which emerged from the interview data. The results also
include a proposed OD process which focuses on the articulation of the CSFs present in each of the
combining organizations as well as opportunities to develop synergistic combinations of these CSFs
which drive the creation of economic value.
Keywords: Mergers and acquisitions, Social construction, Strategy

ODC Paper Abstracts--4

POSTSCRIPT TO CHANGE: EXPLORING EMPLOYEES
RETROSPECTIVE VIEWS OF A DECADE OF
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Chreim, Samia; U. of Lethbridge; samia.chreim@uleth.ca
This paper studies employees retrospective views of their experience with a variety of organizational
changes that occurred during the 1990s. Employees accounts of their responses to organizational
changes introduced by management are analyzed. The response categories of welcoming/acceptance,
resignation, avoidance/opposition, and ambivalence are found to be associated with opportunity,
inevitability, incompatibility and ambiguity accounts respectively. The content of the accounts is related to
factors that facilitate or hinder acceptance of change. Employees were also asked to summarize their
view of change in general. The summaries indicate that employees interpret acceptance of change as a
normative requirement. The paper concludes with implications for change theory.
Keywords: Organizational Change, Employee Responses, Accounts of change

PROCESSING NEGATIVE EMOTIONS: WHO ARE THE TOXIC
HANDLERS IN ORGANIZATIONS?
Toegel, Ginka; London School of Economics; g.toegel@lse.ac.uk
Narasimhan, Anand; London Business School; nanand@london.edu
Kilduff, Martin J.; Pennsylvania State U.; MKILDUFF@PSU.EDU
Organizational experience has the potential to generate negative emotions. Because employees are
unable to avoid work-related events that elicit negative emotions, they may find themselves in need of
emotional assistance and support. Organizational members who informally play the role of toxic handlers
provide such emotional assistance. Toxic handlers build supportive social structures that help process
negative energy that could otherwise disrupt workplace relations. Our analysis of data from a London
recruiting firm suggests that individuals of high, relative to low, rank are more likely to be toxic handlers,
as are individuals with extravert, relative to introvert personalities, those exhibiting positive, relative to
negative, affectivity, and women relative to men.
Keywords: emotions, dispositions, networks

DEVELOPING RESILIENT ORGANIZATIONS AND LEADERS
Youssef, Carolyn Magdy; U. of Nebraska, Lincoln; carolmayo@yahoo.com
Luthans, Fred; U. of Nebraska, Lincoln; fluthans1@unl.edu
The need for resilient organizations and leaders, those able to bounce back from adversity or even
failure, has never been greater. Yet, little is known about the theory or development of this important
capacity at either the organizational or leader levels of analysis. This paper first identifies the concept as
a positive psychological state open to development and then proposes both organizational and leader
resiliency development models. Theory and research supported propositions are offered for the
antecedents (risks, assets and values) and mediators (buffers of strengthening, replenishing and
limbering for the organization and hope, optimism and self-efficacy for the leader) linkages of the models.
The paper concludes with specific guidelines for resilient development programs for organizations and
leaders.
Keywords: Resiliency, Leader, Development
ODC Paper Abstracts--5

PROCESS FRAMEWORKS IN INVESTIGATING PROCESSES OF
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Marker, David C.; ESC Clermont Graduate School of Management;
david.marker@esc-clermont.fr
Much of the August 2001 volume of The Academy of Management Journal was dedicated to the problem
of organizational change and organizational development. Pettigrew, Woodman, and Cameron, editors of
this special section, noted the many calls for improvement in research and research methods that have
been made. In their introductory article, they suggest that investigation on the process of change holds
the greatest research potential for important theory on organizational change. To this end, they cite a few
examples of research in this area they believe to be promising. Among these examples, they list process
frameworks developed by Mackenzie (2000) as a method for investigating the process of organizational
change. In this paper we utilize process frameworks to demonstrate how one micro-process of
organizational change (i.e. encroaching processes) has been revealed and studied using process
frameworks.
Keywords: Process Frameworks, Research Methods, Organizational Change

FUTURE PERFECT? CONVERSION STORIES AND THE
NARRATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Bryant, Melanie; Monash U.; Melanie.Bryant@buseco.monash.edu.au
Wolfram Cox, Julie; RMIT University; julie.wolfram-cox@rmit.edu.au
In this paper, we present a set of narratives about organizational change in which employees
experiences are presented as conversion stories. Within these stories, employees contrast their negative
views on personal career, organizational culture and employment relations before major structural change
with much more positive post-change perspectives. Organizational change appears to be a turning point,
and conversion stories are associated with improved career prospects. We discuss the progressive,
optimistic and dramatic nature of the conversion stories in the context of the optimism of the knowledge
economy, shifts in the nature of organizational change theory, discursive preferences for successful
change, presentational and attributional factors within interview settings, retrospective data collection, and
the particular local context in which the stories were told. We suggest that all of these factors may
complicate the representation of the conversion story as an example of extreme and positive
transformational organizational change, and discuss their implications for both the theory and practice of
narrative change research.
Keywords: Narrative research, Conversion stories, Organizational transformation

CULTURE BUILDING IN A START-UP FIRM : A CONCEPTUAL
FRAMEWORK AND DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES
Srivastava, Bharatendu N.; Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta, India;
bnsri@iimcal.ac.in
Khosla, Bindu; -; bindu_khosla@hotmail.com
The paper proposes a comprehensive conceptual framework including various factors determining
organisational culture and establishes a linkage between organisational culture and performance. The
paper also proposes a process model of culture-building subsuming six major developmental stages an
organisation would need to go through in order to successfully develop its desired culture. We have here
considered the context of a start-up firm of a large corporate group as the backdrop of our
ODC Paper Abstracts--6
conceptualisation. Our objective has been to be both conceptually integrated as well as practically
grounded. The implications of the model for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Culture-building, Developmental stages, Start-up firm

CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Hempel, Paul; City U., Hong Kong; mghempel@cityu.edu.hk
Martinsons, Maris G.; City U., Hong Kong; mgmaris@cityu.edu.hk
Researchers have recently begun exploring the role of values in shaping organizational change (OC), and
nowhere is a consideration of values more important than within the international context. This paper
provides a framework for helping to understand how national culture influences OC. The paper starts with
an examination of international experiences with two specific types of OC, Total Quality Management
(TQM) and Business Process Reengineering (BPR). The results of this review indicate that a wide variety
of cultural characteristics act upon both the process and content of OC. Furthermore, countries differ in
their receptivity to identical OC initiatives, based upon the fit of the OC initiative to the host national
culture. We propose that the acceptability of any specific OC initiative can be understood using a
transactional / transformational perspective. Each aspect of an OC initiative has key underlying values,
and these underlying values can be assessed for congruence with national culture. When the values
underlying a specific aspect of the OC initiative are congruent with the national culture, then this is an
example of transactional change that is relatively simple to implement. However, when the underlying
values are not congruent with national culture, then transformational change is necessary, which is much
more difficult to implement. We conclude the paper by examining specific characteristics of OC process
and content, and identifying the critical underlying value assumptions. These underlying values are then
related to specific cultural constructs against which to assess congruence.
Keywords: international, culture

BRIDGING TRANSITIONS IN EMERGING ECONOMIES WITH
LARGE SCALE INTERVENTIONS: THE CASE OF MEXICO
DelaCerda, Jose; Instituto Technologico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente
(Mexico); josedlac@iteso.mx
Manning, Michael R; New Mexico State U.; mmanning@nmsu.edu
Mexico, like many developing countries with an emerging economy, faces difficult obstacles when trying
to develop within a framework of democratic ideals. Bridging transitions from an undesirable present
situation to a future aspired to by a majority is indeed a challenging ordeal even within well-established
democracies. In a series of action research projects we have been using large group interventions in an
attempt to create whole systems change in governmental, community, and private sectors of Mexico. It is
our objective to provide an overview of some of this work in this paper and to discuss the merits of large
LGI in creating democratic change in Mexico.
Keywords: Whole-Scale Change, Mexico, Large Group Interventions

WORK UNIT IDENTIFICATION, COMMUNICATION, AND
EMPLOYEE OUTCOMES DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Paulsen, Neil; U. of Queensland; n.paulsen@business.uq.edu.au
Callan, Victor J.; U. of Queensland; v.callan@business.uq.edu.au
Gallois, Cynthia; U. of Queensland; c.gallois@mailbox.uq.edu.au
ODC Paper Abstracts--7
As a highly differentiated social environment, organizations provide a context for various forms of
employee identification. In this research, the work unit was examined as a primary target of identification
for employees, and employee identification with the work unit is particularly important in understanding
employee perceptions and responses in organizations, and organizations undergoing change. A
structural model that proposed relationships between work unit identification, employee perceptions of
communication effectiveness, and employee outcomes was tested. The model was developed and then
confirmed in separate samples drawn from a survey of all staff in a military organization that was
experiencing major structural and cultural change. Results support the model and provide support for the
mediating role of communication perceptions in the relationship between work unit identification and
employee outcomes. Implications for the management of organizational change are discussed in relation
to the primacy of the work unit as a target of employee identification.
Keywords: organizational identification, organizational change, communication

EMOTIONS IN MERGERS: A PHENOMENOGRAPHICAL
APPROACH
Dasborough, Marie T.; U. of Queensland; m.dasborough@business.uq.edu.au
Frick, German; U. of Queensland; g.frick@business.uq.edu.au
Lamb, Peter; U. of Queensland; p.lamb@aw.latrobe.edu.au
Suseno, Yuliani; U. of Queensland; y.suseno@business.uq.edu.au
Our aim is to explore the phenomenon of organizational change, in particular a merger, from individual
employees' perspectives, using an alternative interpretative approach, "phenomenography". Our focus is
on understanding employees' perception of a merger and the emotions entwined with their perception.
Studies on organizational change have largely ignored the emotional aspects of change implementation;
however, we suggest that the emotional responses of employees during organisational change can
provide a great deal of information about the cultural impact the change has had on the organization.
Within the context of a merger between two departments within a university, we conducted a series of
semi-structured in-depth interviews with 12 purposively selected employees. Our findings identify three
different conceptions of the merger: first, change is an opportunity to look forward to; second, change is
potentially a threat that needs to be managed; and third, change is inevitable. Each of these conceptions
of the merger are inseparably associated with particular emotional responses of employees in relation to
the merger. As a result, we suggest that by exploring people's meanings and emotional experiences of
mergers, managers will be able to manage organizational change more effectively. This study provides
an example of how phenomenography can be a useful research approach, allowing interpretation of
merger phenomenon through the lived experience of employees.
Keywords: merger, emotion, phenomenography

THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF ATTITUDES
TOWARDS ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Lines, Rune; Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration;
rune.lines@nhh.no
In this paper an attitudinal perspective on organizational members reactions to change is developed. By
viewing change as an attitude object in this sense, a richer conceptualization of perceptions of change
and reactions to change in terms of emotions, cognitions and behaviors is achieved. In order to identify
classes of beliefs underlying the formation of attitudes towards change we integrate constructs from
theories of job characteristics and organizational justice with the overarching attitude perspective.
Boundary conditions and research implications are discussed as are implications for managing change.
Keywords: Attitudes, structure and function, organizational change
ODC Paper Abstracts--8

UNDERSTANDING EMOTIONS IN ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:
THE ROLE OF IDENTITY IN ONGOING CHANGE
Kiefer, Tina; U. of British Columbia; tina.kiefer@commerce.ubc.ca
Mller, Werner R; U. of Basel; Werner-R.Mueller@unibas.ch
Although change has become the norm rather than the exception, leading organizations through
fundamental change processes still poses a major challenge to management. Emotional reactions are
often viewed as one of the obstacles to successful change. In this paper we re-conceptualize the
emotional experience of change through an identity lens, guided by the question of how and why
organizational changes tend to be experienced emotionally. First we argue that ongoing organizational
changes are experienced emotionally, because they tap into identity-relevant issues. Second, we view
identity as constructed from experiences relating a person to his or her world. We argue that
organizational change alters such relationships that constitute our identity. And third we assume that as a
consequence of such disruptive changes, individuals engage in identity work in order to incorporate
ongoing emotional experiences into a coherent self. We present a study, analyzing narratives about
emotional episodes at work in a context of on-going change. From these narratives we identify four
positive and four negative identity-relevant issues, which are examined with respect to their relationship to
organizational changes and their effects on identity work. Finally, we discuss how the notion of identity
work contributes to the emotional experience of organizational change.
Keywords: Change, Emotion, Identity

PLANNING ON SPONTANEITY: LESSONS FROM JAZZ FOR A
DEMOCRATIC THEORY OF CHANGE
Barrett, Frank J.; Naval Postgraduate School; fbarrett@nps.navy.mil
Hatch, Mary Jo; U. of Virginia; mjhatch@virginia.edu
The theme of democratic participation and knowledge development is timely. We hear much about the
relentless pace of change in the knowledge economy, that labor-intensive work is being replaced by
knowledge-intensive work, but what can managers and organizations do to embrace these changes?
Many suggest that the complex nature of problems requires collaborative learning among multidisciplinary
experts to integrate and synthesize knowledge specialties. The experts, trained in knowledge specialties,
must also interact intensively, learn from diverse and unforeseen perspectives, integrate new knowledge,
and aim for synergistic creations. Thus, more than ever we face a need for organizational members to
respond to equivocal situations with creativity, just like jazz musicians do. In this paper, we explore an
alternative approach to change, one that challenges the Newtonian temporal orientation of linear change
models and thereby replaces authoritarian with democratic ideals. Building upon ideas about time
proposed by Augustine and Henri Bergson, we propose developing new theories of change based on
their notions of distension and duree. We use jazz improvisation as an example of knowledge work to
which we find immediate application of the Augustinian and Bergsonian notions and then examine this
application for clues to the sort of change theory that might be built from non-Newtonian assumptions
about time. The implications we draw for managers in knowledge intensive contexts include: adopting a
mindset of surrender over control, embracing rather than minimizing the unforeseeable, and trusting in
emergent self-organization rather than in control mechanisms for coordination.
Keywords: Change, Time, Improvisation

ODC Paper Abstracts--9

SEATTLES EXPERIENCED MUSIC PROJECT: ON COLOR
LANGUAGE AND THE FRAMING OF ORGANIZATIONAL
REALITY
Lechner, Anat; New York U.; alechner@stern.nyu.edu
Harrington, Leslie; Principal, LH.Color; leslie@lhcolor.com
From Seattles Experienced Music Project to NYCs Time hotel and further to Philadelphias PWC Zone,
architects around the country experiment with new ways of framing reality for their audience. Common to
these three architecturally designed environments is the use of multi-language to create and express rich
and meaningful experiences. Traditionally architects have used the language of function and form to
shape reality. But post-modern architecture adds a third language of materials and recently a fourth
linguistic venue a color language. And while the architecture profession is primarily about designing
experiences and shaping reality in ways appealing and inspiring cognitively and emotionally, organization
theorists and change architects possess only limited understanding of the structuring of organizations
beyond the functional, i.e. how to design and frame new realities in emotionally intelligent ways appealing
to change recipients. As a result, most change programs attempt to restructure the objective reality
rather than the subjectively experienced one, encountering tremendous resistance and performance
loses, as organization members emotions and cognitions do not align with new activities and
expectations. We propose that in order to affect both realities, managers need to use multi-language
expressions similar to practices employed by leading post-modern architects. We examine the use of
color language by Frank O. Gehry and uncover through testing the striking notion that managers too have
a shared implicit understanding of color language. We propose that color language can couple the
change language in framing the shift from old to new managerial paradigms in ways inspiring rather than
alienating.
Keywords: Color language, Multilanguage, Change management

INNOVATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A
QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL FIVE-YEAR PANEL STUDY
Unsworth, Kerrie; Queensland U. of Technology; k.unsworth@qut.edu.au
This study used a contingency approach to build on previous research examining the consequences of
organizational innovation. In particular, I used a quasi-experimental design to test whether the
relationship between innovation and increased organizational performance was stronger for organizations
with a positive working climate and when both administrative and technical innovations were
implemented. Innovation, economic performance and productivity performance data were collected at
1990 and 1995 for 698 organizations. Significant three- and four-way interactions suggested that when
the working climate was positive, innovation implementation led to maintenance of performance;
however, when the climate was poor, innovation led to a decrease in performance. There was no
significant effect for innovation synergy. Implications for using a contingency approach in innovation
research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Innovation, Organizational Performance, Quasi-Experimental

FINANCIALIZATION AND THE MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE
Morgan, Glenn; Warwick U.; irobgm@wbs.warwick.ac.uk
Sturdy, Andrew Jonathan; Imperial College, U. of London; a.sturdy@imperial.ac.uk
The paper argues that the conditions under which change is managed have themselves undergone
significant changes in the last two decades. As a result of increased shareholder activism, the main role
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of managers is to ensure that their organization achieves sufficient returns to satisfy stock market
investors and in particular the institutions which mediate between individual savers and the firms whose
shares and bonds are bought and sold. This process can be labelled as an increase in the
financialisation of companies, i.e. in the degree to which they are judged by financial returns. In an era
when companies have to report on their earnings on a quarterly basis, the requirement is to demonstrate
short-term improvements. Short term improvements are achieved by either rapid growth (through mergers
and acquisitions) or through cost-cutting or a combination of both. These measures create their own
agenda for the management of change how to reorganize the firm and its divisions, how to restructure
the roles and responsibilities of those left in the firm and how to reconfigure the physical assets of the
firm. Thus the priority for change management is to respond to the demands which come from this
financialisation process in terms of growth and downsizing. The paper explores the implications of this
for future research and practice in the field of change management.
Keywords: Change, Financialisation, Stock markets

AN INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL LOOK AT READINESS FOR CHANGE:
AN INTERNATIONAL STUDY
Holt, Daniel T.; Air Force Institute of Technology; danny.holt@mindspring.com
Jung, Hee-Hyong; -; hee.jung@afit.edu
By collecting data from three organizations located in two continents, this study was designed to build on
the literature that has called for both individual-level and internationally relevant change research. We
examined how individual perceptions of the change process, context, and individual attributes influenced
readiness for change and subsequent attitudinal outcomes. Our findings revealed that context and
individual attributes were strong predictors or readiness. Furthermore, our findings revealed that
perceptions of the process used by leaders was significantly related to readiness after controlling for
context and individual attributesan important finding considering that leadership often has more
discretion over the process used to facilitate change.
Keywords: Readiness for change, organizational change, international study of change

MORAL PURPOSE AND ORGANIZATIONAL
RESILIENCE:SANDLER ONEILL & PARTNERS IN THE
AFTERMATH OF 9/11/2001
Freeman, Steven F.; U. of Pennsylvania; sf@alum.mit.edu
Hirschhorn, Larry; CFAR; llhirschhorn@cfar.com
Maltz, Marc; TRIAD Consulting Group LLC; mdmaltz@triadllc.com
This study explores the extraordinary recovery of Sandler, ONeill & Partners, a firm which lost 39% of its
workforce and its entire physical plant in the 9/11 attacks. One year later the firm not only had recovered,
but was doing better than ever. We conducted extensive interviews as part of a novel team-based case
study design adopted to ensure rigor in data collection and inductive analysis. We document the extent of
losses the firm suffered, what happened on 9/11 and in the following weeks and months, and findings on
pre- and post- 9/11 routines and tasks, productivity/work effectiveness, communications/ relationships
and leadership. Our analysis concludes that the primary source of Sandler ONeills remarkable post-
attack performance has been a compelling invocation of moral purpose. This moral purpose propelled
resurgence by direct motivation, by enabling outside help, and by unleashing extraordinary physical and
psychological resources in concert with the pull of opportunity. We detail the mechanics of resilience
the actual problems faced by the organization in implementing recovery and how these were overcome at
Sandler ONeill by neutralizing potentially paralyzing grief and anxiety, and a culture that facilitated
teamwork and self-management. We compare the organizational impact of the 9/11 tragedy with that of
other disasters, and identify aspects of the 9/11 tragedy that augured favorably for recovery. Findings
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suggest that, depending on the nature of the crisis and the pre-crisis health of the organization,
organizations may be generally more resilient than received wisdom would suggest.
Keywords: Crisis Preparedness, Loss & Opportunity, Management of Emotions

LEADING CHANGE AND TRANSFORMING LEADERS
Austin, John R.; Pennsylvania State U.; jra10@psu.edu
Images of leadership have always been closely related to expectations about change dynamics. Now,
more than ever, leadership is described in terms of transformation processes. These transformations
include transformations in follower behavior, follower goals, follower capabilities, organization culture, and
organization strategy, along with numerous transformations of the leaders themselves. Although these
transformations are often used as evidence of leadership capability, most leadership research does not
explicitly define what is transformed. In this paper, I show that the underlying transformations used to
measure leadership capability vary greatly from model to model. By identifying the change conditions
under which different leadership models are effective, researchers can highlight points of intersection
between different approaches to organizational leadership and clarify limiting conditions of some
commonly used leadership frameworks.
Keywords: organizational change, leadership, transformation

MORPHOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONAL DECLINE AND
TURNAROUND
Lamberg, Juha; Helsinki U. of Technology; juha-antti.lamberg@tut.fi
Pajunen, Kalle; Tampere U. of Technology; kalle.pajunen@tut.fi
In this paper, an organizational decline and turnaround process is analyzed employing Vladimir Propps
morphological research framework. We offer three distinct contributions. First, we exploit the model to
construct a rich historical description of a particular case. Second, we elaborate a fine-grained analytical
model to explain the underlying structural mechanisms in decline and turnaround processes. Third, using
Propps framework, we advance the methodological base for the analysis of complex change processes.
The results suggest that the adopted research framework is useful for further comparative studies on
turnarounds. Theoretical and methodological implications are described.
Keywords: Turnaround, process research, strategic change

VALUATION THEORY AND MULTI-LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL
CHANGE
Weatherbee, Terrance; Saint Mary's U.; terrance.weatherbee@SMU.ca
Dye, Kelly; Saint Mary's U.; kelly.dye@SMU.ca
Bissonnette, Angela; Saint Mary's U.; angela.bissonnette@SMU.ca
Mills, Albert J.; Saint Mary's U.; albert.mills@stmarys.ca
In this paper we explore the potential of Hermans' Valuation Theory and his related psychotherapeutic
technique of the Self-Confrontation Method for organizational change intervention. We begin by
identifying gaps in the organizational change literature, specifically the relative absence of methods for
assessing the deeper levels underlying the culture-in-use. We then go on to discuss Hermans' work in the
field of counseling psychology and therapeutic interventions and it potential for adaptability to
organizational concerns. In the remainder of the paper we explore selected organizational change issues
and how Hermans' approach can be utilized to address them. Finally, we discuss the strengths and
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problems of Valuation Theory and the Self-Confrontation method and conclude that it appears to have
applications at multiples levels, including the individual, interpersonal, group or team, and organizational
levels.
Keywords: Organizational Change, Self-Confrontation Model, Valuation Theory

EXPLORING COLLABORATIVE CAPACITY IN A GLOBAL
CHAORDIC ALLIANCE WITH VIRTUAL APPRECIATIVE
INQUIRY
Fitzgerald, Stephen P.; Collaborative Capacity - AI Consulting; stevefitzg@attbi.com
Nemiro, Jill; California State Polytechnic U., Pomona; nemiroj@greenheart.com
Murrell, Kenneth; West Florida U.; kmurrell@uwf.edu
Fry, Ronald; Case Western Reserve U.; rxf5@po.cwru.edu
Inter-entity collaboration leading to democratic action has proliferated over the past two decades in many
forms. Tremendous complexity inheres in such collaborations. They reflect increasingly global issues and
concerns. What makes such collaborations possible, and what helps them thrive? Interfaith movements
represent one of the greatest challenges to inter-entity collaboration, given the millennia-old
entrenchment in violent religious conflict. The United Religions Initiative (URI), a global, chaordic,
interfaith alliance dedicated to ending religiously motivated violence, was chosen as the research setting
for that reason. Collaborative Capacity is introduced as an integrative analytic framework that was
developed through an extensive trans-disciplinary review of the inter-entity collaboration literature. It is
applied through a virtual appreciative inquiry process in a multiple case-study design involving eight URI
cooperation circles on four continents, chosen to maximize their diversity for this research. Qualitative
and quantitative analyses provide strong, consistent evidence for a basic distinction among the eight
cases: those that are more informally structured and internally focused, and those that are more formally
structured and externally focused. The inner/outer foci reflect the greater inner focus of the URI principles
and the greater outer focus of its action agenda. Those foci seem to express the URIs own complex
challenge of building collaboration. What gives life and meaning to interfaith collaborations? Three key
factors emerged: purpose, principles, and relationships. Collaborative capacity is about that most
fundamental of human social concerns: being respectfully, caringly, and deeply related. Perhaps it is
ultimately about developing the relational organization.
Keywords: global collaboration, chaordic alliance, appreciative inquiry

USING SYSTEMS DYNAMICS TO GUIDE ORGANIZATIONAL
CHANGE: A CASE STUDY FROM THE NON-PROFIT SECTOR
Sommers, Jennifer Ann; Portland State U.; jsommers@pdx.edu
Cullen, Jennifer C.; Portland State U.; jcc@pdx.edu
Sinclair, Robert R.; Portland State U.; sinclair@pdx.edu
Wakeland, Wayne; Portland State U.; wakeland@pdx.edu
Organizational change agents working in the non-profit sector face different challenges than in the private
sector. Non-profit organizations wanting to change their organization must decide how to implement
changes to their structure, culture, strategy, and identity with sometimes severely limited resources. The
purpose of this paper is to describe the benefits of adopting a systems thinking approach to implementing
organizational change in the non-profit sector. Second, we demonstrate the utility of dynamic modeling as
a tool to support the change management process by discussing a case study of a non-profit organization
in which we used dynamic modeling in support of an organizational change initiative. Dynamic modeling
creates an opportunity for non-profit organizations to analyze strategic decisions in a generative
quantitative fashion. Dynamic models also enable employees to actively participate in the change process
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without causing a financial burden to the organization. Through model simulations, we demonstrated the
impact that different operating decisions have on the organizations performance and sustainability. For
instance, once its revenue generating functions were sustainable, the organization could achieve its
social purpose. The system dynamics demonstrated during this project raise three critical issues that
organizational change agents should consider when implementing organizational development
interventions: the role of time, decisions regarding the allocation of resources, and the unintended
consequences of organizational change. This project was extremely useful for our own understanding of
the merging fields of organizational theory and systems thinking. We hope other researchers and
practitioners will find value in incorporating these concepts into their own work.
Keywords: Dynamics, Non-profit, Systems

TEAM BUILDING AND THE PROBLEM OF REGRESSION: THE
29-YEAR IMPACT OF MANAGEMENT INTERVIEWS
Boss, R. Wayne; U. of Colorado, Boulder; wayne.boss@colorado.edu
This paper reports the results of using Personal Management Interviews (PMIs) in 202 natural teams over
a period ranging from 3 months to 29 years. The data represent the responses of 2,310 participants
(1,355 experimental and 955 comparison group members) to Friedlander's Group Behavior Inventory
(GBI) and the Likert Profile of Organizational and Performance Characteristics. The results indicate that
regular PMIs regularly can significantly decrease regression for as long as 29 years with no additional
interventions after offsite team building meetings.
Keywords: team building, regression, sustainability

ASSESSING SUCCESS IN CHANGE PROCESSES: WHY
PLANNED CHANGE INITIATIVES FAIL
Stensaker, Inger G.; Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration;
inger.stensaker@nhh.no
Organizational change is difficult. Between 50 and 70% of planned Business Process Reengineering
(BPR) changes have been said to fail (Bashien, Markus, and Riley, 1994; Caron, Jarvenpaa, Stoddard,
1994). This paper addresses why so many change initiatives apparently fail. The purpose is not to
present success factors for organizational change, but rather to critically examine how we assess the
success or failure of change initiatives and to propose alternative assessment criteria as well as
additional change outcome categories. I argue that many change initiatives are considered as failures
because we operate with only two categories of change outcome - success or failure, and our most
common criteria for assessing change success are inappropriate and overly strict. This leads to few
examples of change success and a large residual category of change failures. A more nuanced
classification of change outcomes, which differentiates between the many change failures, can contribute
in giving a more realistic assessment of how planned change processes affect organizations. Based on a
multiple case study of change implementation processes, three intermediate change outcomes that
represent neither clear successes nor failures are presented: loose coupling, assimilation and
accommodation. These outcomes recognize changes at different organizational levels and represent
alternative criteria for assessing change success.
Keywords: organizational change, change success, change outcome

ODC Paper Abstracts--14

TRANSFORMING A MONOPOLIST: COEVOLUTION OF
MANAGERIAL DISCRETION, REGULATION AND COMPETITION
Svejenova, Silviya; Cranfield U.; silviya.svejenova@cranfield.ac.uk
Vives, Luis; IESE, U. of Navarra; docvives@iese.edu
This paper examines a case of proactive adaptation of a local, state-controlled monopolist to competition.
A rich historical case analysis of the Spanish telecom Telefonica is undertaken to illuminate
coevolutionary processes of managerial discretion, institutional regulation and competitive dynamics. The
study compares three periods of the companys adaptation between 1982-2000, which were driven by
CEOs with different backgrounds, styles and priorities, and characterized by relaxation of regulatory
constraints and increase in competition. Archival data, press clips, industry reports and interviews with
key managers from that period were used to trace how the firm, its sector, and the institutional
environment coevolved. The coevolutionary perspective is combined with insights from resource-based
theories along with theories on managerial discretion and on regulated enterprises to explain how
Telefonicas management envisioned and prepared for the coming competition, which allowed it to
transform from a local, state-controlled telephone monopolist to a global, private media and
telecommunications enterprise.
Keywords: firm's adaptation, deregulation, coevolution

ORGANIZATIONAL IDENTITY IN A HEALTHCARE SETTING:
CORRELATES AND CONSEQUENCES
Koberg, Christine S.; U. of Colorado, Boulder; Christine.Koberg@colorado.edu
Monsen, Erik; U. of Colorado, Boulder; erik.monsen@colorado.edu
Boss, R. Wayne; U. of Colorado, Boulder; wayne.boss@colorado.edu
Angermeier, Ingo; Spartenburg Healthcare Systems; iangermeier@srhs.com
This study examined the correlates and consequences of organizational identity strength and type
(normative vs. utilitarian) among a sample of 1892 technically skilled, professional, and managerial
employees (men and women) in a large healthcare system beginning a longer-term organizational
change effort. Specific job attitudes and group variables were found to be at least as important as
individual demographic characteristics in predicting organizational identity strength and type. Healthier
organizational characteristics were associated with reports of stronger organizational identities. In
addition, healthier organizational characteristics were also associated with reports of a more utilitarian
(business-like) instead of a more normative (values-based) organizational identity type. In terms of job
outcomes and consequences, identity strength was associated with a reduced intention to quit the
organization, while identity type was not found to be a significant predictor of intention to quit. These
findings suggest that different aspects of organizational identity can have different implications for
organizational change efforts and firm performance.
Keywords: organization, identity, healthcare

CHANGE, SENSEMAKING & NOMADIC WORK: EMERGENT
MEANING IN A CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION
Bean, Cynthia Jane; U of South Florida; cjbean@stpt.usf.edu
This paper is part of a larger ethnographic research project to examine individual sensemaking during the
change from traditional officing to nomadic work. The study was conducted in a high-technology firm that
strives to achieve a highly flexible form. The goal is to understand the processes by which meaning
emerges in context, and organizational form emerges in action, as nomadic work is embraced and a more
ODC Paper Abstracts--15
flexible organization is created. Toward this end, this manuscript analyzes the sensemaking process and
communication of one change-agent experiencing and enacting the new work methods, taken from a
case study in Norway. The specific aim of this paper is to share and examine stories illustrating the use of
embodied metaphor to understand the sensemaking process in the context of this organizational change.
Social structure, organizational culture, and identity emerge as framing elements; rhetorical devices are
shown to reorder the body and articulate participants meaningfully in the experience.
Keywords: Change, Sensemaking, Nomadic Work

WHY REFORM IN CHINAS STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISE
FAILED? A CULTURAL EXPLANATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL
CHANGE
ZHANG, Qian Forrest; Yale U.; qian.zhang@yale.edu
The contrasting performances of Chinas state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-and-village
enterprises (TVEs) have been explained in the literature as resulting from their differences in property-
right institutions, governance structure and exposure to market competition. These explanations are
inadequate. Using a 1992 national survey of both SOEs and TVEs, this study shows that, in fact, reform
measures implemented by the government have largely leveled the playground and made Chinese SOEs
similar to TVEs in their property-right institutions, governance structure and exposure to market
competition. Yet, these formal organizational changes failed to produce the intended outcome
increasing productivity in SOEsas they did in TVEs. This puzzle calls for a theory of organizational
change that goes beyond formal institutions and exposes the effects of informal institutions and
resistance culture on organizational outcomes. The production process ought to be seen as a contested
social process ridden with inter-class and intra-class conflicts, the management of which affects
organizational performance. The second part of this study presents such a political-cultural explanation. It
is argued that the socialist experience has created in Chinese SOEs a heightened class consciousness
among workers that deems the capitalistic form of productionpromoted by the reformunjust and
exploitative. The social organization of SOEs also helps to increase class solidarity among workers and
their bargaining power vis--vis managers. Such class solidarity and class consciousness gives rise to a
resistance culture and oppositional networks among workers that defeated formal organizational
changes.
Keywords: enterprise reform, contested production, informal institutions

WHEN IS PLANNING NECESSARY: A STUDY OF PLANNING
SKILLS AND EMERGENT LEADERS
Daniels, Carol S; U of Oklahoma; cmarta@ou.edu
Leritz, Lyle E.; U. of Oklahoma; lleritz@ou.edu
Mumford, Michael D.; U. of Oklahoma; mmumford@psy.ou.edu
In the present study, the role of planning skills were examined with respect to leader emergence and
group planning performance. The study included 195 subjects with 55 groups, each working on a
planning task. Leader planning skills and group planning performance were assessed under conditions of
task complexity, group diversity, and induced change. It was found that under conditions of complexity,
low diversity, and change, group planning quality and originality increased. In addition, leaders exhibited
more structuring type behaviors under the same condition as well. Leader structuring behaviors also
interacted with leader planning skills in determining quality and originality of group plans. The limitations
and implications of these findings are also discussed.
Keywords: Leadership, Planning
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