You are on page 1of 88

INSTRUCTIONS TO THE STUDENTS

1. Students should attend the laboratory wearing prescribed uniform and rubber shoes.

2. Students should come with thorough preparation for the experiments including the
theory, aim, procedure, calculations and the answers to the vive questions.

3. Students will not be permitted to attend the laboratory unless they bring the Practical
Record fully completed in all respects pertaining to the experiments conducted in the
previous class.

4. Students shall write the Aim, Circuit Diagram, Formulae used and Blank Tabular
Columns for the experiment in the observation book before coming to the laboratory.

5. The procedure for the experiments shall be explained to the staff member by the student
before making the necessary circuit connections / start of software part.

6. After making all the connections, the student shall show the same to the concerned staff
member and then start the experiment.

7. The student shall not lean on the table / energized instruments while conducting the
experiments.

8. In case of power supply failure during conduction of the experiments, the student shall
immediately switch off the main power supply switch. After the supply resumes, all the
circuit connections shall be brought back to the initial condition before restarting the
experiment.

9. On completion of the experiment, all the relevant details such as tabular column,
calculations, graphs etc., shall be completed in the laboratory, and the student shall take
the signature of the concerned staff member on the same day.
Student shall refer to the standard textbooks on the subject and include all the necessary
details in the practical record as per the instructions of the concerned staff member.















VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual



Acharya Institute of Technology
Soldevanahalli, Bangalore 107

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Lab: Relay & High voltage Sub code: 10 EEL 77
Semester: VII
List of the experiments for the academic year 2013-14


SL
.No.
Name of the experiment

1 Operating characteristics of IDMT under voltage electromechanical
relay
2 Operating characteristics of electromechanical IDMT over current relay
3 Operating characteristics of Microprocessor based over/under voltage
relay
4 Operating characteristics of Negative phase Sequence static relay
5 Operating characteristics of Microprocessor based over current relay
6. Operating characteristics of microprocessor based impedance- distance
relay
7 D Digital motor protection Relay study unit
8 O Operating characteristics of static % differential relay
9 Breakdown strength of transformer oil using oil-testing unit.
10 Spark over characteristic of air insulation subjected to High voltage AC
with spark over voltage corrected to STP.
11 Spark over characteristics of air insulation subjected to High voltage
AC for uniform and non-uniform field configuration
12 Measurement of HVAC using standard spheres.
13 Spark over characteristic of air insulation subjected to High voltage DC
with spark over voltage corrected to STP
14 Measurement of HVDC using standard spheres.
15 Spark over characteristics of air insulation subjected to high voltage
impulse









VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Sub Code : 10EEL77 I.A Marks: 25
Hrs/week : 03 Exam. Hours: 03
Total Hrs : 52 Exam Marks: 50
Contents

SL
.No.
Particulars

Page No.
1 Operating characteristics of IDMT under voltage
electromechanical relay
1-4
2 Operating characteristics of electromechanical
IDMT over current relay
5-10
3 Operating characteristics of Microprocessor based
over/under voltage relay
11-18
4 Operating characteristics of Negative phase
Sequence static relay
19-22
5 Operating characteristics of Microprocessor based
over current relay
23-30
6. Operating characteristics of microprocessor based
impedance- distance relay
31-34
7 Digital motor protection Relay study unit
35-50
8 O Operating characteristics of static % differential
relay
51-54
9 Breakdown strength of transformer oil using oil-
testing unit.
55-58
10 Spark over characteristic of air insulation subjected
to High voltage AC with spark over voltage
corrected to STP.
59-62
11 Spark over characteristics of air insulation subjected
to High voltage AC for uniform and non-uniform
field configuration
63-66
12 Measurement of HVAC using standard spheres.
67-70
13 Spark over characteristic of air insulation subjected
to High voltage DC with spark over voltage
corrected to STP
71-74
14 Measurement of HVDC using standard spheres.
75-78
15 Spark over characteristics of air insulation subjected
to high voltage impulse
79-82
16 HV lab questions
83-84




VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Cycle of experiments


Cycle- 01

Sl.
No
Name of the experiment

1 Operating characteristics of IDMT under voltage electromechanical relay
2 Operating characteristics of electromechanical IDMT over current relay
3 Operating characteristics of Microprocessor based over/under voltage
relay
4 Operating characteristics of Negative phase Sequence static relay

Cycle- 02

Sl.
No
Name of the experiment

1 Operating characteristics of Microprocessor based over current relay
2 Operating characteristics of microprocessor based impedance- distance
relay
3 Digital motor protection Relay study unit
4 Operating characteristics of static % differential relay

Cycle- 03

Sl. No
Name of the experiment

1 Breakdown strength of transformer oil using oil-testing unit.
2 Spark over characteristic of air insulation subjected to High voltage AC
with spark over voltage corrected to STP
3 Spark over characteristics of air insulation subjected to High voltage AC
for uniform and non-uniform field configuration
4 Measurement of HVAC using standard spheres.
5 Spark over characteristic of air insulation subjected to High voltage DC
with spark over voltage corrected to STP
6 Measurement of HVDC using standard spheres.
7 Spark over characteristics of air insulation subjected to high voltage
impulse






VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 1

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:



Figure 1





Figure 2







VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 2

Experiment No.: 1 Date:

OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF IDMT UNDER VOLTAGE
ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAY

AIM: To Study the operations of IDMT under voltage Electromechanical relay and to draw
its operating Characteristics.
Apparatus required:

SlNo. Name Quantity
1 IDMT Under voltage relay & test kit

2 Connecting Leads


Procedure:
1. Connect as per interconnection diagram.
2. Set the relay for UNDER voltage level. (Range 50,60,70,80 & 90)% .(PLUG)
3. Set TMS. (Range 0 1)
4. Ensure Time interval meter selection switch is in TIM position.
5. Ensure S2 switch is ON position.
6. Bring both dimmers to zero position.
7. Bring Toggle switch to SET mode.
8. Connect the power card.
9. Put on the mains using Mains ON switch.(ROCKER). Mains on indicator, ammeter
display, relay power and Timer display will glow.
10. Adjust the voltage level above the threshold level of under voltage relay setting. (Using
dimmer 1).
11. Push TEST START BUTTON, CB ON Indicator will glow.
12. Adjust the under voltage level (i.e. Less than relay set voltage) using dimmer 2.
13. Push TEST STOP/RESET button.
14. Dont disturb the dimmer1 & 2.
15. Bring Toggle switch to TEST mode.
16. Push TEST START BUTTON, Note down the voltage. (Circuit breaker ON, CB ON
indicator will glow, time interval meter starts up counting. Under Voltage relay trip occurs
TRIP indicator will glow. If buzzer switch is on it gives the beep sound.
17. Note down the Time Interval Meter reading. (Drop off time)
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 3

Tabular column:
Plug setting (set voltage of under voltage relay): eg.99v
Time multiplier setting (TMS):eg.1
Normal inverse -5 sec curve:

Sl.no. TSM
(Time
setting
Multiplier)
SET
VOLTAGE
Fault
VOLTAGE

% of closing voltage Operating time
in seconds.
(Actual Time
of Operation
of relay )
1 1 99 79.2 80 13.61
2 2 99 59.4 60 7.69
3 3 99 39.6 40 5.93
4 4 99 0 5.0SEC

% of closing voltage= (Fault voltage / Set voltage)*100
Tabular Column

SI.No. TMS ( Time
Multiplier
setting)
SET
Voltage
Fault
Voltage
% of Closing
Voltage
Operating
Time in
Seconds
1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.






VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 4


18. Press the RESET button.
19. Repeat operation (10 19) by adjusting different voltage & TMS settings.
20. Draw the graph between Trip time Vs % of closing voltage

Viva questions:
1) What is a Relay?
2) Name the components of protective relaying scheme.
3) What is TSM?
4) List the applications of Electromagnetic relays.
5) What is IDMT characteristic of a relay?
6) What is reset or dropout ratio of a relay?
Questions:
1) Conduct a suitable experiment on the given Electromechanical under Voltage relay to
draw its operating characteristics. Choose the plug setting of _____ V & TMS _____.

Result &Conclusion:





Signature of staff










VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 5




CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:





Fig.1 CONNECTION DIAGRAM OF RELAY






















CB
CT
TRIP
1

P
h
,
2
3
0
V
a
c
T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
E
R
RELAY
UNDER TEST
F
S1
S2
CI
A
U
X
.
VARIAC
POT.FREE
CB
NO
NC
CONTROL
CIRCUIT
TIME
INTERVAL
METER
A
R

Fig.2 Connection Diagram

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 6


Experiment No:2 Date:

OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMECHANICAL
OVER CURRENT RELAY

AIM: To Study the Inverse trip-time characteristics of Over current relay

Apparatus:

Sl.No. Name Quantity
1 Electromechanical over current relay kit
2 Connecting Leads

Procedure:
1. Set the relay current using plug setting=2Amps.
2. Set TMS=1.
3. Ensure Time interval meter selection switch in TIM position.
4. Ensure Protection time switch is ON position.
5. Connect the power card.
6. Bring dimmer to zero position.
7. Using RB20 select the test current.
8. Put on the mains using Mains on switch.(ROCKER). Results (Mains on indicator,
ammeter display, relay power and Timer display will glow.)
9. Bring Toggle switch SET mode.
10. Push TEST START BUTTON, CB ON Indicator will glow.
11. Adjust the dimmer set the approximate injection current (within 30 seconds otherwise
protection timer will activate and circuit breaker will be off.
12. Push TEST STOP/ RESET BUTTON.
13. Dont disturb the dimmer.
14. Bring Toggle switch TEST mode.
15. Push TEST START BUTTON, Note down the current. (Circuit breaker ON, CB ON
indicator will glow, time interval meter starts up counting, Protection timer starts
down counting, over current relay trip occurs TRIP indicator will glow at relay and
injector unit also. If buzzer switch is on it gives the beep sound.
16. Note down the Time Interval Meter reading. (Pick up time)
17. Press the RESET button.
18. Repeat operation (7 17) by adjusting different Current & TMS settings.
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 7

19. Draw the graph Trip time Vs PSM (plug setting Multiplier.)
Tabular column:

PLUG SETTING ( SET CURRENT OF RELAY):
Time multiplier setting (TMS) :1


Sl.no. TSM(Time
setting
Multiplier)
Plug
Setting
Fault
Current
PSM ( plug setting
Multiplier )
Fault ct/plug setting
Operating time in
seconds. (Actual Time
of Operation of relay)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

















VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 8


CALCULTAION:
How to find out the PSM (Plug setting Multiplier)
Fault Current
PSM = ---------------------------------
Plug setting

If CT used


Fault Current (primary current)
PSM = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plug setting (Primary Setting Current) x CT ratio


Actual Operating time (Ta) in sec.
TSM = ---------------------------------------------------------------------
Calibrated Operating Time for TSM = 1.0 (Tc) in sec


Characteristics Curve to be draw = Trip Time Vs PSM

EXAMPLE:
Relay current setting is 150% ( relay 100%=5A) and has Time multiplier setting of 0.5,
the relay has connected in the circuit through a C.T. having ratio 500:5 amps 500/5A
Fault current is 6000Amps. Relay characteristics as assume for PSM 8=3.15sec at TMS is
1.


Solution:

150 % = 1.5A
5
See fault current 6000A x ----- = 60A
500

1
Plug setting multiplier PSM = 60 x ---------- = 8
5 x 1.5

Time from graph against this multiplier is 3.15sec.

Operating time = 3.15 x 0.5 = 1.575sec.


VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 9










































Graph.1 Characteristics Curve
TIME vs PSM
0.00
2.50
5.00
7.50
10.00
12.50
15.00
17.50
20.00
22.50
25.00
27.50
30.00
1 10 100
PSM
T
I
M
E

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 10

Viva questions:
1) List the essential qualities of protective relaying.
2) What is reliability of the relay system?
3) Explain sensitivity, speed and selectivity of the relay system.
4) Explain the working principle of Directional over current relay
5) What is PSM?
6) Sketch IDMT characteristics of over current relay.
7) What is the working principle of an electromagnetic relay?
Questions:
1) Conduct a suitable experiment on the given Electromechanical over Current relay to draw
its operating characteristics. Choose the plug setting of _____ A & TMS _____.

Result &Conclusion:



Signature of staff




















VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 11


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:





















































Fig.1 CONNECTION DIAGRAM OF RELAY
CB
V
A
R
I
A
C
-
1
V
A
R
I
A
C
-
2
TRIP 1

P
h
,
2
3
0
V
a
c
RELAY
UNDER TEST
NC
NO
POT.
FREE
F
S1
S2
V.T
S3
V
V1
V2
A
U
X
.
CB
CONTROL
CCT.
TIME
INTERVAL
METER

Fig.2 CONNECTION DIAGRAM

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 12

Experiment No.:3 Date:

OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROPROCESSOR BASED
OVER/UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY



AIM: To study the operating characteristics of a Microprocessor based over/under voltage
relay

Apparatus:
Sl.No. Name Quantity
1 Microprocessor based over/under voltage relay&
test kit

2 Connecting Leads

Procedure P BASED OVER VOLTAGE RELAY TEST KIT.

1. Connect as per interconnection diagram.
2. Set the relay over voltage (Setting procedure refer LT MANUAL).
3. Set TMS.
4. Ensure Time interval meter selection switch in TIM position.
5. Ensure Protection time switch is ON position.
6. Ensure S
2
switch is ON position.
7. Bring both dimmers to zero position.
8. Connect the power card.
9. Put on the mains using Mains on switch (ROCKER). Results (Mains on indicator,
ammeter display, relay power and Timer display will glow.)
10. Bring Toggle switch SET mode.
11. Push TEST START BUTTON, CB ON Indicator will glow.
12. Adjust the dimmer2 set the approximate injection voltage.( within 30 seconds
other wise protection timer will activate and circuit breaker will be off.
13. Push TEST STOP/RESET BUTTON.
14. Dont disturb the dimmer1 & 2.
15. Bring Toggle switch TEST mode.
16. Push TEST START BUTTON, Note down the voltage. (Circuit breaker ON, CB
ON indicator will glow, time interval meter starts up counting, Protection timer
starts down counting, over voltage relay trip occurs TRIP indicator will glow at
relay and injector unit also. If buzzer switch is on it gives the beep sound.
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 13


Tabular column:
PT rating 110V
Plug setting vs. (set voltage of over voltage relay): eg.105% i.e. 115.5V

Time multiplier setting (TMS):eg.1
Normal INVERSE

Sl. No. TSM (Time
setting
multiplier)
Set
Voltage
Fault
Voltage
Multiple Of Set Voltage
(Vs) Fault Voltage/plug
setting voltage
Operating time in
seconds. (Actual Time
of Operation of relay )
1
2
3
4
5
Vs= [1+ (0.05+a)] Vn

T=K (0.1+t)

Tabular column:
Plug setting (set voltage of under voltage relay): eg.95% i.e. 104.5v
Time multiplier setting (TMS): eg.1
Vs= [1-(0.05+a)] Vn

NORMAL INVERSE

Sl.
No.
TSM (Time
setting Multiplier)
Set Voltage
Vs
Fault
Voltage
Multiple of Set
Voltage (Vs) Fault
voltage/set
voltage Vs
Operating time in
seconds. (Actual
Time of Operation
of relay)
1
2
3
4
5



VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 14

17. Note down the Time Interval Meter reading. (Pick up time)
18. Press the RESET button.
19. Repeat operation (10 18) by adjusting different Voltage & TMS settings.
20. Draw the graph Trip time Vs PSM (plug setting Multiplier.)

NOTE: For finding up the pickup voltage, protection timer switch in by pass position, and
mode switch kept at test position.

After test start gradually increase the dimmer-2 from zero to your voltage set value
and when the trip indicator led starts blinking note down the pickup voltage.

Procedure P BASED UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY TEST KIT

1. Connect as per interconnection diagram.
2. Set the relay UNDER voltage (Setting procedure refer LT MANUAL).
3. Set TMS.
4. Ensure Time interval meter selection switch in TIM position.
5. Ensure Protection time switch is ON position.
6. Ensure S
2
switch is ON position.
7. Bring both dimmers to zero position.
8. Bring Toggle switch SET mode.
9. Connect the power card.
10. Put on the mains using Mains on switch. (ROCKER). Results (Mains on indicator,
ammeter display, relay power and Timer display will glow.)
11. Adjust the voltage level above the threshold level of under voltage relay setting using
dimmer 1.
12. Push RESET and TEST START BUTTON, CB ON Indicator will glow.
13. Adjust the under voltage level (i.e. Less than relay set voltage) using dimmer 2.
within 30 seconds other wise protection timer will activate and circuit breaker will be
off.( to avoid activation of protection timer use by pass switch of that timer)
14. Push TEST STOP/RESET BUTTON.
15. Dont disturb the dimmer1 & 2.
16. Bring Toggle switch TEST mode.
17. Push TEST START BUTTON, Note down the voltage. (Circuit breaker ON, CB ON
indicator will glow, time interval meter starts up counting, Protection timer starts
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 15


Tabular column:
Plug setting (set voltage of over voltage relay): eg.120V
Time multiplier setting (TMS):eg.1
Definite Time: 10SEC

Sl. No. TSM
(Time setting
Multiplier)
Set
Voltage
Fault
Voltage
Multiple of Set
Voltage (Vs)
Fault Voltage/plug
setting voltage
Operating time in
seconds. (Actual
Time of Operation
of relay)
1
2
3
4
5




















VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 16


down counting, over voltage relay trip occurs TRIP indicator will glow at relay and
injector unit also. If buzzer switch is on it gives the beep sound.
18. Note down the Time Interval Meter reading. (drop off time)
19. Press the RESET button.
20. Repeat operation (11 19) by adjusting different voltage & TMS settings.
21. Draw the graph Trip time Vs MSM.
NOTE: For finding up the drop off voltage, protection timer switch in by pass position, and
mode switch kept at test set position. Dimmer 2 voltages beyond the threshold level
After test start gradually decrease the dimmer-2 from zero to your current set value
and when the trip indicator led starts blinking note down the drop off voltage.




























VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 17

Tabular column:
Plug setting (set voltage of under voltage relay): eg.100V
Time multiplier setting (TMS):eg.1
Definite Time: 10 SEC

Sl. No. TSM (Time setting
multiplier)
Set
Voltage
Fault
Voltage
Multiple of set
voltage (Vs)
Operating time in
seconds. (Actual
Time of Operation
of relay)
1
2
3
4
5

For trip time at TMS other than 1
Trip time= (trip time at TMS=1) x TMS

















VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 18

Viva questions:
1) How does a p based (Static) relay is different from electro mechanical relay?
2) What is the working principle of microprocessor based relay?
3) What is a relay? Mention few protective devices other than relay.
4) What is the significant of TMS?
5) Define pickup and drop off value of a relay?
6) Give applications of electromagnetic and microprocessor based relay.

Questions:
1) Performance the experiment on Microprocessor based Over Voltage relay for a fault
voltage setting of 105% of V
n
& Normal inverse 3.5 Second trip time characteristics. Obtain
the operating characteristics these setting of the relay.

Result &Conclusion:

Signature of staff






















VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 19

Circuit diagram:











































Schematic Diagram Relay under Test

Fig.1 Circuit Diagram

Fig.2
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 20

Experiment No.:4 Date:

OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF NEGATIVE PHASE
SEQUENCE STATIC RELAY

AIM: To study the operation of DMT Negative phase sequence solid state Relay

Apparatus:

Sl.No. Name Quantity
1 DMT Negative phase sequence
relay & test kit

2 Induction Motor
3 Connecting Leads


Procedure
1. Connect as per diagram 3 & 4.
2. Connect Aux. power cord.
3. Connect three phase input. (415V, 3 ph )
4. Mains Switch ON.(Rocker)
5. Push CB ON button. CB on indicator will glow.
i) CB on indicator will glow
ii) If motor connected, its starts running. Note down the ammeter readings.
(Rheostat should be in zero (cut) position.
6. Adjust the Rheostat to create the Negative sequence (Unbalance )
7. Negative sequence relay gets ACTIVE and TRIP.
8. Push CB OFF./ RESET.
9. Without disturbing the rheostat switch on the CB ON and note down the
ammeter reading and trip timing.
10. Interchange the three phase R, Y, B sequence and Observe.









VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 21


Tabular Column:
Balanced Condition


SI No.
Current in
Phase R
Current in
Phase Y
Current in
Phase B
Time in Seconds













Unbalanced Condition

SI No.
Current in
Phase R
Current in
Phase Y
Current in
Phase B
Time in
Seconds



























VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 22



Viva questions:
1) How does a Negative phase sequence relay works?
2) What are applications of the negative phase sequence relay?

Result &Conclusion:

Signature of faculty






























VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 23



Circuit Diagram

















CB
CT
TRIP
1

P
h
,
2
3
0
V
a
c
T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
E
R
RELAY
UNDER TEST
F
S1
S2
CI
A
U
X
.
VARIAC
POT.FREE
CB
NO
NC
CONTROL
CIRCUIT
TIME
INTERVAL
METER
A
R

Fig.2 Connection Diagram

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 24



Experiment No.:5 Date:


OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROPROCESSORBASED
OVER CURRENT RELAY


AIM: To study the operation of microprocessor based over current relay and obtain its
operating characteristics.

Apparatus:

Sl.No. Name Quantity
1 Microprocessor based over
current relay & test kit


2 Connecting Leads




Procedure:
1) Connect as per interconnection diagram.
2) Set the relay current (Setting procedure refer LT MANUAL).
3) Set TMS.
4) Ensure Time interval meter selection switch in TIM position.
5) Ensure Protection time switch is ON position.
6) Connect the power card.
7) Bring dimmer to zero position.
8) Put on the mains using Mains on switch.(ROCKER). Results (Mains on
indicator, ammeter display, relay power and Timer display will glow.)
9) Bring Toggle switch SET mode.
10) Push TEST START BUTTON, CB ON Indicator will glow.
11) Adjust the dimmer set the approximate injection current (within 30 seconds
other wise protection timer will activate and circuit breaker will be off.
12) Push TEST STOP/RESET BUTTON.
13) Dont disturb the dimmer.


VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 25

Tabular column:

TMS


Relay Current
Setting

Fault
Current(A)
PSM= fault current/ relay
current setting
Operating Time
(S)















































VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 26

14) Bring Toggle switch TEST mode.
15) Push TEST START BUTTON, Note down the current. (Circuit
breaker ON, CB ON indicator will glow, time interval meter starts up
counting, Protection timer starts down counting, over current relay trip
occurs TRIP indicator will glow at relay and injector unit also. If buzzer
switch is on it gives the beep sound.
16) Note down the Time Interval Meter reading. (Pick up time)
17) Press the RESET button.
18) Repeat operation (9 18) by adjusting different Current & TMS settings
19) Draw the graph Trip time Vs PSM (plug setting Multiplier.)

NOTE: For finding up the pickup current, protection timer switch in by pass position and
mode switch kept at test position.

After test start gradually increase the dimmer from zero to your current set value
and when the trip indicator led starts blinking note down the pickup current.

Setting the fault current level:

Fault current level I
S
is expressed as percentage of CT rating ( I
n
= 1 A ). This relay offers
three ranges of I
S
i.e. 10 to 40 %, 20 to 80 % & 50 to 200 % which can be set by using DIP
switches. I
S
can be calculated as follows:

I
S
= (0.1R + R a) * I
n

Where, I
S
= Set current level (fault current level) in A
I
n =
CT rating (1A)
a = Weight of switch in ON position
R = Constant depending on the setting range as given below.


Sl.No.

Setting range

R
1 10% to 40% 1
2 20% to 80% 2
3 50% to 200% 5


VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 27













































Graph.1
TIMEvs PSM
0.00
2.50
5.00
7.50
10.00
12.50
15.00
17.50
20.00
22.50
25.00
27.50
30.00
1 10 100
PSM
T
I
M
E

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 28





Time multiplier settings:
This switch offers various options of trip time for a selected trip time characteristic. This can
be done by using DIP switches. Trip time T is given by formula

T = K
*
(0.1 +t)

Where K = Constant depending on trip time characteristics selected.
t = Weight of switch in ON position




Characteristics Curve to be drawn = Trip Time Vs PSM




























VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 29

CALCULTAION:

How to find out the PSM ( Plug setting Multiplier)
Fault Current
PSM = ---------------------------------
Plug setting
If CT used

Fault Current (primary current)
PSM = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plug setting (Primary Setting Current) x CT ratio


Actual Operating time (Ta) in sec.
TSM = --------------------------------------------------------------------
Calibrated Operating Time for TSM = 1.0 (Tc) in sec
EXAMPLE:
Relay current setting is 150% ( relay 100%=5A) and has Time multiplier setting of 0.5,
the relay has connected in the circuit through a C.T. having ratio 500:5 amps 500/5A
Fault current is 6000Amps. Relay characteristics as assume for PSM 8=3.15sec at TMS is
1.
Solution:

150 % = 1.5A
5
See fault current 6000A x ----- = 60A
500

1
Plug setting multiplier PSM = 60 x ---------- = 8
5 x 1.5

Time from graph against this multiplier is 3.15sec.

Operating time = 3.15 x 0.5 = 1.575sec.


Characteristics selected Value of K
Normal inverse ( 1.3 sec ) 1.3
Normal inverse ( 3.0 sec ) 3.0
Very inverse 1.5
Extremely inverse 0.8
Definite time ( 1.0 sec ) 1.0
Definite time ( 10 sec ) 10
Definite time ( 100 sec ) 100

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 30

Result &Conclusion:




Signature of faculty




































VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 31

Circuit Diagram










































CB
PT
V
CT
CI
V
A
R
I
A
C
-
1
V
A
R
I
A
C
-
2
A
U
X
.
TRIP 1

P
h
,
2
3
0
V
a
c
RELAY
UNDER TEST
NC
NO
POT.
FREE
F S1
V SOURCE
P1
S1
P2
S2
CB
I SOURCE
A
CONTROL
CCT.
TIME
INTERVAL
METER

Fig.1 CONNECTION DIAGRAM

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 32

Experiment No.:6 Date:

OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROPROCESSOR BASED
IMPEDANCE- DISTANCE REALY

AIM: To study the operation of microprocessor based impedance relay.

Apparatus:

Sl.No Name Quantity
1
Microprocessor based impedance relay & test kit

2
Induction Motor

3
Connecting Leads



Procedure:

1. Connect power cord.
2. Set relay impedance in % (0% to 200%).
3. Set K TMS .( 10 100 in steps of 10 )
4. Bring both dimmer to zero position.
5. Put on the mains using Mains on MCB. Mains on indicator, ammeter display, relay
power and Timer display will glow.
6. Push CB ON button.
7. CB ON indicator will also glow.
8. Adjust voltage. ( 0 250V)
9. Adjust current (range 0 2A) max 1A only.
10. Presses relay start.
11. Timer will start, and if the % of impedance is less than set value relay will trip
according to the characteristics.
12. Note down the voltage, current.
13. Calculate the impedance.
14. Repeat the experiment using different voltage and current setting.






VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 33

Tabular column:

Z ref = %

K =


Sl.No.
%Z
set
T
s
(Sec)
T
f
(Sec)
TRIP TIME
T
f
T
s
(Sec)







Example:
If relay is set 100% impedance. Ie voltage is 220V and current is 1A
= 220V/1A = 220 impedance = 100%

220
---------
1
------------- x 100 = 100%
220

Assume of the transmission line is 400km impedance is 220
Impedance per km is 0.55
The relay was tripped at 70% of impedance.
( 220 x 70%) x 100 = Z154

Fault occurred at the distance of = 154 / 0.55 = 280kms.







VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 34

Result &Conclusion:



Signature of faculty







































VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 35

Circuit diagram










































RR
V
R
V
V
R
V
V
V
MOTOR
PHASE
REVERSAL
SWITCH
Hz
1 PH
VOLTMETER PFMETER PHASE
SEQ.INIDCAT
OR
SINGLE
PHASE
GND FAULT
Y
B
N
AMMETER
RPMMETER
TEMP RELAY
OVER
CURRENT
UNDER
CURRENT
STALL
LOCK
EMPR
DIGITAL MOTOR
PROTECTION
RELAY
C
B
C
T
PHASE
FAILURE
REVERSE
PHASE
ASYMMETRY
GROUND
FAULT
U
V
W
N
E
CB
E
A
E
C
FUSE
MCB

Fig.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 36

Experiment No.:7 Date:

DIGITAL MOTOR PROTECTION
RELAY STUDY UNIT

AIM: To study the operation of digital motor protection relay for various fault
conditions.
* GROUND FAULT/ EARTH LEAKAGE FAULT.

Motor, 3 HP, 3 Phase , DELTA, CG
1415 rpm, 4.8A, 415v, 50c/s.
Procedure:
1. Connect the Three phase power supply with Neutral and Ground.
2. Connect motor (Terminals provided at the top side of mimic.
3. Switch on power supply at source.
4. Switch on the MCB on the testing kit and look for power on indication (R, Y,B).
5. Trip indicator and buzzer will be ON, reset it.
6. Set the motor protection relay parameters.
Inverse /definite characteristic definite.
Definite time 2sec.
Reverse phase protection ON
Under current protection OFF
Ground fault 0.05Sec
Stall function ON
Lock function ON 200%
CT ratio - 1
Phase failure ON
Store.
Current 2A
7. Adjust the dimmer to 415V
8. Push Motor ON button. Insuring that there is no load on the motor and observes the
current and voltage of all the phases and records it.




VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 37

TABULAR COLUMN -1 NO LOAD:

































Sl,No.
MOTOR AMMETER
READING
VOLT METER Hz RPM PF TRIP TIME

R

Y

B

RY

YB

BR

1
2
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 38

PROCEDURE FOR OVER CURRENT PROTECTION:
1. Adjust the over current setting in the motor protection relay to 1.8Amps
considering that as normal load current.
2. Set the motor protection relay parameters.
i) Inverse /Definite characteristic Definite.
ii) Definite Time 2SEC.
iii) Reverse Phase Protection ON
iv) Under Current Protection OFF
v) Ground Fault 0.05SEC
vi) Stall Function ON
vii) Lock Function ON 200%
viii) CT ratio - 1
ix) Phase Failure ON
x) Store.
xi) Current 2.0A
3. Switch ON the ground fault switch. POSITION-2 (Dont connect grounding
rheostat, terminal at Right side of the control panel).
4. Switch ON the motor.
5. Gradually load the motor using the dynamometer while observing the current in
Ammeter.( Note down Ammeter and timer readings when the relay operates.)
6. Relay trip occurs
i) Motor will be Stop.
ii) Relay display shows O-L , bar graph will be Turn ON.
iii) Hooter will be ON.
iv) Fault indicator will be glow.
7. Now accept the fault by pressing the accept push button.
8. Reset the relay by pressing test/ reset button.
9. Press the Reset button at control panel.
10. Bring fault ground fault simulation switch to home position (1).
11. Again switch ON the motor and record the voltage and current etc.,

PROCEDURE FOR PHASE FAILURE PROTECTION:
1. Ensure motor is OFF.

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 39

TABULAR COLUMN 2 OVER CURRENT PROTECTION:



TABULAR COLUMN- 3 PHASE FAILURE PROTECTION:























Sl,No.
MOTOR
AMMETER
READING
VOLT METER Hz RP
M
PF TRIP TIME

R

Y

B

RY

YB

BR

1
2


Sl,No.
MOTOR AMMETER
READING
VOLT METER Hz RPM PF TRIP TIME

R

Y

B

RY

YB

BR

1
2
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 40

2. Bring the all the fault simulation to position 1.
3. Switch ON fault simulation single phase.
4. Ensure the EMPR settings
a. Inverse /definite characteristic definite.
b. Definite time 2Sec.
c. Reverse phase protection ON
d. Under current protection OFF
e. Ground fault 0.05sec
f. Stall function ON
g. Lock function ON 200%
h. CT ratio - 1
i. Phase failure ON
j. Store.
k. Current 2A
5. Switch ON the motor.
6. Note down the timer reading.
7. Relay trip occurs
l. Motor will be Stop.
m. Relay display shows P-F Bar graph will be Turn ON.
n. Hooter will be on.
o. Fault indicator will be glow.
8. Now accept the fault by pressing the accept push button.
9. Reset the relay by pressing test/ reset button.
10. Press the Reset button at control panel.
11. Bring SINGLE PHASE FAULT simulation switch to home position (1).

PROCEDURE FOR PHASE REVERSAL PROTECTION:
1. Ensure motor is OFF.
2. Bring the all the fault simulation to position 1.
3. Switch ON Phase Reverse fault simulation to position 2.
4. Ensure The EMPR Settings
a. Inverse /Definite characteristic Definite.
b. Definite time 2Sec.
c. Reverse phase protection ON
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 41


TABULAR COLUMN- 4 PHASE REVERSAL PROTECTION:


TABULAR COLUMN-5 UNDER CURRENT PROTECTION:



























Sl,No.
MOTOR AMMETER
READING
VOLT METER Hz RPM PF TRIP TIME

R

Y

B

R
Y

YB

BR

1
2


Sl,No.
MOTOR AMMETER
READING
VOLT METER Hz RPM PF TRIP TIME

R

Y

B

RY

YB

BR

1
2
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 42


d. Under current protection OFF
e. Ground fault 0.05Sec
f. Stall function ON
g. Lock function ON 200%
h. CT ratio - 1
i. Phase failure ON
j. Store.
k. Current 2.0A
5. Switch ON the motor.
6. Relay trip occurs
a. Motor will be Stop.
b. Relay display shows r-P Bar graph will be Turn ON.
c. Hooter will be ON.
d. Fault indicator will be glow.
7. Now accept the fault by pressing the accept push button.
8. Reset the relay by pressing test/ reset button.
9. Press the Reset button at control panel.
10. Bring fault simulation switch to home position (1).
PROCEDURE FOR UNDER CURRENT PROTECTION:
1. Ensure motor is OFF.
2. Bring the all the fault simulation to position 1.
3. Ensure the EMPR settings
a. Inverse /Definite characteristic Definite.
b. Definite time 2sec.
c. Reverse phase protection ON
d. Under current protection ON
e. Ground fault 0.05Sec
f. Stall function ON
g. Lock function ON 200%
h. CT ratio - 1
i. Phase failure ON
j. Store.
k. Current 2.0 A
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 43



TABULAR COLUMN- 6 GROUND LEAKAGE / FAULT PROTECTION:
































Sl,No..
MOTOR AMMETER
READING
VOLT METER Hz RPM PF LEAKAGE
CURRENT
TRIP
TIME

R

Y

B

RY

YB

BR

1
2
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 44

4. Switch ON the motor.
5. Adjust the load 4.0 A.
6. EMPR bar graph will read 100%
7. Reduce the load less than 70% of bar graph.
8. Relay trip occurs
Motor will be Stop.
Relay display shows Und, Bar graph will be Turn ON.
Hooter will be ON.
Fault indicator will be glow.
9. Now accept the fault by pressing the accept push button.
10. Reset the relay by pressing test/ reset button.
11. Press the Reset button at control panel.
12. For measuring the trip time. (Switch ON the ground fault switch. POSITION-2
(Dont connect grounding rheostat, terminal at Right side of the control panel).
13. Without disturbing settings again switch on the motor and note down the readings.

GROUND LEAKAGE / FAULT PROTECTION:
1. Ensure motor is OFF.
2. Bring the all the fault simulation to position 1.
3. Short the rheostat terminal using patch cord or to measure the leakage current use
Rheostat more than 2k value.
4. Ensure the EMPR settings
Inverse /Definite characteristic Definite.
Definite time 2 Sec.
Reverse phase protection ON
Under current protection ON
Ground fault 0.05Sec










VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 45




TABULAR COLUMN- 7 STALL PROTECTION
































Sl,No.
MOTOR
AMMETER
READING
VOLT METER Hz RP
M
PF TRIP TIME

R

Y

B

RY

YB

BR

1
2
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 46


Stall function ON
Lock function ON 200%
CT ratio - 1
Phase failure ON
Store.
Current 2.0 A
5. Switch on the motor.
6. Adjust the rheostat till motor trips. (Factory set is 100mA sensitive current).
7. Relay trip occurs
a. Motor will be Stop.
b. relay display shows g-F, bar graph will be Turn ON.
c. Hooter will be ON.
d. Fault indicator will be glow.
8. Now accept the fault by pressing the accept push button.
9. Reset the EMPR and panel.
10. Switch on the motor.
11. Record the datas.
12. Reset the relay by pressing test/ reset button.
13. Press the Reset button at control panel & timer.
14. Bring fault simulation switch to home position (1).
15. Remove the rheostat connection.

PROCEDURE FOR STALL PROTECTION:
For stall protection set the motor current 2.0A and disables the lock protection.
Set it definite mode
Switch on the motor and load it just above the 180% of set current. EMPR will shows the
fault stall.


PROCEDURE FOR LOCK PROTECTION
For LOCK protection set the motor current 2.0A and disables the STALL protection.
At inverse mode

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 47


TABUALR COLUMN-8 LOCK PROTECTION:

Repeat the above experiments with INVERSE characteristics also.

TABULAR COLUMN- 9 OVER VOLTAGE/UNDER VOLTAGE:


TABULAR COLUMN- 10 NEGATIVE PH.SEQ.CURRENT PROTECTIONS:






Sl,No.
MOTOR AMMETER
READING
VOLT METER Hz RPM PF TRIP TIME

R

Y

B

RY

YB

BR

1
2


Sl,No.
MOTOR AMMETER
READING
VOLT METER Hz RPM PF TRIP TIME

R

Y

B

RY

YB

BR

1
2

Sl,No.
MOTOR AMMETER
READING
VOLT METER Hz RPM PF TRIP TIME

R

Y

B

RY

YB

BR

1
2
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 48

Switch on the motor and load it just above the 200% of set current. EMPR will show the
fault LOCK
Procedure for Over Voltage / Under Voltage Protection
1. Ensure motor is OFF.
2. Bring the all the fault simulation to position 1.
3. Set voltage settings in UV /OV relay
a. Press the prog button few seconds,
b. Using cursor key.
c. Select the characteristic IDMT or Definite.
4. Press the start button of the relay
5. Reduce / increase according to the relay mode i.e. OV/UV
6. According to the trip time characteristics relay will be tripped.
PROCEDURE FOR NEGATIVE PHASE SEQUENCE CURRENRT RELAY
1. Ensure motor is OFF.
2. Bring the all the fault simulation to position 1.
3. Set voltage all the phase voltages are equal
4. Release the motor load.
5. Switch ON the motor.
6. Slightly reduce the any one of the phase voltage using dimmer
7. Observe the relay active LED starts glowing.
8. According to the relay characteristics relay will trip.
For finding out the phase reversal
At EMPR switch off the protection of reverse phase and change the input phases.

PROCEDURE FOR POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
1. Ensure motor is OFF.
2. Bring the all the fault simulation to position 1.
3. Set voltage all the phase voltages are equal
4. Release the motor load.
5. Start the motor
6. Load the motor ~5A
7. Switch ON the capacitor bank switch pos1 and pos2 note down the readings.

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 49


TABULAR COLUMN- 11 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION:

























Sl,No.
MOTOR AMMETER
READING
VOLT METER Hz RPM PF TRIP TIME
R Y B RY YB BR
1
2
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 50


Result &Conclusion:



Signature of faculty




































VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 51


Connection Diagram









































CB
CI
CT
CT
CI
V
A
R
I
A
C
-
1
V
A
R
I
A
C
-
2
A
U
X
.
TRIP 1

P
h
,
2
3
0
V
a
c
RELAY
UNDER TEST
NC
NO
POT.
FREE
F S1
A1
PRI.
S1
S1
S2
S2
CB
SEC.
A2
CONTROL
CCT.
TIME
INTERVAL
METER

Fig.1 Connection Diagram

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 52


Experiment No.:8 Date:

STATIC % DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

Aim: To study the characteristics of static % differential relay
Procedure:
1. Connect as per interconnection diagram.
2. Set the relay % RELAY AT 50% using selector switch. (20, 30, 40 &50%)
3. Set TMS (knob) maximum position.
4. Connect power cord.
5. Set relay % setting. (20%, 30%, 40% and 50%).
6. Bring the both the dimmer to zero position.
7. Put on the mains using Mains on switch.(rocker). Results (Mains on indicator,
ammeter display, relay power and Timer display will glow.)
8. Put Mode selector switch in the SET position.
9. Push TEST START BUTTON, CB ON Indicator will glow.
10. Set the current using dimmer PRIMARY and note down the current. ( I
1
) (Dont apply
the current more than 2 A).
11. Adjust the Dimmer 2 current equal to the I
1

12. Then gradually decrease the current I
2
, when the relay active led starts glowing note
down the I
2
current. (Dont apply the current more than 2 A).
13. Observe I
1
= I
2
relay will not active. If the difference is less than or greater than the %
of set value relay gets active.
14. Set the I
1
=I
2
and reset the relay, repeat the operation (10-14) by adjusting the different
% setting, different current settings of I
1
and I
2
and draw the graph.
15. Draw the graph I
1
-I
2
vs ( I
1
+I
2
)/2

Procedure: For finding Inverse characteristics
1. Put Mode selector switch in the SET position.
2. Bring the both the dimmer to zero position.
3. Set relay % setting. (20%, 30%, 40% and 50%).
4. Set TMS (knob) maximum position.
5. Push TEST START BUTTON, CB ON Indicator will glow.
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 53

Tabular Column:
% selected: 50%

Sl.No.

I
1


I
2


I
1
-I
2
=X


(I
1
+I
2
)/
2
=Y
%
(X/Y) x100
1 1.0
2 0.9
3 0.8
4
5
6
7































Graph.1 characteristic of static % differential relay
(I1+I2)/2
I
1
-
I
2

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 54

6. Set the current using dimmer PRIMARY and note down the current. ( I
1
) (Dont
apply the current more than 2 A). eg.1Amp.
7. Adjust the Dimmer 2 current equal to the I
1

8. Adjust the dimmer 2 I
2
current (relay55% level).
9. Push TEST STOP/RESET.
10. Reset relay.
11. Dont disturb the dimmers
12. Put Mode selector switch in the TEST position.
13. Push TEST START BUTTON, CB ON Indicator will glow.
14. Note down the Time Interval Meter reading.
15. Set the different 60% etc., and precede the (8-15) note down the timer reading
and draw graph or observe.

Viva questions:
1. Explain the working of static % differential relay.
2. Explain the characteristics of static % differential relay.
3. Give the application of Static % Differential relay.
4. What are the advantages of High voltage AC transmission?


Result & Conclusion:











Signature of faculty






VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 55


Circuit Diagram:









































L
N
C1
MEMORY
PUSH
R
CT
V
C1
C1
OIL
TEST
CELL
DOOR INTERLOCK
L
OFF
ON
'O' LOCK
HV LIMIT
TRIP
RL
HV
LIMTI
UNIT
READY
MAINS
ON
H.T
ON
H.T
OFF
C1
C1
C1
230 V
SUPPLY
FUSE
MAINS
ON
SWITCH
A
U
T
O
T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
E
R
H
V
T
R
F

Fig.1 Circuit Diagram

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 56


Experiment No.:9 Date:

BREAKDOWN STRENGTH OF TRANSFORMER OIL

AIM: To determine the breakdown strength of given sample of transformer oil

Apparatus:
Sl. No Name Quantity
1
Transformer 60 kV, 0.5 Kva

2
Oil testing kit

3
Transformer oil

4
Transformer oil test cell



PROCEDURE:
1. Adjust the electrodes in the oil test cup for the required gap and lock it in position with
the help of screws provided.
2. Fill 80% of the cup with oil to be tested and place the cup on the HV transformer
bushings.
3. Close the top door, switch on the mains & bring the variable transformer to zero
position by means of switch provided for the reverse and forward of a auto variable
transformer. When it comes to zero position unit ready indicators will glow. And press
HT push button, HT ON indicator will glow.
4. Increase the voltage to the required level. Voltmeter will indicate the output voltage. In
case of break-down HV will get disconnected. By pressing MEMORY push button
read the level of break down voltage.









VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 57


Observations & Calculations:

Tabulation:

Test No.
Breakdown
voltage (kV) RMS
Average
Breakdown
voltage (kV)
Breakdown
Strength
kV/cm
































VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 58

Viva questions:
1) State Paschens law and draw a typical paschens curve and mention BDV
min
and
corresponding pressure for air medium.
2) What are the salient features of Townsends theory and streamer theory of gaseous
insulation breakdown?
3) What is the accepted value of dielectric strength of transformer oil?
4) What are the insulating media and how they are classified?
5) What is primary ionization and secondary ionization process?

Questions:
1) Conduct a suitable experiment to determine the dielectric strength of give transformer oil.

Result &Conclusion:









Signature of faculty

















VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 59

Circuit Diagram:




Expected Graph:








VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 60

Experiment No: 10 Date:
4. SPARK OVER CHARCTERSTICS OF AIR INSULATION FOR HVAC
(CORRECTED TO STP)
Aim:
To conduct an experiment to draw spark over characteristics of air insulation
Subjected to high voltage AC with spark over voltage corrected to STP

Apparatus:

SL.
No
Name of the apparatus Range Quantity
1 High Voltage testing
Transformer
230V / 50kV, 20kVA,
0.4 Amp (Continuous)
01
2 Autotransformer 3-,400V, 50Hz 01
3 Spheres 100mm Diameter 02

Procedure:
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit.
2. By ensuring the proper grounding and autotransformer at zero position
with sphere gap set to a value, power supply is switched ON.
3. Gradually the voltage is applied across the gap between the spheres until
the spark over occurs between the spheres.
4. Note down the corresponding voltage at which the spark over occurred and
the autotransformer is brought back to initial position.
5. For same gap distance between the spheres step (3) and (4) are
repeated and three corresponding spark over voltages are noted and
tabulated.
6. Above procedure is repeated for different gaps between the spheres.
7. Spark over characteristics between gap (along X-axis) and B
dv
IS
(Corrected) and B
dv
(STP) corrected (along Y-axis).







VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 61


Tabular Column:




Calculation:

(air density factor)= [0.289* P
(pressure)
] / 273+ T
DRY


=K
1
(correction factor)


IS (corrected) = IS (STP)* K
1


B
DV
STP (Corrected) = B
DV
(Peak) / K
1




















Gap
(mm)
B
DV

(kV)

Avg of
B
DV

(kV)
B
DV
(Peak)=
B
DV
(avg)*2
(kv)
B
DV
at
STP(IS)
(kV)
B
DV
IS(corrected)
(kV)
B
DV
STP
(Corrected)
(kV)
5 16.8
10 31.7
15 45.5
20 59.0

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 62



Observation:

T
DRY
(Temp) = _______
o
C
P
(pressure)
= _______ in milibar
Relative humidity (h) = ____%

Viva questions :
1) Mention the order of voltage that is designated as HV, EHV and UHV?
2) What are the advantages of transmitting electrical power at higher voltages?
3) State the merits of HVDC transmission. Mention few HVDC projects in India.
4) Mention few apparatus employing high voltage?
5) What is difference between a conventional and HV capacitor?
6) What is the need for generating high voltages in a laboratory?
7) Why the HV termination of HV transformer is structured as a spherical one?
8) Mention the correction factors that need to be applied for HV measurement and
Explain how they are applied.

Questions:
1) Obtain the break down voltage V/s gap distance characteristics in air under application
of HVAC Sphere-Sphere electrode configuration


Result &Conclusion:



Signature of faculty









VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 63



Circuit Diagram:

1. Circuit for Uniform field configuration (Sphere-sphere)




2. Circuit for Non uniform field configuration (Point-plane)





VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 64

Experiment 11: date:

SPARKOVER CHARCTERSTICS OF AIR INSULATION FOR HVAC
(For Uniform and No uniform field configuration)

Aim:

To conduct an experiment to draw the spark over characteristics of air
insulation subjected to high voltage AC for uniform and non uniform field
configuration

Apparatus:

Sl.No Name of the apparatus Range Quantity
1 High Voltage testing
Transformer
230V / 50kV, 20kVA,
0.4 Amp (Continuous)
01
2 Autotransformer 3-,400V, 50Hz 01
3 Spheres 100mm Diameter 02
4 Plane Electrode --- 01
5. Point Electrode --- 01

Procedure:

1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit with sphere-sphere
configuration for uniform field.
2. By ensuring the proper grounding and autotransformer at zero position
with sphere gap set to a value, power supply is switched ON.
3. Gradually the voltage is applied across the gap between the spheres until
the spark over occurs between the spheres
4. Note down the corresponding voltage at which the spark over occurred
and the autotransformer is brought back to initial position.
5. Above procedure is repeated for different gaps between the spheres.
6. Now Sphere- sphere electrodes arrangement is replaced by point-plane
electrodes arrangement.
7. Steps 2,3,4 and 5 are repeated for different gaps between point-plane
electrodes



VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 65

Expected Graph





Tabular Column:

1. For uniform field Configuration (Sphere-Sphere)












2. For Non uniform field configuration (Point-plane)












Sl.No Gap in
mm
Break down Voltage
(kV)
1 5
2 10
3 15
4. 20
Sl.No Gap in
mm
Break down Voltage
(kV)
1 5
2 10
3 15
4. 20
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 66

8. Spark over characteristics are plotted between Gap in mm(along x-axis)
and breakdown voltage in kV(Along y-axis) and for uniform field
configuration(Sphere-sphere) and Non uniform filed configuration(point-
plane)


Results and Conclusion:






Signature of faculty




































VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 67


Circuit Diagram:


Expected Graph:










VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 68

Experiment 12: Date:

MEASUREMENT OF HVAC USING STANDARD SPHERES

Aim:

To conduct an experiment for measuring high voltage AC using standard spheres

Apparatus:

Sl.No Name of the apparatus Range Quantity
1 High Voltage testing
Transformer
230V / 50kV, 20kVA,
0.4 Amp (Continuous)
01
2 Autotransformer 3-,400V, 50Hz 01
3 Spheres 100mm Diameter 02


Procedure:
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit.
2. By ensuring the proper grounding and autotransformer at zero position
with sphere gap set to a value, power supply is switched ON.
3. Gradually the voltage is applied across the gap between the spheres until
the spark over occurs between the spheres.
4. Note down the corresponding voltage at which the spark over occurred and
the autotransformer is brought back to initial position.
5. For same gap distance between the spheres step (3) and (4) are repeated
for three times and corresponding three spark over voltages are noted
and tabulated.
6. Above procedure is repeated for different gaps between the spheres.
7. Spark over characteristics between gap in mm (along X-axis) and B
dv
IS
(Corrected) and B
dv
(STP) corrected in kV (along Y-axis).











VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 69


Tabular Column:



Calculation:

(air density factor)= [0.289* P
(pressure)
] / 273+ T
DRY

=K
1
(correction factor)


IS (corrected) = IS (STP)* K
1


%Error= [B
DV
IS (corrected) - B
DV
(Peak)] * 100 / B
DV
IS (corrected)



























Gap
in
mm
B
DV

(kV)

Avg of
B
DV

(kV)
B
DV
(Peak)=
B
DV
(avg)*2
(kv)
B
DV
at
STP(IS)
(kV)
B
DV
IS(corrected)
(kV)
% Error
5 16.8
10 31.7
15 45.5
20 59.0
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 70





Observation:

T
DRY
(Temp) = _______
o
C
P
(pressure)
= _______ in milibar
Relative humidity (h) = ____%






Result and Conclusion:












Signature of faculty




















VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 71



Circuit Diagram:

Expected Graph:



VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 72

Experiment: 13 Date:
SPARKOVER CHARCTERSTICS OF AIR INSULATION FOR HVDC
(CORRECTED TO STP)

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to draw spark over characteristics of air insulation
Subjected to high voltage DC with spark over voltage corrected to STP

Apparatus:

Sl.No Name of the apparatus Range Quantity
1 High Voltage testing
Transformer
230V / 70kV, 20kVA,
0.4 Amp (Continuous)
01
2 Autotransformer 3-,400V, 50Hz 01
3 Spheres 100mm Diameter 02
4 Plane Electrode --- 01
5. Point Electrode --- 01
6. Diode Rectifier 75kV 01
7. Resisters 150k, 15k 01 each
8. Capacitor 0.1F 01

Procedure:
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit.
2. By ensuring the proper grounding and autotransformer at zero position
with sphere gap set to a value, power supply is switched ON.
3. Gradually the voltage is applied across the gap between the spheres until
the spark over occurs between the spheres.
4. Note down the corresponding voltage at which the spark over occurred and
the autotransformer is brought back to initial position.
5. For same gap distance between the spheres step (3) and (4) are repeated
and three corresponding spark over voltages are noted and tabulated.
6. Above procedure is repeated for different gaps between the spheres.
7. Spark over characteristics between gap (along X-axis) and B
dv
IS
(Corrected) and B
dv
(STP) corrected (along Y-axis).

VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 73



Tabular Column:





Calculation:

(air density factor)= [0.289* P
(pressure)
] / 273+ T
DRY


=K
1
(correction factor)


IS (corrected) = IS (STP)* K
1























Gap
(mm)
B
DV
(Peak)
(kV)

Avg of
B
DV
(Peak)
(kV)


B
DV
at
STP(IS)
(kV)
B
DV

IS(corrected)
(kV)
B
DV
STP
(Corrected)
(kV)
5 16.8
10 31.7
15 45.5
20 59.0
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 74



Observation:

T
DRY
(Temp) = _______
o
C
P
(pressure)
= _______ in milibar
Relative humidity (h) = ____%






Result and Conclusion:









Signature of faculty


























VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 75



Circuit diagram:



Expected Graph:



VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 76

Experiment: 14 Date:
MEASUREMENT OF HVDC USING STANDARD SPHERES

Aim:

To conduct an experiment for measuring high voltage DC using standard spheres

Apparatus:

Sl.No Name of the apparatus Range Quantity
1 High Voltage testing
Transformer
230V / 70kV, 20kVA,
0.4 Amp (Continuous)
01
2 Autotransformer 3-,400V, 50Hz 01
3 Spheres 100mm Diameter 02
4 Plane Electrode --- 01
5. Point Electrode --- 01
6. Diode Rectifier 75kV 01
7. Resisters 150k, 15k 01 each
8. Capacitor 0.1F 01


Procedure:

1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit.
2. By ensuring the proper grounding and autotransformer at zero position
with sphere gap set to a value, power supply is switched ON.
3. Gradually the voltage is applied across the gap between the spheres until
the spark over occurs between the spheres.
4. Note down the corresponding voltage at which the spark over occurred and
the autotransformer is brought back to initial position.
5. For same gap distance between the spheres step (3) and (4) are repeated
for three times and corresponding three sparks over voltages are noted
and tabulated.
6. Above procedure is repeated for different gaps between the spheres.
7. Spark over characteristics between gap in mm (along X-axis) and B
dv
IS
(Corrected) and B
dv
(STP) corrected in kV (along Y-axis).



VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 77




Tabular Column:





Calculation:

(air density factor)= [0.289* P
(pressure)
] / 273+ T
DRY


=K
1
(correction factor)


IS (corrected) = IS (STP)* K
1


%Error= [B
DV
IS (corrected) - B
DV
(Peak)] * 100 / B
DV
IS (corrected)



















Gap
(mm)
B
DV
(Peak)
(kV)

Avg of
B
DV
(Peak)
(kV)


B
DV
at
STP(IS)
(kV)
B
DV

IS(corrected)
(kV)
%Error
5 16.8
10 31.7
15 45.5
20 59.0
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 78



Observation:

T
DRY
(Temp) = _______
o
C
P
(pressure)
= _______ in milibar
Relative humidity (h) = ____%





Result and Conclusion:





Signature of faculty





























VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 79



Circuit Diagram










































Fig.1 Circuit Diagram
VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 80

Experiment 15: Date
Spark over characteristics of air insulation subjected to high voltage
impulse using Impulse generator

AIM: To study the spark over characteristics of air insulation subjected to high voltage
impulse.

Apparatus:
Sl.No. Name Quantity Range
1 Impulse generator set up

2
Power supply

3
Earthing rod


Procedure:
1. Check all the connections and grounding properly.
2. Open the emergency switch and switch on the control panel with the help of the
Mains ON push button.
3. Bring the dimmer to zero position.
4. Bring the sphere gap to zero position and set the gap of spheres with the help of the
sphere gap increase and sphere gap decrease push button.
5. Open the earth with the help of earth open push button till to earth open.
6. Select the polarity with the help of polarity selector switch.
7. Press the HT ON switches as a result HT ON indicator will glow.
8. Charge the capacitor little less than the required level by increasing the DIMMER by
manually.
9. Trigger the generator with the help of TRIGGER switch and see that flashover occurs
in all the stages at a time if not adjust the gap distance and voltage.
10. Note down the flash over voltage/ breakdown voltage.
11. After testing press the Mains OFF switch, press the emergency button and ground all
the capacitors with the help of grounding rod.


VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 81

Tabular column:










































SL.NO GAP DISTANCE(mm) BREAK DOWN VOLTAGE(kv)








VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 82

Viva questions:
1. What is the functionality of impulse generator?
2. Define the following ,
a) Wave shaping resistors
b) Wave front time
c) Wave tail time
d) Impulse voltage
3. What is the application of impulse generator?

Questions:
1. Observe spark over characteristics of air insulation subjected to high voltage impulse
through oscilloscope

Result & Conclusion:






Signature of faculty




















VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 83

HV LAB QUESTIONS
Note: Each student has to do any one of the experiments given below in the examination
individually.

1) Conduct a suitable experiment to plot the graph of Trip Time vs. PSM or operating
characteristics of over current relay(electromechanical)
2) Conduct a suitable experiment to plot the graph of Trip Time vs. % of closing voltage.
3) Conduct a suitable experiment to obtain the operating characteristics of
Microprocessor based over current relay.
4) Conduct a suitable experiment to obtain the operating characteristics of
Microprocessor based over voltage and under voltage relay for normal inverse 3 sec.
5) Conduct a suitable experiment to obtain the operating characteristics of
Microprocessor based over voltage and under voltage relay for normal inverse 5 sec.
6) Conduct a suitable experiment to obtain the operating characteristics of
Microprocessor based over voltage and under voltage relay for definite time 10 sec.
7) Conduct a suitable experiment to obtain the graph of I
1
-I
2
VS (I
1
+1
2
)/2 using static
percentage differential relay.
8) Conduct a suitable experiment for balanced and un balanced conditions of
solid state negative phase sequence current relay.
9) Conduct a suitable experiment to obtain the operating characteristics of
Microprocessor based over current relay.
10) Conduct a suitable experiment for Microprocessor based impendence
distance relay for Z=80%& K=20.
11) Conduct a suitable experiment to simulate no load , phase failure ,phase
reversal and ground fault protection for digital motor .
12) Conduct a suitable experiment to measure HVAC using standard spheres for spark
over characteristics of air insulation subjected to high voltage AC/ high voltage DC, with
spark over Voltage corrected to STP for uniform and non-uniform field configuration.
13) Conduct a suitable experiment to measure HVDC using standard spheres for spark
over characteristics of air insulation subjected to high voltage AC/ high voltage DC,
with spark over Voltage corrected to STP for uniform and non-uniform field
configuration.


VII Semester Relay & High Voltage Lab Manual


Department of EEE, ACIT, Bangalore 84

Question Bank:

1. What are the advantages of High voltage AC transmission?
2. What is the working principle of an electromagnetic relay?
3. What is the working principle of microprocessor based relay?
4. What are the differences between electromagnetic and microprocessor based
relay?
5. Define pickup and drop off value of a relay?
6. Give applications of electromagnetic and microprocessor based relay.
7. What are the insulating media and how they are classified?
8. What is primary ionization and secondary ionization process?
9. Differentiate between uniform and Non uniform fields.
10. What are the techniques used for High voltage measurement?
11. What are the advantages of High voltage AC transmission?
12. What is thermal breakdown?
13. What are factors which influence the measurement of High voltage using
Spheres?
14. What is source loading and how it is avoided in high voltage measurement?
15. What is the working principle of Generating voltmeter?