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Prestress

Buckling

Vibration

Temperature

Fatigue

Plasticity

Creep

Prestress

Parts of elastic systems are sometimes under stress before the addition of

external loads. Examples are temperature stresses in welded members,

bolted connections, prestressed concrete, etc. The efects of such stresses

can be mathematically quantifed with elastic theory, if it can be assumed

that the prestress is not severe enough to afect the material properties.

good example of this is a thic! cylinder sub"ected to an internal pressure

load. #f the cylinder is not prestressed, the inner surface of the vessel

reaches the elastic limit frst and determines the maximum load that may be

applied. #f the cylinder is prestressed, however, by shrin!ing on a "ac!et or

wrapping in wire under tension, then initially it is under compressive stress.

The internal pressure required to reverse this stress and produce a tensile

stress equal to the frst case is much greater than before. The result is a

much stronger vessel.

nother example is prestressed concrete. $oncrete %as do all brittle

materials& has a higher strength in compression than in tension. To allow the

material to handle tension loads %such as created by the bending of a road or

bridge component&, members are compressed using tension rods. The

tension loads seen are then at least partially carried by the reversal of stress,

rather than in tension of the material.

Prestress can also afect the vibration characteristics of a structure. Tension

tends to increase natural frequency, while compression tends to lower it. The

tension present in the strings of musical instruments is a good example of

this.

Buckling

'nder certain circumstances structures will fail by elastic instability. This

occurs when the load produces a ending or twisting moment that is

proportional to the deformation. The most common example is the Euler

column. #n this case, a slender column is loaded axially. The load results in

small de(ections, up to a critical load value. t this magnitude of load, the

member collapses. )ailure occurs even though the stress in the member

remained below the yield values. The mathematical equation for elastic

buc!ling of a long column is*

+here P , total load, , area of section, -.r , slenderness ratio, and $ is

the coe/cient of constraint %depends on end constraints 00 usually 1 or 2 is

used for end conditions that occur in practice. 3eference boo!s have

tabulated equations that cover a wide variety of geometric cases %non0

uniform cross0sections, tapered bars, etc.&, loadings, and end constraints.

4ther examples of this phenomenon are thin plates in compression, thin

cylinders under compression, etc. Elastic buc!ling behavior is only seen in

structures that are much longer in one or two directions than the other one

or two directions.

+hen columns %and thin plates, etc.& are short %or thic!& enough, these

structures can exhibit behavior that re(ects a combination of efects. The

slenderness ratio where this occurs starts roughly between 125 and 165. The

equation given no longer holds for these cases. )ormulas exist for fnding the

critical loading for these structures as well, but these equations are more

complicated, and contain terms that have been empirically ad"usted to agree

with testing.

Dynamic effects

+hen a loads on a system result in the lac! of static equilibrium %where the

sum of all forces are 7ero&, we can say that dynamic efects are important.

4ften the inertial efects of the structure itself are important, when it moves

with appreciable velocity.

ll structures tend to vibrate with specifc mode shapes, at specifc

frequencies of vibration. These tendencies are termed the natural

frequencies of the structure, and are dependent on stifness and mass

distribution.

+hen a structural member is excited with a dynamic load that acts with a

frequency near one of its8 natural frequencies, the resultant de(ections %and

stresses& can be very large. The inertia forces in the structure may become

important, as the spring0bac! forces of the structure tend to add to the efect

of the dynamic loads

4ften, the frst step in attac!ing a dynamic structural problem is to

determine the natural frequencies of the structure involved. This can be done

by hand calculations, or more li!ely, through fnite element analysis. The

natural frequencies are dependent on geometry, material, and constraints

only. They are independent of loading. fter fnding the natural frequencies,

it then must be determined whether or not the dynamic loads will tend to

excite these frequencies within the structure. #t is often valuable simply to

compare the frequencies of the loads to the natural modes directly.

The equilibrium equation for forces in an undamped simple harmonic

oscillator system is shown below*

m x88%t& 9 ! x%t& , 5

The solution to this problem is given by

x%t& , cos %ω t&

where is a constant that can be determined from the initial conditions. #t

can be written that*

% 0mω

2

9 ! & cos %ω t& , 5

This equation is good for any time t, only if the term in parenthesis is equal

to 7ero. )or this to be true, it means that the value of ω is given by

ω , %!.m&

1.2

where ω is !nown as the natural frequency, or fundamental frequency of the

system. :ote the dependence of the natural frequency on mass and

stifness.

Temperature effects

$hanges in temperature create strain, as given by the equation

ε , α ∆ T

where α is the thermal expansion coe/cient of the material, and ∆ T is the

change in temperature seen.

#f the member in question is restrained against expansion %or contraction&

due the temperature change, stress is created. This stress is equal to the

stress that would be created if an external force were to create the

deformation from the stress0free state to the constrained state.

;aterial properties often behave as functions of temperature. <enerally, the

modulus of elasticity will lessen in value with increasing temperature. This

efect can be important. ;ost )E programs provide for this type of input.

The input format is usually piece0wise linear %a table of values&, in which

linear interpolation is used between values, or a polynomial function.

4ften )E programs provide for using the results of thermal analysis as

temperature input to structrual problems. thermal simulation is performed

frst, to determine the temperature distribution in the structure. Then, the

output temperatures are applied to the structural model as input. The

resulting thermal load is equal to the diference %at every point in the

structure& from some reference temperature to the temperature of the

applied distribution. The load causes deformation goverenced by the

equation given above.

Fatigue

ll materials will brea! under numerous repetitions of a stress less than the

stress required to produce immediate failure. #t is common for structural

members to be sub"ected to load cycles repeated thousands or millions of

times. #n such cases rupture can occur at a stress much lower than the static

brea!ing strength 0 this is !nown as fatigue. fatigue failure is of a brittle

nature, even for materials that are normally ductile.

The number of loading cycles required to cause failure may be determined

experimentally. #f a number of tests are conducted using diferent levels of

stress, the resulting data can be plotted to create a useful graph. =uch a

graph is !nown as a σ 0n curve.

typical σ 0n curve for steel is shown below. luminum is also plotted on the

graph. The cycles n are plotted on a logarithmic scale because of the large

number of cycles required for failure.

3ecently, the microscopic cause of fatigue damage has been defned with

crac! initiation and crac! propagation theories.

Plasticity

Elastic deformation represents a change in the relative position of molecules.

Plastic deformation represents a permanent change in the relative positions

of molecules.

#n crystalline materials this permanent rearrangement consists largely of

group displacements of atoms in the crystal lattice slipping past one another

0 brittle fracture.

>uctile materials show the rearrangement in the shifting of molecular

positions, with the release of heat. (ow of material is seen, much li!e a

viscous liquid.

Plastic deformation before failure is much more pronounced in uniaxial

tension than in a ?> stress state. #n a uniaxial state, plastic deformation

behavior can be seen in the standard stress0strain diagram.

=ome )E codes allow for the use of material properties that are functions of

stress. 4ne common way this is handled is with a two0sloped curve, as

shown*

The stress0strain curve is approximated by two straight lines. The solution

using this material property must be an iterative one, because the material

property depends upon a result quantity, the strain. The solution is

performed in steps, using incremental amounts of load in each step. @efore

each new step, a chec! is made for each element that has a stress value

high enough to get assigned the plastic modulus.

#n reality, the stress strain curves of most materials are di/cult to fnd

tabulated in the nonlinear range. The solutions are generally much less

accurate %than standard linear solutions& because of this.

Creep

Experience has shown that for the design of equipment sub"ected to

sustained elevated temperatures, little reliance can be placed on the short0

term properties measured at those temperatures.

'nder the application of constant load at elevated temperatures, materials

show a gradual (ow or creep even for stresses below the proportional limit.

=imilar efects are seen in low0melting metals such as lead at room

temperature.

graph of strain vs. time for any common metal shows that the creep graph

has three distinct sections, after an initial instantaneous elongation. These

illustrate the diferent processes present with creep, !nown as primary,

secondary, and tertiary creep.

=train0hardening of metal decreases creep rate in the primary creep region.

#n the secondary creep region, the material elongates at a steady rate. #n the

fnal phase, the tertiary creep region, elongation proceeds at an increasing

rate until failure %due to nec!ing and void formation&.

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