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Inmaterialsscience,fatigueistheweakeningofamaterialcausedbyrepeatedlyappliedloads.Itis
theprogressiveandlocalizedstructuraldamagethatoccurswhenamaterialissubjectedtocyclic
loading.Thenominalmaximumstressvaluesthatcausesuchdamagemaybemuchlessthanthe
strengthofthematerialtypicallyquotedastheultimatetensilestresslimit,ortheyieldstresslimit.
Fatigueoccurswhenamaterialissubjectedtorepeatedloadingandunloading.Iftheloadsareabovea
certainthreshold,microscopiccrackswillbegintoformatthestressconcentratorssuchasthe
surface,persistentslipbands(PSBs),andgraininterfaces.
[1]
Eventuallyacrackwillreachacritical
size,thecrackwillpropagatesuddenly,andthestructurewillfracture.Theshapeofthestructurewill
significantlyaffectthefatiguelife;squareholesorsharpcornerswillleadtoelevatedlocalstresses
wherefatiguecrackscaninitiate.Roundholesandsmoothtransitionsorfilletswillthereforeincrease
thefatiguestrengthofthestructure.
1Fatiguelife
2Characteristicsoffatigue
3Timelineofearlyfatigueresearchhistory
4Highcyclefatigue
4.1SNcurve
4.2Probabilisticnatureoffatigue
4.3Complexloadings
4.3.1Formultiaxialloading
4.4Miner'sRule
4.5Paris'Law
4.6GoodmanRelation
5Lowcyclefatigue
6Fatigueandfracturemechanics
7Factorsthataffectfatiguelife
8Designagainstfatigue
8.1Stoppingfatigue
8.2Materialchange
8.3HighFrequencyMechanicalImpact(HFMI)treatmentofwelds
9Notablefatiguefailures
9.1Versaillestraincrash
9.2deHavillandComet
9.3AlexanderL.Kiellandoilplatformcapsizing
9.4Others
10Seealso
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Fractureofanaluminiumcrank
arm.Darkareaofstriations:slow
crackgrowth.Brightgranulararea:
suddenfracture.
11References
12Furtherreading
13Externallinks
ASTMdefinesfatiguelife,Nf,asthenumberofstresscyclesofaspecifiedcharacterthataspecimen
sustainsbeforefailureofaspecifiednatureoccurs.
[2]
OnemethodtopredictfatiguelifeofmaterialsistheUniformMaterialLaw(UML).
[3]
UMLwas
developedforfatiguelifepredictionofaluminumandtitaniumalloysbytheendof20thcenturyand
extendedtohighstrengthsteels
[4]
andcastiron.
[5]
Forsomematerials,thereisatheoreticalvaluefor
stressamplitudebelowwhichthematerialwillnotfailforanynumberofcycles,calledafatiguelimit,
endurancelimit,orfatiguestrength.
[6]
Inmetalalloys,whentherearenomacroscopicor
microscopicdiscontinuities,theprocessstartswith
dislocationmovements,whicheventuallyformpersistent
slipbandsthatbecomethenucleusofshortcracks.
Macroscopicandmicroscopicdiscontinuitiesaswellas
componentdesignfeatureswhichcausestress
concentrations(holes,keyways,sharpchangesofdirection
etc.)arecommonlocationsatwhichthefatigueprocess
begins.
Fatigueisaprocessthathasadegreeofrandomness
(stochastic),oftenshowingconsiderablescatterevenin
wellcontrolledenvironments.
Fatigueisusuallyassociatedwithtensilestressesbut
fatiguecrackshavebeenreportedduetocompressiveloads.
[7]
Thegreatertheappliedstressrange,theshorterthelife.
Fatiguelifescattertendstoincreaseforlongerfatiguelives.
Damageiscumulative.Materialsdonotrecoverwhenrested.
Fatiguelifeisinfluencedbyavarietyoffactors,suchastemperature,surfacefinish,
metallurgicalmicrostructure,presenceofoxidizingorinertchemicals,residualstresses,
scuffingcontact(fretting),etc.
Somematerials(e.g.,somesteelandtitaniumalloys)exhibitatheoreticalfatiguelimitbelow
whichcontinuedloadingdoesnotleadtofatiguefailure.
Inrecentyears,researchers(see,forexample,theworkofBathias,Murakami,andStanzl
Tschegg)havefoundthatfailurescanoccurbelowthetheoreticalfatiguelimitatveryhigh
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fatiguelives(10
9
to10
10
cycles).Anultrasonicresonancetechniqueisusedinthese
experimentswithfrequenciesaround1020kHz.
Highcyclefatiguestrength(about10
4
to10
8
cycles)canbedescribedbystressbased
parameters.Aloadcontrolledservohydraulictestrigiscommonlyusedinthesetests,with
frequenciesofaround2050Hz.Othersortsofmachineslikeresonantmagnetic
machinescanalsobeused,toachievefrequenciesupto250Hz.
Lowcyclefatigue(loadingthattypicallycausesfailureinlessthan10
4
cycles)isassociatedwith
localizedplasticbehaviorinmetals;thus,astrainbasedparametershouldbeusedforfatigue
lifepredictioninmetals.Testingisconductedwithconstantstrainamplitudestypicallyat
0.015Hz.
1837:WilhelmAlbertpublishesthefirstarticleonfatigue.Hedevisedatestmachinefor
conveyorchainsusedintheClausthalmines.
[8]
1839:JeanVictorPonceletdescribesmetalsasbeingtiredinhislecturesatthemilitaryschool
atMetz.
1842:WilliamJohnMacquornRankinerecognisestheimportanceofstressconcentrationsinhis
investigationofrailroadaxlefailures.TheVersaillestraincrashwascausedbyaxlefatigue.
[9]
1843:JosephGlynnreportsonfatigueofaxleonalocomotivetender.Heidentifiesthekeywayas
thecrackorigin.
1848:TheRailwayInspectoratereportsoneofthefirsttyrefailures,probablyfromarivethole
intreadofrailwaycarriagewheel.Itwaslikelyafatiguefailure.
1849:EatonHodgkinsonisgrantedasmallsumofmoneytoreporttotheUKParliamentonhis
workinascertainingbydirectexperiment,theeffectsofcontinuedchangesofloaduponiron
structuresandtowhatextenttheycouldbeloadedwithoutdangertotheirultimatesecurity.
1854:Braithwaitereportsoncommonservicefatiguefailuresandcoinsthetermfatigue.
[10]
1860:SystematicfatiguetestingundertakenbySirWilliamFairbairnandAugustWhler.
1870:Whlersummariseshisworkonrailroadaxles.Heconcludesthatcyclicstressrangeis
moreimportantthanpeakstressandintroducestheconceptofendurancelimit.
[8]
1903:SirJamesAlfredEwingdemonstratestheoriginoffatiguefailureinmicroscopiccracks.
1910:O.H.BasquinproposesaloglogrelationshipforSNcurves,usingWhler'stestdata.
1945:A.M.MinerpopularisesA.Palmgren's(1924)lineardamagehypothesisasapractical
designtool.
1954:L.F.CoffinandS.S.Mansonexplainfatiguecrackgrowthintermsofplasticstraininthe
tipofcracks.
1961:P.C.Parisproposesmethodsforpredictingtherateofgrowthofindividualfatiguecracks
inthefaceofinitialscepticismandpopulardefenceofMiner'sphenomenologicalapproach.
1968:TatsuoEndoandM.Matsuishidevisetherainflowcountingalgorithmandenablethe
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Micrographsshowinghowsurface
fatiguecracksgrowasmaterialis
furthercycled.FromEwing&
Humfrey(1903)
reliableapplicationofMiner'sruletorandomloadings.
[11]
1970:W.Elberelucidatesthemechanismsandimportance
ofcrackclosureinslowingthegrowthofafatiguecrack
duetothewedgingeffectofplasticdeformationleftbehind
thetipofthecrack.
Historically,mostattentionhasfocusedonsituationsthatrequire
morethan10
4
cyclestofailurewherestressislowand
deformationisprimarilyelastic.
SNcurve
Inhighcyclefatiguesituations,materialsperformanceis
commonlycharacterizedbyanSNcurve,alsoknownasaWhler
curve.Thisisagraphofthemagnitudeofacyclicstress(S)
againstthelogarithmicscaleofcyclestofailure(N).
SNcurvesarederivedfromtestsonsamplesofthematerialtobecharacterized(oftencalledcoupons)
wherearegularsinusoidalstressisappliedbyatestingmachinewhichalsocountsthenumberof
cyclestofailure.Thisprocessissometimesknownascoupontesting.Eachcoupontestgeneratesa
pointontheplotthoughinsomecasesthereisarunoutwherethetimetofailureexceedsthat
availableforthetest(seecensoring).Analysisoffatiguedatarequirestechniquesfromstatistics,
especiallysurvivalanalysisandlinearregression.
TheprogressionoftheSNcurvecanbeinfluencedbymanyfactorssuchascorrosion,temperature,
residualstresses,andthepresenceofnotches.TheGoodmanLineisamethodtoestimatethe
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Spectrumloading
influenceofthemeanstressonthefatiguestrength.
Probabilisticnatureoffatigue
Ascouponssampledfromahomogeneousframewilldisplayavariationintheirnumberofcyclesto
failure,theSNcurveshouldmoreproperlybeanSNPcurvecapturingtheprobabilityoffailureafter
agivennumberofcyclesofacertainstress.Probabilitydistributionsthatarecommonindataanalysis
andindesignagainstfatigueincludethelognormaldistribution,extremevaluedistribution,
BirnbaumSaundersdistribution,andWeibulldistribution.
Complexloadings
Inpractice,amechanicalpartisexposedtoacomplex,often
random,sequenceofloads,largeandsmall.Inordertoassessthe
safelifeofsuchapart:
Reducethecomplexloadingtoaseriesofsimplecyclic
loadingsusingatechniquesuchasrainflowanalysis;
1.
Createahistogramofcyclicstressfromtherainflow
analysistoformafatiguedamagespectrum;
2.
Foreachstresslevel,calculatethedegreeofcumulative
damageincurredfromtheSNcurve;and
3.
CombinetheindividualcontributionsusinganalgorithmsuchasMiner'srule. 4.
Formultiaxialloading
SinceSNcurvesaretypicallygeneratedforuniaxialloading,someequivalenceruleisneeded
whenevertheloadingismultiaxial.Forsimple,proportionalloadinghistories,Sinesrulemaybe
applied.Formorecomplexsituations,suchasnonproportionalloading,Criticalplaneanalysismustbe
applied.
Miner'sRule
In1945,M.A.MinerpopularisedarulethathadfirstbeenproposedbyA.Palmgrenin1924.Therule,
variouslycalledMiner'sruleorthePalmgrenMinerlineardamagehypothesis,statesthatwherethere
arekdifferentstressmagnitudesinaspectrum,S
i
(1ik),eachcontributingn
i
(S
i
)cycles,thenif
N
i
(S
i
)isthenumberofcyclestofailureofaconstantstressreversalS
i
,failureoccurswhen:
Cisexperimentallyfoundtobebetween0.7and2.2.Usuallyfordesignpurposes,Cisassumedtobe1.
Thiscanbethoughtofasassessingwhatproportionoflifeisconsumedbystressreversalateach
magnitudethenformingalinearcombinationoftheiraggregate.
ThoughMiner'sruleisausefulapproximationinmanycircumstances,ithasseveralmajorlimitations:
Itfailstorecognisetheprobabilisticnatureoffatigueandthereisnosimplewaytorelatelife
predictedbytherulewiththecharacteristicsofaprobabilitydistribution.Industryanalysts
1.
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Typicalfatiguecrackgrowthrate
graph
oftenusedesigncurves,adjustedtoaccountforscatter,tocalculateN
i
(S
i
).
Thereissometimesaneffectintheorderinwhichthereversalsoccur.Insomecircumstances,
cyclesoflowstressfollowedbyhighstresscausemoredamagethanwouldbepredictedbythe
rule.Itdoesnotconsidertheeffectofanoverloadorhighstresswhichmayresultina
compressiveresidualstressthatmayretardcrackgrowth.Highstressfollowedbylowstress
mayhavelessdamageduetothepresenceofcompressiveresidualstress.
2.
Paris'Law
InFracturemechanics,Anderson,GomezandParisderived
relationshipsforthestageIIcrackgrowthwithcyclesN,interms
ofthecyclicalcomponentKoftheStressIntensityFactorK
[12]
whereaisthecracklengthandmistypicallyintherange3to5
(formetals).
Thisrelationshipwaslatermodified(byForman,1967
[13]
)to
makebetterallowanceforthemeanstress,byintroducinga
factordependingon(1R)whereR=minstress/maxstress,in
thedenominator.
GoodmanRelation
Inthepresenceofasteadystresssuperimposedonthecyclicloading,theGoodmanrelationcanbe
usedtoestimateafailurecondition.Itplotsstressamplitudeagainstmeanstresswiththefatiguelimit
andtheultimatetensilestrengthofthematerialasthetwoextremes.Alternativefailurecriteria
includeSoderbergandGerber.
[14]
Wherethestressishighenoughforplasticdeformationtooccur,theaccountingoftheloadingin
termsofstressislessusefulandthestraininthematerialoffersasimplerandmoreaccurate
description.LowcyclefatigueisusuallycharacterisedbytheCoffinMansonrelation(published
independentlybyL.F.Coffinin1954andS.S.Manson1953):
where:

p
/2istheplasticstrainamplitude;

f
'isanempiricalconstantknownasthefatigueductilitycoefficient,thefailurestrainforasingle
reversal;
2Nisthenumberofreversalstofailure(Ncycles);
cisanempiricalconstantknownasthefatigueductilityexponent,commonlyrangingfrom0.5
to0.7formetalsintimeindependentfatigue.Slopescanbeconsiderablysteeperinthe
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presenceofcreeporenvironmentalinteractions.
AsimilarrelationshipformaterialssuchasZirconium,isusedinthenuclearindustry.
[15]
Theaccountaboveispurelyempiricaland,thoughitallowslifepredictionanddesignassurance,life
improvementordesignoptimisationcanbeenhancedusingFracturemechanics.Itcanbedeveloped
infourstages.
Cracknucleation; 1.
StageIcrackgrowth; 2.
StageIIcrackgrowth;and 3.
Ultimateductilefailure. 4.
Cyclicstressstate:Dependingonthecomplexityofthegeometryandtheloading,oneormore
propertiesofthestressstateneedtobeconsidered,suchasstressamplitude,meanstress,
biaxiality,inphaseoroutofphaseshearstress,andloadsequence,
Geometry:Notchesandvariationincrosssectionthroughoutapartleadtostress
concentrationswherefatiguecracksinitiate.
Surfacequality:Surfaceroughnesscancausemicroscopicstressconcentrationsthatlowerthe
fatiguestrength.Compressiveresidualstressescanbeintroducedinthesurfacebye.g.shot
peeningtoincreasefatiguelife.Suchtechniquesforproducingsurfacestressareoftenreferred
toaspeening,whateverthemechanismusedtoproducethestress.Lowplasticityburnishing,
laserpeening,andultrasonicimpacttreatmentcanalsoproducethissurfacecompressivestress
andcanincreasethefatiguelifeofthecomponent.Thisimprovementisnormallyobservedonly
forhighcyclefatigue.
MaterialType:Fatiguelife,aswellasthebehaviorduringcyclicloading,varieswidelyfor
differentmaterials,e.g.compositesandpolymersdiffermarkedlyfrommetals.
Residualstresses:Welding,cutting,casting,grinding,andothermanufacturingprocesses
involvingheatordeformationcanproducehighlevelsoftensileresidualstress,whichdecreases
thefatiguestrength.
Sizeanddistributionofinternaldefects:Castingdefectssuchasgasporosityvoids,
nonmetallicinclusionsandshrinkagevoidscansignificantlyreducefatiguestrength.
AirorVacuum:CertainmaterialslikeMetalsaremorepronetofatigueinairthaninavacuum.
Dependinguponthelevelofhumidityandtemperature,thelifetimeformetalssuchasaluminum
orironmightbeasmuchas5to10timesgreaterinavacuum.Thisismostlyduetotheeffectof
theoxygenandwatervapourintheairwhichwillaggressivelyattackthematerialandso
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encouragethepropagationofcracks.Otherenvironmentssuchasoilorseawatermayreduce
thefatiguelifeatanevengreaterrate.
[16]
Directionofloading:Fornonisotropicmaterials,fatiguestrengthdependsonthedirectionof
theprincipalstress.
Grainsize:Formostmetals,smallergrainsyieldlongerfatiguelives,however,thepresenceof
surfacedefectsorscratcheswillhaveagreaterinfluencethaninacoarsegrainedalloy.
Environment:Environmentalconditionscancauseerosion,corrosion,orgasphase
embrittlement,whichallaffectfatiguelife.Corrosionfatigueisaproblemencounteredinmany
aggressiveenvironments.
Temperature:Extremehighorlowtemperaturescandecreasefatiguestrength.
CrackClosure:Crackclosureisaphenomenoninfatigueloading,duringwhichthecrackwill
tendtoremaininaclosedpositioneventhoughsomeexternaltensileforceisactingonthe
material.Duringthisprocessthecrackwillopenonlyatanominalstressaboveaparticular
crackopeningstress.Thisisduetoseveralfactorssuchasplasticdeformationorphase
transformationduringcrackpropagation,corrosionofcracksurfaces,presenceoffluidsinthe
crack,orroughnessatcrackedsurfacesetc.thiswillprovidealongerfatiguelifeforthematerial
thanexpected,byslowingthecrackgrowthrate.
Dependabledesignagainstfatiguefailurerequiresthorougheducationandsupervisedexperiencein
structuralengineering,mechanicalengineering,ormaterialsscience.Therearefourprincipal
approachestolifeassuranceformechanicalpartsthatdisplayincreasingdegreesofsophistication:
[17]
Designtokeepstressbelowthresholdoffatiguelimit(infinitelifetimeconcept); 1.
failsafe,gracefuldegradation,andfaulttolerantdesign:Instructtheusertoreplacepartswhen
theyfail.Designinsuchawaythatthereisnosinglepointoffailure,andsothatwhenanyone
partcompletelyfails,itdoesnotleadtocatastrophicfailureoftheentiresystem.
2.
Safelifedesign:Design(conservatively)forafixedlifeafterwhichtheuserisinstructedto
replacethepartwithanewone(asocalledlifedpart,finitelifetimeconcept,or"safelife"
designpractice);plannedobsolescenceanddisposableproductarevariantsthatdesignfora
fixedlifeafterwhichtheuserisinstructedtoreplacetheentiredevice;
3.
damagetolerantdesign:Instructtheusertoinspectthepartperiodicallyforcracksandto
replacethepartonceacrackexceedsacriticallength.Thisapproachusuallyusesthe
technologiesofnondestructivetestingandrequiresanaccuratepredictionoftherateofcrack
growthbetweeninspections.Thedesignersetssomeaircraftmaintenancechecksschedule
frequentenoughthatpartsarereplacedwhilethecrackisstillinthe"slowgrowth"phase.This
isoftenreferredtoasdamagetolerantdesignor"retirementforcause".
4.
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ExampleofaHFMItreatedsteel
highwaybridgetoavoidfatigue
alongtheweldtransition.
Versaillestraindisaster
DrawingofafatiguefailureinanaxlebyJosephGlynn,
1843
Stoppingfatigue
Fatiguecracksthathavebeguntopropagatecansometimesbestoppedbydrillingholes,calleddrill
stops,inthepathofthefatiguecrack.
[18]
Thisisnotrecommendedasageneralpracticebecausethe
holerepresentsastressconcentrationfactorwhichdependsonthesizeoftheholeandgeometry,
thoughtheholeistypicallylessofastressconcentrationthantheremovedtipofthecrack.The
possibilityremainsofanewcrackstartinginthesideofthehole.Itisalwaysfarbettertoreplacethe
crackedpartentirely.
Materialchange
Changesinthematerialsusedinpartscanalsoimprovefatiguelife.Forexample,partscanbemade
frombetterfatigueratedmetals.Completereplacementandredesignofpartscanalsoreduceifnot
eliminatefatigueproblems.Thushelicopterrotorbladesandpropellers inmetalarebeingreplacedby
compositeequivalents.Theyarenotonlylighter,butalsomuchmoreresistanttofatigue.Theyare
moreexpensive,buttheextracostisamplyrepaidbytheirgreaterintegrity,sincelossofarotorblade
usuallyleadstototallossoftheaircraft.Asimilarargumenthasbeenmadeforreplacementofmetal
fuselages,wingsandtailsofaircraft.
[19]
HighFrequencyMechanicalImpact(HFMI)
treatmentofwelds
Thedurabilityandlifeofdynamicallyloaded,weldedsteel
structuresaredeterminedoftenbythewelds,particularbythe
weldtransitions.Byselectivetreatmentofweldtransitionswith
theHighFrequencyMechanicalImpact(HFMI)treatment
method,
[20][21]
thedurabilityofmanydesignscanbeincreased
significantly.Thismethodisuniversallyapplicable,requiresonly
technicalequipmentandoffershighreproducibilityandahigh
gradeofqualitycontrol.
Versaillestraincrash
Following
theKing's
fete
celebrationsatthePalaceofVersailles,atrain
returningtoPariscrashedinMay1842atMeudonaftertheleadinglocomotivebrokeanaxle.The
carriagesbehindpiledintothewreckedenginesandcaughtfire.Atleast55passengerswerekilled
trappedinthecarriages,includingtheexplorerJulesDumontd'Urville.Thisaccidentisknownin
Franceasthe"CatastropheferroviairedeMeudon".TheaccidentwaswitnessedbytheBritish
locomotiveengineerJosephLockeandwidelyreportedinBritain.Itwasdiscussedextensivelyby
engineers,whosoughtanexplanation.
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Therecovered(shaded)partsofthe
wreckageofGALYPandthesite
(arrowed)ofthefailure
Thefuselagerooffragmentof
GALYPondisplayintheScience
MuseuminLondon,showingthe
twoADFwindowsatwhichthe
initialfailureoccurred.
[22]
Thederailmenthadbeentheresultofabrokenlocomotiveaxle.Rankine'sinvestigationofbroken
axlesinBritainhighlightedtheimportanceofstressconcentration,andthemechanismofcrack
growthwithrepeatedloading.Hisandotherpaperssuggestingacrackgrowthmechanismthrough
repeatedstressing,however,wereignored,andfatiguefailuresoccurredataneverincreasingrateon
theexpandingrailwaysystem.Otherspurioustheoriesseemedtobemoreacceptable,suchastheidea
thatthemetalhadsomehow"crystallized".Thenotionwasbasedonthecrystallineappearanceofthe
fastfractureregionofthecracksurface,butignoredthefactthatthemetalwasalreadyhighly
crystalline.
deHavillandComet
TwodeHavillandCometpassengerjetsbrokeupinmidairand
crashedwithinafewmonthsofeachotherin1954.Asaresult
systematictestswereconductedonafuselageimmersedand
pressurisedinawatertank.Aftertheequivalentof3,000flights
investigatorsattheRoyalAircraftEstablishment(RAE)wereable
toconcludethatthecrashhadbeenduetofailureofthepressure
cabinattheforwardAutomaticDirectionFinderwindowinthe
roof.This'window'wasinfactoneoftwoaperturesforthe
aerialsofanelectronicnavigationsysteminwhichopaque
fibreglasspanelstooktheplaceofthewindow'glass'.Thefailure
wasaresultofmetalfatiguecausedbytherepeated
pressurisationanddepressurisationoftheaircraftcabin.Also,
thesupportsaroundthewindowswereriveted,notbonded,as
theoriginalspecificationsfortheaircrafthadcalledfor.The
problemwasexacerbatedbythepunchrivetconstructiontechniqueemployed.Unlikedrillriveting,
theimperfectnatureoftheholecreatedbypunchrivetingcausedmanufacturingdefectcrackswhich
mayhavecausedthestartoffatiguecracksaroundtherivet.
TheComet'spressurecabinhadbeendesignedtoasafetyfactor
comfortablyinexcessofthatrequiredbyBritishCivil
AirworthinessRequirements(2.5timesthecabinproofpressure
asopposedtotherequirementof1.33timesandanultimateload
of2.0timesthecabinpressure)andtheaccidentcauseda
revisionintheestimatesofthesafeloadingstrength
requirementsofairlinerpressurecabins.
Inaddition,itwasdiscoveredthatthestressesaroundpressure
cabinapertureswereconsiderablyhigherthanhadbeen
anticipated,especiallyaroundsharpcorneredcutouts,suchas
windows.Asaresult,allfuturejetairlinerswouldfeature
windowswithroundedcorners,greatlyreducingthestress
concentration.ThiswasanoticeabledistinguishingfeatureofalllatermodelsoftheComet.
InvestigatorsfromtheRAEtoldapublicinquirythatthesharpcornersneartheComets'window
openingsactedasinitiationsitesforcracks.Theskinoftheaircraftwasalsotoothin,andcracksfrom
manufacturingstresseswerepresentatthecorners.
AlexanderL.Kiellandoilplatformcapsizing
TheAlexanderL.KiellandwasaNorwegiansemisubmersibledrillingrigthatcapsizedwhilstworking
intheEkofiskoilfieldinMarch1980killing123people.Thecapsizingwastheworstdisasterin
NorwegianwaterssinceWorldWarII.Therig,locatedapproximately320kmeastfromDundee,
Scotland,wasownedbytheStavangerDrillingCompanyofNorwayandwasonhiretotheU.S.
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Fracturesontherightsideofthe
AlexanderL.Kiellandrig
companyPhillipsPetroleumatthetimeofthedisaster.Indriving
rainandmist,earlyintheeveningof27March1980morethan
200menwereoffdutyintheaccommodationontheAlexanderL.
Kielland.Thewindwasgustingto40knotswithwavesupto12m
high.TherighadjustbeenwinchedawayfromtheEdda
productionplatform.Minutesbefore18:30thoseonboardfelta
'sharpcrack'followedby'somekindoftrembling'.Suddenlythe
righeeledover30andthenstabilised.Fiveofthesixanchor
cableshadbroken,withoneremainingcablepreventingtherig
fromcapsizing.Thelistcontinuedtoincreaseandat18.53the
remaininganchorcablesnappedandtherigturnedupsidedown.
AyearlaterinMarch1981,theinvestigativereport
[23]
concluded
thattherigcollapsedowingtoafatiguecrackinoneofitssix
bracings(bracingD6),whichconnectedthecollapsedDlegto
therestoftherig.Thiswastracedtoasmall6mmfilletweldwhichjoinedanonloadbearingflange
platetothisD6bracing.Thisflangeplateheldasonardeviceusedduringdrillingoperations.The
poorprofileofthefilletweldcontributedtoareductioninitsfatiguestrength.Further,the
investigationfoundconsiderableamountsoflamellartearingintheflangeplateandcoldcracksinthe
buttweld.Coldcracksinthewelds,increasedstressconcentrationsduetotheweakenedflangeplate,
thepoorweldprofile,andcyclicalstresses(whichwouldbecommonintheNorthSea),seemedto
collectivelyplayaroleintherig'scollapse.
Others
The1862HartleyCollieryDisasterwascausedbythefractureofasteamenginebeamandkilled
220people.
The1919BostonMolassesDisasterhasbeenattributedtoafatiguefailure.
The1948NorthwestAirlinesFlight421crashduetofatiguefailureinawingsparroot
The1957"Mt.Pinatubo",presidentialplaneofPhilippinePresidentRamonMagsaysay,crashed
duetoenginefailurecausedbymetalfatigue.
The1965capsizeoftheUK'sfirstoffshoreoilplatform,theSeaGem,wasduetofatigueinpartof
thesuspensionsystemlinkingthehulltothelegs.
The1968LosAngelesAirwaysFlight417lostoneofitsmainrotorbladesduetofatiguefailure.
The1968MacRobertsonMillerAirlinesFlight1750thatlostawingduetoimproper
maintenanceleadingtofatiguefailure
The1977DanAirBoeing707crashcausedbyfatiguefailureresultinginthelossoftheright
horizontalstabilizer
The1980LOTFlight7thatcrashedduetofatigueinanengineturbineshaftresultinginengine
disintegrationleadingtolossofcontrol
The1985JapanAirlinesFlight123crashedaftertheaircraftlostitsverticalstabilizerdueto
faultyrepairsontherearbulkhead.
The1988AlohaAirlinesFlight243sufferedanexplosivedecompressionduetofatiguefailure.
The1989UnitedAirlinesFlight232lostitstailengineduetofatiguefailureinafandiskhub.
The1992ElAlFlight1862lostbothenginesonitsrightwingduetofatiguefailureinthepylon
mountingofthe#3Engine.
Fatigue(material)Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatigue_(material)
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The1998Eschedetraindisasterwascausedbyfatiguefailureofasinglecompositewheel.
The2000Hatfieldrailcrashwaslikelycausedbyrollingcontactfatigue.
The2002ChinaAirlinesFlight611haddisintegratedinflightduetofatiguefailure.
The2005Chalk'sOceanAirwaysFlight101lostitsrightwingduetofatiguefailurebrought
aboutbyinadequatemaintenancepractices.
Aviationsafety
Embedment
Forensicmaterialsengineering
Fractography
Thermomechanicalfatigue
Criticalplaneanalysis
Vibrationfatigue
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leum&source=bl&ots=ntxUR1RGVz&
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^"ObjectWiki:FuselageofdeHavillandComet
AirlinerGALYP"
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WikimediaCommonshas
mediarelatedtoMaterial
fatigue.
Dieter,G.E.(1988)MechanicalMetallurgy,ISBN0071004068
Little,R.E.&Jebe,E.H.(1975)StatisticaldesignoffatigueexperimentsISBN0470541156
A.G.Palmgren(1924):DieLebensdauervonKugellagern(LifeLengthofRollerBearings.In
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Pook,Les(2007).MetalFatigue,Whatitis,whyitmatters.Springer.ISBN9781402055966.
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ArticleregardingFatigueTestingofBoltedJoints(http://www.zwick.co.uk
/appsdisp.php?id=25)
Examplesoffatiguedmetalproducts(http://materials.open.ac.uk/mem/mem_mf.htm)
Acollectionoffatigueknowledgeandcalculators(http://www.fatiguecalculator.com)
MATDAT.COMMaterialPropertiesDatabaseMonotonic,CyclicandFatiguePropertiesof
Steels,AluminumandTitaniumAlloys(http://www.matdat.com)
ApplicationnoteonfatiguecrackpropagationinUHMWPE(http://www.campoly.com
/index.php/download_file/view/204/108/)
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