15 views

Uploaded by kterink007

convex and quasiconvex

- Spivak, Calculus on Manifolds - A Modern Approach to Clasical Theorems of Advanced Calculus
- Calculus Volume 1-LR
- Concepts of Mathematics
- Aod
- 6 Simon Ill Defined Problem
- Art
- Miracles and Science - Jonathan Sarfati
- Some Weaker Forms of Fuzzy Almost Continuous Mappings on Bulletin of Kerala Mathematics Association, 5(2)(2009, Desecember), pp. 109-113.
- Lecture 6
- Optimal Power Allocation for Secondary Users in CRNs
- Browder,1977
- _Artificial_Intelligence
- harmonicsofevolu01huntuoft
- Sequence and Series
- Calculus of Variations
- Midterm Study Notes.pdf
- 1987-23-06-11
- Vanishing 2
- Game Theory Reading
- report in concepts in geometry.docx

You are on page 1of 8

Department of Economics

V31.0006 C. Wilson

Mathematics for Economists September 15, 2011

Concave and Quasi-Concave Functions

A set X R

n

is convex if x, y X implies x + (1 ) y X for all [0, 1] .

Geometrically, if x, y R

n

, then {z R

n

: z = x + (1 ) y for [0, 1]} constitutes the straight

line connecting x and y. So a convex set is any set that contains the entire line segment between

any two vectors in the set.

The intersection of two convex sets is convex. Can you prove this?

The union of two convex sets is not necessarily convex. Why not?

A vector z R

n

is a convex combination of x

1

, ..., x

m

R

n

if

z =

m

X

j=1

j

x

j

for some

1

, ...,

m

0 with

m

X

j=1

j

= 1.

In the gure below:

x

12

=

1

2

x

1

+

1

2

x

2

, x

13

=

1

2

x

1

+

1

2

x

3

, x

23

=

1

2

x

2

+

1

2

x

3

x

123

=

2

3

x

12

+

1

3

x

3

=

2

3

x

13

+

1

3

x

2

=

2

3

x

23

+

1

3

x

1

=

1

3

x

1

+

1

3

x

2

+

1

3

x

3

http://homepages.nyu.edu/ caw1/

V31.0006: Concave and Quasi-Concave Functions September 15, 2011 Page 2

Theorem 1: A set X R

n

is convex if and only if it contains any convex combination of any

vectors x

1

, ..., x

m

X.

Proof. (if) If X contains any convex combination of its vectors, then as a special case, x +

(1 ) y X for all x, y X and [0, 1] ..

(only if) The proof is by mathematical induction on m. For m = 1, the only convex combination of

vector x is x itself. So the basis statement for m = 1 is true. The induction step is to suppose that

the proposition is true for m1 > 0 vectors, and then to show that this implies the proposition is

true for m vectors. So consider any convex combination

P

m

j=1

j

x

j

of m vectors contained in X.

Since m 2 and each

j

0 with

P

m

j=1

j

= 1, we may suppose WLOG that

m

< 1. Then since

m1

X

j=1

j

1

m

=

P

m1

j=1

j

1

m

=

1

m

1

m

= 1,

the induction hypothesis implies that y

P

m1

j=1

j

1

m

x

j

X. Then the denition of a convex

set implies

m

X

j=1

j

x

j

=

m1

X

j=1

j

x

j

+

m

x

m

= (1

m

)

m1

X

j=1

j

1

m

x

j

+

m

x

m

= (1

m

) y +

m

x

m

X.

The proposition then follows from mathematical induction.

Given any set X R

n

, the convex hull Co(X) is the intersection of all convex sets that contain X.

Since the intersection of any two convex sets is convex, it follows that the convex hull is the

smallest convex set that contains X.

If X is convex, then Co(X) = X. Why?

Theorem 2: Suppose X R

n

. Then Co(X) is the set of all convex combinations of vectors in X.

Proof. See Appendix.

http://homepages.nyu.edu/ caw1/

V31.0006: Concave and Quasi-Concave Functions September 15, 2011 Page 3

Concave Functions

For the remainder of these notes, we suppose that X R

n

is a convex set.

f : X R is concave if for any x, z X, we have, for all (0, 1) ,

f(z + (1 ) x) f (z) + (1 ) f(x).

f : X R is strictly concave if for any x, z X with x 6= z, we have, for all (0, 1) ,

f(z + (1 ) x) > f (z) + (1 ) f(x).

concave not concave

A constant function is concave. Why?

A linear function is concave. Why?

f : X R is concave if and only if f((z x) +x) (f(z) f(x)) +f(x) for all x, z X and

(0, 1) . Why?

f : X R is concave if and only if f(x + x) (f(x +x) f(x)) + f(x) for all

x, (x +x) X and (0, 1) . Why?

Theorem 3: (Jensens Inequality) Suppose that f : X R is concave. If x

1

, . . . , x

m

X and

1

, . . . ,

m

R

+

with

P

m

i=1

i

= 1, then f(

P

m

i=1

i

x

i

)

P

m

i=1

i

f(x

i

).

Proof. Left as an exercise [Hint: use the denition of a concave function and mathematical induc-

tion.]

Linear Combinations of Concave Functions

Consider a list of functions f

i

: X R for i = 1, ..., n, and a list of numbers

1

, ...,

n

. The function

f

P

n

i=1

i

f

i

is called a linear combination of f

1

, ..., f

n

. If each of the weights

i

0, then f is a

nonnegative linear combination of f

1

, ..., f

n

.

The next proposition establishes that any nonnegative linear combination of concave functions is

also a concave function.

http://homepages.nyu.edu/ caw1/

V31.0006: Concave and Quasi-Concave Functions September 15, 2011 Page 4

Theorem 4: Suppose f

1

, ..., f

n

are concave functions. Then for any

1

, ...,

n

, for which each

i

0, f

P

n

i=1

i

f

i

is also a concave function. If, in addition, at least one f

j

is strictly concave

and

j

> 0, then f is strictly concave.

Proof. Consider any x, y X and (0, 1) . If each f

i

is concave, we have

f

i

(x + (1 ) y) f

i

(x) + (1 ) f

i

(y)

Therefore,

f(x + (1 ) y)

n

X

i=1

i

f

i

(x + (1 ) y)

n

X

i=1

i

(f

i

(x) + (1 ) f

i

(y))

=

n

X

i=1

i

f

i

(x) + (1 )

n

X

i=1

i

f

i

(y) f(x) + (1 ) f(y).

This establishes that f is concave. If some f

i

is strictly concave and

i

> 0, then the inequality is

strict.

Since a constant function is concave, Theorem 4 implies:

If f is concave, then any ane transformation f + with 0 is also concave.

If f is strictly concave, then any ane transformation f + with > 0 is also strictly concave.

Theorem 5: Let I R be an interval and let X = I

n

. Suppose f : X R is dened by

f(x) =

P

n

i=1

i

(x

i

), where each

i

: I R.

(a) If each

i

is concave, then f is concave.

(b) If each

i

is strictly concave, then f is strictly concave.

Proof. Left as an exercise.

A function f : X R

n

of the form f(x) =

P

n

i=1

i

(x) is sometimes called a linearly separable

function.

Why does Theorem 5 require that each

i

be strictly concave to ensure that f is strictly concave,

while Theorem 4 requires only one f

i

be strictly concave to ensure that f is is strictly concave?

Concave Functions of an Ane Function

Theorem 6: Let X R

n

be convex and f : X R is a concave function.

(a) Let g : R

m

R

n

be dened by g(y) = Ay + b, where A is an n m matrix and suppose

g[Y ] X. Then h = (f g) : Y R is a concave function.

(b) If f is strictly concave and g is 1-1, then h is strictly concave.

Proof. Left an exercise.

http://homepages.nyu.edu/ caw1/

V31.0006: Concave and Quasi-Concave Functions September 15, 2011 Page 5

Quasi-Concave Functions

f : X R is quasi-concave if for any x, z X, we have f(z + (1 ) x) min{f (x) , f(z)} for

all (0, 1) .

f is strictly quasi-concave if for any x, z X and x 6= z, we have f(z+(1 ) x) > min{f (x) , f(z)}

for all (0, 1) .

Theorem 7: A (strictly) concave function is (strictly) quasi-concave.

Proof. The theorem follows immediately from the observation that if f is concave, then for all

x, z X, we have

f(z + (1 ) x) f(z) + (1 ) f(x) min{f (x) , f(z)} for all (0, 1) .

If f is strictly concave, we have for all x, z X and x 6= z,

f(z + (1 ) x) > f(z) + (1 ) f(x) min{f (x) , f(z)} for all (0, 1) .

f is quasi-concave f is not quasi-concave

If X R, then f : X R is quasi-concave if and only if it is either monotonic or rst

nondecreasing and then nonincreasing. Why?

Our next theorem states that any monotone nondecreasing transformation of a quasi-concave

function is quasi-concave.

Theorem 8: Suppose f : X R is quasi-concave and : f(X) R is nondecreasing. Then

f : X R is quasi-concave. If f is strictly quasi-concave and is strictly increasing, then f

is strictly quasi-concave.

Proof. Consider any x, y X. If f is quasi-concave, then f (x + (1 ) y) min{f(x), f(y)} .

Therefore, nondecreasing implies

(f (x + (1 ) y)) (min{f(x), f(y)}) = min{(f(x)), (f(y))} .

If f is strictly quasi-concave, then for x 6= y, we have f(x + (1 ) y) > min{f(x), f(y)}.

Therefore, if is strictly increasing, we have

(f (x + (1 ) y)) > (min{f(x), f(y)}) = min{(f(x)), (f(y))} .

http://homepages.nyu.edu/ caw1/

V31.0006: Concave and Quasi-Concave Functions September 15, 2011 Page 6

Recall that for any x X, P(x) {z X : f(z) f(x)} is called the better set of x.

Theorem 9: f : X R is quasi-concave if and only if P(x) is a convex set for each x X.

Proof. (only if) Suppose f is quasi-concave. Choose an arbitrary x

0

X. To show that P(x

0

) is

convex, consider any x, y P(x

0

). Then, f(x), f(y) f(x

0

) and the quasi-concavity of f imply

that

f(x + (1 ) y) min{f(x), f(y)} f(x

0

)

which implies that x + (1 ) y P(x

0

) for any (0, 1) .

(if) Suppose P(x

0

) is convex for each x

0

X. Now consider any x, y X. WLOG, suppose that

f(x) f(y). Then letting x = x

0

, we have that x, y P(x

0

) and therefore y + (1 ) x P(x

0

)

for any (0, 1) . It then follows from the denition of P(x

0

) that

f(y + (1 ) x) f(x) = min{f(x), f(y)} .

Theorem 9 is illustrated below for an increasing function f : R

2

+

R. Notice that all convex

combinations of vectors in P(x

1

) are also elements of P(x

1

). Also notice that if f is strictly quasi-

concave, then the level set can contain no straight line segments.

f is strictly quasi-concave P(x

1

) is convex

Corollary 1: Suppose f : X R attains a maximum on X. (a) If f is quasi-concave, then the

set of maximizers is convex. (b) If f is strictly quasi-concave, then the maximizer of f is unique.

Proof. (a) Let x

0

be a maximizer of f. Then f(x) f(x

0

) for all x X implies that P(x

0

) is the

set of maximizers of f. If f is quasi-concave, then Theorem 7 implies that P(x

0

) is convex.

(b) If f is strictly quasi-concave, suppose x, y are both maximizers of f. Then x 6= y implies

f(

1

2

x +

1

2

y) > min{f(x), f(y)} = f(x) which implies that x is not a maximizer of f.

http://homepages.nyu.edu/ caw1/

V31.0006: Concave and Quasi-Concave Functions September 15, 2011 Page 7

Example: Let I > 0 be the income of some household and let p = (p

1

, ..., p

n

) R

n

+

denote the

vector of prices of the n goods. Then

B(p, I)

x R

n

+

: px I

denes its budget set the set of all possible nonnegative bundles of goods it may purchase

within its budget. You can verify that y, z B(p, I) implies y + (1 ) z B(p, I) for all

[0, 1]. Therefore, B(p, I) is a convex set.

Now suppose that the household preferences are given by some utility function u : R

n

+

R.

Then Corollary 1 implies that if u is strictly quasi-concave, there is a unique bundle x B(p, I)

that maximizes u : B(p, I) R.

Convex and Quasi-Convex Functions

If we reverse the inequality sign in the denitions of concave and quasi-concave functions we obtain

convex and quasi-convex functions.

f : X R is a convex function if for any x, y X, we have, for all (0, 1) ,

f(x + (1 ) y) f (x) + (1 ) f(y)

f : X R is a strictly convex function if for any x, y X where x 6= y, we have, for all (0, 1) ,

f(x + (1 ) y) < f (x) + (1 ) f(y)

NOTE: A convex set and a convex function are two distinct concepts.

f : X R is quasi-convex if for any x, y X, we have f(x + (1 ) y) max {f (x) , f(y)} for

all (0, 1) .

f is strictly quasi-convex if for any x, y X and x 6= y, we have f(x+(1 ) y) < max {f (x) , f(y)}

for all (0, 1) .

The following proposition is an immediate consequence of the denitions.

http://homepages.nyu.edu/ caw1/

V31.0006: Concave and Quasi-Concave Functions September 15, 2011 Page 8

Theorem 10: (a) f is a (strictly) convex function if and only if f is a (strictly) concave function.

(b) f is a (strictly) quasi-convex function if and only if f is a (strictly) quasi-concave function.

Theorem 6 allows us to easily translate all of our propositions for concave and quasi-concave

functions to the analogues for convex and quasi-convex functions, which are provided here for easy

reference.

Suppose f

1

, ..., f

n

are convex functions. Then for any

1

, ...,

n

, for which each

i

0, then

f

P

n

i=1

i

f

i

is also a convex function. If, in addition, at least one f

j

is strictly convex and

j

> 0, then f is strictly convex.

A linear function is both concave and convex.

A (strictly) convex function is (strictly) quasi-convex.

Suppose f : X R is quasi-convex and : f(X) R is nondecreasing. Then f : X R

is quasi-convex. If f is strictly quasi-convex and is strictly increasing, then f is strictly

quasi-convex.

A function f : X R is quasi-convex if and only if for each x X, W(x) is convex.

Suppose f : X R attains a minimum on X. (a) If f is quasi-convex, then the set of minimizers

is convex. (b) If f is strictly quasi-convex, then the minimizer of f is unique.

Appendix

Theorem 2: Suppose X R

n

. Then Co(X) is the set of all convex combinations of vectors in X.

Proof. Theorem 1 implies that any convex combination of elements x

1

, ..., x

m

X must be con-

tained in Co(X). To show that Co(X) contains only vectors that are convex combinations of some

x

1

, ..., x

m

X, we need to show that Y

x R

n

: x is a convex combination of some x

1

, ..., x

m

X

1

, ..., y

m

X

and list of nonnegative numbers

1

, ...,

m

with

P

m

i=1

i

= 1 such that y =

P

m

i=1

i

y

i

. Similarly,

there is a set of vectors z

1

, ..., z

r

X and list of nonnegative numbers

1

, ...,

r

with

P

r

i=1

i

= 1

such that z =

P

r

i=1

i

z

i

. Then for any [0, 1] , we have

y + (1 ) z =

m

X

i=1

i

y

i

+ (1 )

r

X

i=1

i

z

i

=

m

X

i=1

i

y

i

+

r

X

i=1

(1 )

i

z

i

which, since

P

m

i=1

i

+(1 )

P

r

i=1

i

= +(1 ) = 1, implies that y +(1 ) z is a convex

combination of y

1

, ..., y

n

, z

1

, ..., z

r

X.

http://homepages.nyu.edu/ caw1/

- Spivak, Calculus on Manifolds - A Modern Approach to Clasical Theorems of Advanced CalculusUploaded byGabriel Dalla Vecchia
- Calculus Volume 1-LRUploaded byHaris Elvan Hudaya
- Concepts of MathematicsUploaded bySarahBukhsh
- AodUploaded byAditya Bansal
- 6 Simon Ill Defined ProblemUploaded byajit.alwe
- ArtUploaded byTeodora Girbacea
- Miracles and Science - Jonathan SarfatiUploaded byJeff Stutz
- Some Weaker Forms of Fuzzy Almost Continuous Mappings on Bulletin of Kerala Mathematics Association, 5(2)(2009, Desecember), pp. 109-113.Uploaded byDr.Hakeem Ahmed Othman
- Lecture 6Uploaded bygd3000
- Optimal Power Allocation for Secondary Users in CRNsUploaded bysohail_5
- Browder,1977Uploaded byro_shanti9020
- _Artificial_IntelligenceUploaded byperico1962
- harmonicsofevolu01huntuoftUploaded byRobert Octavia
- Sequence and SeriesUploaded byReena Singla
- Calculus of VariationsUploaded byAvijit Dey
- Midterm Study Notes.pdfUploaded byDena Fisher
- 1987-23-06-11Uploaded byTheo
- Vanishing 2Uploaded byalbert
- Game Theory ReadingUploaded bysouravsam
- report in concepts in geometry.docxUploaded byAirah Jane Caspillo Jocson
- Linear Algebra ReviewUploaded byadil054

- VidUploaded bykterink007
- Probability Theory - WeberUploaded bykterink007
- A Cointegation Demo Fetrics Chp4Uploaded byaptenodyte
- Warsaw HandoutUploaded bykterink007
- Test fileUploaded bykterink007
- Brillinger D.R. Time Series (SIAM, 2001)Uploaded bykterink007
- Pai She p00la Mea Bha BajatuleUploaded bykterink007
- Linton - Nonparametric MethodsUploaded bykterink007
- MScMCF2014_AdmissionExercise.pdfUploaded bykterink007
- Massima Guidolin - Markov Switching Models LectureUploaded bykterink007
- Frankfurt MapUploaded bykterink007
- Sebastian Lacratescu - Noua Celor Care Nu Ne PasaUploaded bykterink007
- s a LalalalalalaUploaded bykterink007
- Stability Insight BriefingUploaded bykterink007
- DadUploaded bykterink007
- cingoUploaded bykterink007
- Best Book EvaaaaarUploaded bykterink007
- TestUploaded bykterink007
- 1112 Mpf m Review StatsUploaded bykterink007
- 1112 Mpf m Review MathUploaded bykterink007
- syllabus353Uploaded bykterink007
- standard-tube-map.pdfUploaded byJavier
- yoUploaded bykterink007
- Perfe EectUploaded bykterink007
- Elements of Statistical Learning SolutionsUploaded byAditya Jain

- 2 3 1a Great ExpectationsUploaded byElle Même
- wto_at_twenty_eUploaded byNagesh K. Ojha
- Sherlock Holmes Puzzle CollectionUploaded byAnonymous
- observation 1 professor feedbackUploaded byapi-305785129
- 'Deconstruction How to …' By JOHN W P PHILLIPSUploaded byr.a.j.b
- community policingUploaded byapi-235270781
- Alcaraz vs Tangga-AnUploaded byPaolo Mendioro
- PROSECUTION’S OPENING STATEMENT IN THE WILLIAM RUTO AND JOSHUA SANG TRIALUploaded byJournalists For Justice
- The Original Meaning of an Omission: The Tenth Amendment, Popular Sovereignty and “Expressly” Delegated PowerUploaded byTenth Amendment Center
- Low-Power Pulse-Triggered Flip-Flop Design Based on a Signal Feed-Through SchemeUploaded byNava Krishnan
- E. R. Ali Name Declaration Correction and PublicationUploaded byxtaticheart
- Past TenseUploaded byCahya
- The Effect of Using Authentic Materials in TeachingUploaded byvioletavalery
- GuiacomunicacionespeinglesOKUDR (1)Uploaded byBomBon Fdez Mejia
- Aspiration PrecautionsUploaded byMatthew Ryan
- Major Planetary ConfigurationsUploaded byOlivera Vukovic
- Whats New in TB in 2018.pptUploaded byGek Mas Cydex
- PedagodieUploaded bygabib97
- Kagiso Ext 13 Project Charter -Project Charter 02.09.2014Uploaded byMichael Benhura
- Biodiversity in AgroecosystemsUploaded byCassiano Fonseca
- Fast Character Maker _ Character Sheet for Human Cleric 7 (Domain of War)Uploaded byAllan Roscoche
- 11. Frias v. EsquivelUploaded byNoel Cagigas Felongco
- CV (Feb 2015).docUploaded byScott Smith
- Notes Sem 2 CurriculamUploaded byPratheesh Pk
- Bridging Technical Eclecticism and Theoretical Integration: Assimilative IntegrationUploaded byAntigoni
- Lesson Week 40Uploaded byisara_aries
- Carrying Capacity of Single Vertical PileUploaded byNatesa Indrasenan
- Legal Traditions Inconmesurables_GLENNUploaded byAmanda Muniz
- OB-PEDS Chapter 15 Dictation and Reading Notes CopyUploaded byloglesb1
- COMMON RPG Certification Parts 1 - 4Uploaded byRamana Varala