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NAME:Pravin biswakarma

June,14 to 03


Mejia Thermal Power Station is located at Durlovpur, Dist: Bankura, 26 km
from Durgapur city in West Bengal. Commissioned on 1996, MTPS is the largest thermal
power plant, in terms of electricity generating capacity in the state of West Bengal as
well as among other DVC power plants.
Power Plant:
Mejia Thermal Power Station has an installed capacity of 2340 MW. The plant has 8 units
under its operation. The individual units have the generating capacities as follows:
Unit No. Generating Capacity Commissioned on
U#1 210 MW 1996
U#2 210 MW 1998
U#3 210 MW 1999
U#4 210 MW 2005
U#5 250 MW 2008
U#6 250 MW 2009
U#7 500 MW 2010
U#8 500 MW 2010
Units 1 to 6 are collectively named as MTPS-phase1, while the extension of Units 7 & 8 is
called MTPS-phase 2. All the units have boilers, turbines and generators manufactured by
Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL).


Mejia Thermal Power Station
P.O:MTPS,Dist:Bankura-722183,West Bengal
Phone:03241-232201 FAX-03241-262231
1. Mr. Bidhayak Dutta
(Deputy Chief Engg. Elec)
2. Mr. P.K Dubey
(Training Advisor)
JUNE,2014 to 03

Mejia Thermal Power Station
P.O:MTPS,Dist:Bankura-722183,West Bengal
Phone:03241-232201 FAX-03241-262231
No.MT/PL/Voc.Trg./Vol.XII/1682 Dated:29
This is to certify that Mr.Pravin Biswakarma, student of electrical engineering
of Jalpaiguri Government Engineering College, Jalpaiguri-735102(W.B)
undertook vocational training at Mejia Thermal Power Station, DVC, for the
period of 21(Twenty One) days w.e.f 13.06.2014 under Electrical Dept., MTPS.
During his training he has been found sincere, hard working and
well disciplined.

(Shri Bidhayak Dutta)
The Dy Chief Engineer (Elect.)

Any project is the fruitful outcome of the hard work of many.
Through this document we would like to express our gratitude
towards those who supported us in making us an outcome from us.

Firstly, we would like to thank Shri. Bidhayak dutta(Deputy Chief
Engg. Elec.). He inspite of his tremendous workload helped us
admirably. Our humble thanks to Shri.P.K Dubey(Training Advisor)
who guided us in each and every step till our completion of our
training. We are thankful to them for their continued guidance and
support with their vast pool of knowledge, which was essential for
the completion of this project. Along the way , we were also ably
supported and guided by staffs of the various departments. And like
we mentioned, the help is even more credible, considering that the
workload of the staff was immense.

We would also like to thank our friends and family for providing
encouragement and moral support at every step. We recognise
everybodys helping hand.





3. AVR













DVC, a legacy to the people of India, emerged as a culmination of attempts made over a
whole century to control the wild and erratic Damodar river. The river spans over an area
of 25,000 km
covering the states of Bihar (now Jharkhand) & West Bengal.
Damodar Valley Corporation was established on 7
July 1948.It is one of the most
reputate company in the eastern zone of India. DVC is established on Damodar river. It
also consists of the Durgapur Thermal Power Plant in Durgapur. The hydel project in
Mython is one of the most flourishing part of DVC. The MTPS(Mejia Thermal Power
Station) under DVC is one of the largest thermal power plant in West Bengal. It is one of
the four thermal power stations of DVC in the states of West Bengal. The total power
plant campus area is surrounded by boundary walls and is basically divided into two
major parts, first power plant area itself and second is the colony area for the residence
and other facilities for MTPSs employees.

Location: Mejia in Bankura District in West Bengal.
Installed Capacity: (210*4 MW+250*2 MW + 500*2 MW)=2340MW
Coal source: B.C.C.L and E.C.L, also imported from Indonesia
Fuel quantity:126 TPH(for unit 1 to 4 only)
150 TPH(for unit 5 and 6 only)
272 TPH (for unit-7 only)
Height of chimney: 220m[205+15](for unit 1 to 6)
279m (for phase II)
Water source: DAMODAR RIVER

A power plant is basically an energy conversion mechanism. Thermal power plants
operate on modified Rankin Cycle with reheating and superheating. In essence , it is
modified from of the basic steam cycle to increase the cycle efficiency. Coal is burnt in a
boiler, which converts water into steam. The steam is expanded in a turbine, which
produces mechanical power driving the alternator coupled to the turbine. The working of
the power is divided into four main circuits:
Fuel and ash circuit.
Air and Fuel gas circuit.
Feed water and steam circuit.
Cooling water circuit.
Chemical energy to heat energy ---- In Boiler
Heat energy to kinetic energy ---- In Turbine
Mechanical energy to electrical energy --- In Generator









DEAERATOR: The condensed water from the condenser is taken to deaerator where the
water is made free from oxygen mainly i.e. free from air. The deaerator is a direct heat
exchanger because the steam from IPT is sprayed to the condensed water from the
bottom and the water is sprayed from the top part of the deaerator. This results in de-
oxyfication i.e. removal of oxygen from the water.

BOILER FEED PUMPS (BFPs): The outlet of the deaerator is connected to boiler feed
pumps, there are three BFP in a row out of which two are in running condition and one is
at standby,in unit #1 to 6 all BFP are MDBFP,consumes highest power in the plant 4.6MW
in full load and unit#7 and 8 one of these is MDBFP( motor driven), and other two are
TDBFP(steam driven).MDBFP consumes the highest power in this plant i.e. 10MW.
MDBFP is used only at the starting time for its huge power consumption.

HIGH PRESSURE HEATER: The HPHs are also mechanical heaters that receives the
heating medium from exhaust of HPT and IPT. There are two HPH named as HPH#5 and
HPH#6. HPH#5 receives steam from IPT and HPH#6 receives steam from HPT . The BFP
outlet is connected to the HPH#5 and HPH#6 is connected to HPH#5. Steam of HPT and
IPT heats the water up to 253:C and the pressure is also increased up to 175kg/sq. cm,
which is then passes through economiser this done to increase the efficiency of the

boiler. Extn. Steam Pressure to HPH#5: 16.65 kg/sq. cm and temp. 415:C. Extn. Steam
pressure to HPH#6: 42.84 kg/sq. cm. and temp. 337.8:C.

ECONOMISER: Economiser is another heat exchanger type heater. Here the water from
HPH comes to get more heated up for better steam production and high enthalpy
resulting in greater efficiency of the boiler and unit as well. The economiser receives the
heat for heating the water from the flue gas. The flue gas which has very high
temperature comes from air pre-heater to the economiser and heats up the water
mechanically which finally reaches the boiler drum. Economiser inlet tepm. is 254:C and
outlet temp. is 315:C.

BOILER DRUM: Boiler drum is the part of boiler where the de-mineralized water is stored
and is inserted into the boiler through three BCW(Boiler circulating water pump). It is
also houses the steam that is formed in the boiler. Water stored in the drum comes down
to the top of the boiler and forms a water ring which is then inserted into the boiler
through the 6 water walls. Water walls are basically tubes along the walls of the furnace,
it is here where the water is converted into steam at 130:C and then the produced steam
is taken back to the boiler drum. The drum has a propeller that rotates at high speed and
makes the steam and water separated due to centrifugal force. The pressure of boiler
drum is 192 kg/sq. cm and must be always maintained. Water in the drum comes from
feed control station via economiser.

FURNACE AND BOILER:-Boiler is the main section where the steam is produced by
coal combustion. Boiler consists of boiler drum, water walls, wind box, heaters. The
boiler has 8 elevations named as A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H. Coal is inserted into the boiler from A-
B-C-D-E-F-G-H. There is 8 mills for feeding the pulverized coal to the furnace. Each mill
has 4 pipe for firing in the four corners of furnace. Furnace is divided into two parts
named as first pass and second pass. The combustion takes place in the first pass and the
heating of steam through SH takes place in the second pass.

SUPER HEATER: The important point is to be always kept in mind that all the heaters
that are used in thermal power plant are mechanical type heaters i.e. heat exchanged
phenomena heats one medium by exchanging heat from another hotter medium. Super
heaters are actually suspended pipes in the second pass section of the boiler, the flue gas

having very high temperature heats the steam that comes from the drum before they hit
the turbines to a temperature up to 540:C. The pressure of steam is kept constant when
passing through super heater. The main concept behind making the steam super heated
is to make the steam absolutely moisture free before they hit the turbine because
moisture content of steam will damage the blades of turbine by corrosion.

TURBINE SECTION: The turbine section consists of three parts named as HPT(High
pressure turbine), IPT(Intermediate pressure turbine),LPT(Low pressure turbine). The
superheated steam from the Superheater enters the HPT and hits the blades at 176.2
kg/sq. cm and 540:C and rotates the shaft. The exhaust steam of HPT is taken to IPT
through a reheating section called Reheater(RH) for enabling the steam to regain its
previous steps. The exhaust steam of IPT enters LPT directly. The exhaust of LPT is taken
to condenser.

CONDENSER: The exhaust steam of LPT is fed to the condenser where the steam is
converted into water by the principle of condensation. The condenser has three
extraction pumps known as Condensate Extraction Pumps (CEP-A, CEP-B, CEP-C).
These pumps create a negative pressure i.e. vacuum in the condenser for better suction
of the condensate. The outlet of the CEP is connected to low pressure heater(LPH);
where the temperature of condensed water is raised to little higher temperature for

better efficiency of overall unit.


AIR PREHEATER: The flue gas produced as a result of combustion of fossil fuel in the
furnace is taken to the air pre heater. The air pre heater is used to heat up the
atmospheric air to make hot air used for combustion and transport of coal dust from mill
to furnace; which called secondary air. This heater has a unique process of heating, it has
a shaft attached to rotating wheel type structure(like turbine but arrangement blades are
different). Atmospheric air are sucked by FD fans passes through one side of the rotating
shaft and the hot flue gas passes through another side. This way heat of the flue gas gets
transferred to the atmospheric air and gets heated. There are two air pre heaters for
each unit named as AH-A and AH-B.

Under government rules and regulation for industrial pollution control, ESP is must to
each and every industry which deals high ash as residing. An electrostatic precipitator is a
large , industrial emission-control unit. It is used in industries like thermal power plant,
cement, paper, chemicals, metallurgical industries etc, which emit particles. In the
thermal power plant it is designed to trap and remove ash particle from the exhaust gas

of boiler. Clean gas, up to 99.9% cleaner than when it enter is then passes out of the
collecting electrode

weakest field

Emitting electrode

An ESP is a chamber in which flue gas from the furnace is forced into FD fans.
Electrostatic precipitation is a physical process by which particles suspended in gas
stream are charged electrically, and under the influenced of electric field are separated
from the gas stream. The precipitation system consists of negatively charged high voltage
discharged electrode wire suspended amidst positively charged collecting electrode
surfaces. At a very high DC voltage of the order of 20KV-35 KV, a corona discharged
occurs close to the negative electrode, setting up an electric field between the emitter
and the charged surface. When the particle laden gas passes through the ESP fields, the
gas close to the negative electrode is thus ionised upon passing through the corona . As
the negative ions and electrons migrate towards the charged surface, they in turn charge
the passing particle. The electrostatic field then draws the particles to the collector
surface where they are deposited. Periodically, the collected particles are removed from
the collecting surface by rapping or vibrating the collector to dislodge the particles. The
dislodged particles drop below the electrical treatment zone and are collected through
hoppers for ultimate disposal.
The major components that accomplished above activities in ESP are as follows:

High voltage discharge electrodes
Grounded collecting electrodes
Rapping systems
Power supplies and control components

In practice the ESP shall consists of several such fields in series in the direction of
gas flow. There may be two or more parallel passes of such series combination to meet
the desire level of dust removal from the flue gas . Here four passes and 72 fields are in

There are basically three types of fans in a thermal power plant.

This fan is used to create negative pressure in the furnace
i.e. furnace pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure, as a result of which fire balls
inside the furnace can not come out of the furnace.ID fans also drives the flue gas
through out its path and finally ejects it out of chimney. It sucks air from the furnace and
ejects it to the atmosphere. Mechanically ID fan is coupled with one 3-ph synchronous
type motor. It is the only synchronous motor in the power plant because it gives more
accurate control to its speed by V/f method for maintaining negative pressure as
controlling of negative pressure is the most vital factor in any thermal power plant. There
are two ID fan for each unit.

Unlike ID fan, the FD fan is meant for creating positive pressure in
the furnace and also supplies air from PA fan and secondary air for combustion. The FD
fan takes air from atmosphere and expel it to the plant (i.e. in the furnace, wind box
etc).Mechanically FD fan consist of one 3-ph induction motor, main bearing (antifriction
bearing) and lube oil system.

Primary air fan is used for mixing of cold air of FD fan outlet
with hot air of air pre-heater outlet. The main function of this is to transport pulverised
coal from the mill to furnace. Mixing of hot air and cold air is necessary because it is
needed to maintain the temperature of the pulverised coal from 80:C to 90:C for better
transport of coal and better combustion in the furnace. Mechanically the construction of
PA fan is same as FD fan.

The Electrical System:-
The electrical system basically starts at the turbo alternator and through the
GT(generator transformer) to the switchyard and finally to the transmission lines. In
between the network consists of many isolators, circuit breakers, CT, PT and other
mechanisms. At MTPS the turbo alternator generates a voltage of
15.75KV(Unit#1/2/3/4),16.6KV(Unit#5/6), 21 KV( Phase II). The GTs steps this up to 220
KV(400KV for Phase II). The transmission is to Kalyaneswari ,Burnpur,Borjora,Durgapur
and for phase IIthe transmission is to Mython, DSTPS, Jamshedpur.

Therefore the electrical system is :
For Unit#1 to 6 :
Generator GT 220 KV switchyard Transmission Lines
For Unit#7 and 8:
Generator GT 400 KV switchyard Transmission Lines

Apart from these, the electrical system is intricately intertwined with the entire plant,
considering that the entire protection and control is somehow done electrically.

Generator converts mechanical power into electrical form and feeds it into the power
system network . The working principle behind the operation of generator is
Faradays Laws of electromagnetic induction. The induced alternating voltage in a
generator can be expressed as-

E=4.44fT Volt
E= Voltage induced in volt.
f=frequency of rotation in Hz.
T=No. of turns
=flux per pole in Wb.

The frequency of the alternating voltage is given by the following equation
f=freq in Hz.
P=no. of poles
Components of Generator:
The main components of a Generator are:
1.Stator 2.Rotor
3.Bearing and lubrication 4.Terminal Bushing and Bus duct
5.Excitation system 6. Slip ring and Brush gear assembly
7.Cooling system 8. Sealing system

The stator embodies the core, stator winding and hydrogen coolers and provides a gas
tight enclosure for hydrogen gas. It comprises of an inner and an outer frame. The outer
frame is a rigid fabricated structure of welded steel plates capable of bearing the
pressure due to minor explosion of H within the casing. Within the cylindrical barrel, a
fixed cage is formed by grider built circular and axial ribs. These ribs divide the yoke into
annular components through which cooling gas flows into radial ducts in the stator core


Exchanges heat in the Hydrogen gas coolers housed horizontally parallel to the rotor
shaft in the frame. The inner cage is usually fixed to the yoke by an arrangement of
springs to dampen vibration. Rigid end shields close the stator ends and supports and
shaft seals.
The rotor forms the rotating magnetic poles of the generator. This is cylindrical type and
constructed form a cast Chromium , Nickel, Molybdenum and Vanadium steel through
several stages of machining. Slots are machined on the outer surface to incorporate
windings . Holes are also drilled for ventilation purposes. High grade copper with 0.03%
to 1% silver is used for the windings with layers of mica or epoxy impregnated glass cloth
as the insulation. A mechanically strong insulation (e.g. micanite) is used for lining the
slots. With increase in generator capacity rotor windings used to carry a fairly high direct
current for sufficient magnetic strength. This higher loading causes considerable amount
of heat loss and large rotors incorporate combination of hollow conductors with slots or
holes arranged to provide for circulation of the cooling gas through the actual conductors
by gap pick up method .Due to very high rotational speed centrifugal force tries to lift the
winding out of the slots.
So they are contained in proper place by duralumin wedges. The end turns outside the
slots are covered by non-magnetic steel retaining end rings and are secured to the rotor
body. The end winding are insulated from retaining rings with the help of glass epoxy
molded segments. The retaining ring is a single piece forging which protects the rotor end
winding from high centrifugal force.
The purpose of excitation system is to continuously provide the appropriate amount of
D.C field current to the generator field winding. The excitation system is required to
function reliably under the following conditions of the generator and the system to which
it is connected .
i)During start up of the generator.
ii)During steady state operating condition.
iii)At the time of transient disturbances (due to sudden applications or removal of load).
iv)During prolonged system disturbances.
The simplest case is that of during start up when the generator is
running at rated speed with generator circuit breaker open(armature open circuited). The
terminal voltage will increase with the increase in field current. Amount of field current

required will be a function of only the terminal voltage. Because of magnetic saturation
more field current will be required to produce an increment of armature voltage at high
voltage than at low voltage. This will be governed by open circuit characteristics(O.C.C) of
the machine. After the closing of generator circuit breaker the machine is connected to
the system and operates in parallel with other machines connected to the system. The
amount of field current required will be a function of the terminal voltage as before and
also the load current and the power factor. This will be governed by the V-curves of the
machine. Unlike the previous case if the generator is connected to a large system change
in excitation current controls the reactive power(VAR) and the power factor only with a
very minor influence of the terminal voltage. More severe duty the excitation system
requires to perform upon is during system disturbances. At the time of transient
disturbances the generator voltage may dip or rise momentarily. The excitation system
must response fast to correct this quickly and stably. During prolonged
disturbances(which may last from several seconds to several minutes) the excitation
system may require to operate at it maximum or ceiling output. Thus properly designed
excitation system should permit
a)Close control of the generator voltage to match closely to the system voltage before
b)Close control of VAR after synchronization of the machine, without loss of stability or
overheating of the field system.
c)Operation of the system at its maximum or ceiling at the time of disturbances in the
With increase in generator capacity and
complexity of interconnection in power system, improved techniques in generator
excitation have been developed with the aim to achieve higher capacity, ideal rate of
response, simplicity, reliability, accuracy, sensitivity etc. In the earlier designs several
concepts govern the majority of the excitation system, such as
a) Exciters were commutator type and self excited.
b) Exciters were shaft driven and motor driven rotating machines.
c) Voltage regulators included magnetic or rotating amplifiers or combination of both.
d) Manual control was by means of a rheostat.

Next generation of excitation system introduced newer concepts. Some of
which were
a) Use of semiconductors for rectification.

b) AC(automatic) voltage regulator with transistor pre-amplifiers and thyristors .
c) New concepts of manual control.
d) Elimination of commutators.
e) New physical arrangements,
f) New maintenances procedures .

Present day excitation system have been promoted by
a) Capacity to meet very high values of excitation suitable for unit capacities as high as
500MW or even more.
b) Use of HF AC exciters as source of powers.
c) Use of digital technologies for control, protection and switching.
d) Higher stability unit and excellent performance during transient and fault conditions.
e) Elimination of carbon brushes in brushless excitation system.

The types of excitation system are
i) DC excitation
ii) Static excitation
iii) Brushless excitation
In MTPS Carbon Brush Excitation is used in Unit#1 to 4 and in Unit#5to 8 brushless
excitation system is used.
Supply of high current by means of carbon brush involves
considerable operational and maintenance problems. These problems are eliminated in
brushless excitation system which consists of AC main exciter ,a PMG, a rotating non-
controlled rectifiers, all mounted on the T.G shaft and static AVR. Field of the PMG which
is permanent salient pole magnet rotates along with the generator shaft and generates
permanent voltage (usually 400 v at 400 Hz freq.) at the stator windings. These outputs
from the PMG is connected to the thyristors located in the AVR panel. The controlled DC
output from the AVR panel is connected to the stationary field of the main exciter. The
output from the rotating armature is connected to the diodes placed along with the
rotating at the same speed that of the rotating armature of the exciter and generator
field winding. Thus there is no flow of current between any moving part and stationary
part and hence they use of brush gear is eliminated. The diodes are arranged on rectifier
wheels in a three phase configuration .These are protected with fuse and RC network.

During operation the fuses are monitored with the help of stroboscope. The entire
arrangement is totally enclosed and the hot air is cooled in two or more cooler arranged
alongside the exciter.
Apart from the fuse monitoring unit, other features provided in brushless excitation
system are ground fault detection,field current measurements etc.
Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is the heart of excitation system of generator. Now a
days the AVR uses semiconductor elements to achieve high reliability with very fast
response. It has two independent channels, the Auto channel with closed loop voltage
regulation and the Manual channel with open loop regulation. The two channels of the
voltage regulator are designed for operation either on i) a station auxiliary AC power
supply and ii) power supply from generator terminal or pilot exciter as the case may be.
Both the auto and manual channels consist of a power part and a control part.
Some of the salient features of AVR are :
a) Capability of maintaining constant terminal voltage over a wide operating range
and maintaining proper share of reactive load among the parallel running
b) Provision for raising the excitation level quickly (field forcing ) in case of fault or
voltage dip to increase the transient stability limit of the system.
c) In corporation of suitable circuitry to make the reference voltage as a linear
function of frequency or turbo generator up to the edge frequency can be set
depending on the requirement and constant reference voltage beyond edge
d) Provision of automatic follow up circuit to supervise and match the firing angles of
the pulses in auto-channel and manual channel so that the disturbance on the
generator terminal is minimum during transfer from auto regulation to manual
e) Provision of stator current limiter , rotor current limiter and rotor angle limiter
circuits for optimum utilisation of the lagging and leading reactive capabilities of
the generator.
f) Provision of automatic transformer from auto regulation to manual regulation in
case of measuring PT fuse failure or some internal faults in the auto channel.
g) Facility for remote control of voltage both in auto and manual channel.

Generator Cooling and Sealing System:-
Stator water-cooling is a closed loop system
There are two full capacity single stage centrifugal pumps with change over facility
3Ph.415V A.C motors drive the pumps
The stator water cooler is shell and tube type heat exchanger
DM water flows through shell
There are two mechanical filters and one magnetic filter
Mechanical filters are of wire mesh type
Magnetic filter is having permanent magnet

Generator gas system constitutes of hydrogen gas used to cool the rotor and certain
parts of stator. H-air mixture is explosive. So filling the Generator with H by replacing air
which is dangerous. So initially air is replaced by CO and since CO is heavier than air CO
is being filled from the bottom. Purging of air with CO is being done till the purity of CO.

Cooling fans- Propeller type cooling fans at both the ends of rotor are provided for forced
circulation of H(H cooled machines ) or air(air cooled machines )inside the generator.
Fan hubs are made from alloy steel forgoing and are shrunk fitted on the rotor shaft. The
alloy steel cast fan blades are fixed on the fan hub throughout its periphery with the help
of strength alloy steel non-magnetic conical pins. These fan blades are easily removable
from the hub. Fan shields are provided to guide the gas flow. Fan shields are fixed to the
end shields.

For unit#1 to 4
p.f:0.85 lag
Stator voltage:15.75 KV
Stator ampere:9050 A
Rotor voltage:310 V
Rotor ampere:2500A
Frequency:50 Hz
Connection: Y Y
Coolant: Water & Hydrogen
Gas pressure: 3.5 bar(G)
Insulation class: F
Specification: IS:5422

For unit#5 and 6
p.f:0.85 lag
Stator voltage:16.5 KV
Stator ampere:10291 A
Rotor voltage:292V
Rotor ampere:2395A
Frequency:50 Hz
Connection: Y Y
Coolant: Hydrogen
Gas pressure: 3 bar(G)
Insulation class: F
Specification: IS:5422

For Unit#7 and 8

KW:500 MW
p.f:0.85 lag
Stator voltage:21 KV
Stator ampere:16,200 A
Rotor voltage:340 V
Rotor ampere:4040 A
Frequency:50 Hz
Connection: Y Y
Coolant: Water & Hydrogen
Gas pressure: 3.5 bar(G)
Insulation class: F
Specification: IS:5422
Main Exciter Pilot Exciter
Apparent Power: -- 35KVA
Active Power: 1344KW --
Current: 3200A 105A
Voltage: 420V 220+/-22V
Speed: 50/S 50/S
Freequency: 150Hz 400Hz

Coolant: Air
Insulation Class: F

Connection: Y Y Y Y
Specification: IFC-34
Volts DC:600
Amps DC:6300
Excitation Volts DC:107
Excitation Amps DC:142
Coolant: Air
Insulation Class: F
Specification: IFC-34

With the ever increasing size of the generator cost of the
machine, the expenses for repair and loss of energy during the outage of the machine are
very high. Hence it is necessary to provide a reliable elaborate protection system to
safeguard against damage and loss of generation and ensure long life of the machine.
Generator protection concerns especially the electrical protection of machines and
associated circuits. The purpose of generator protection is to provide protection against
abnormal operating condition and during fault condition. In the first case the machine
and the associated circuit may be in order but the operating parameters (load, frequency,
temperature) and beyond the specified limits. Such abnormal running condition would
result in gradual deterioration and ultimately lead to failure of the generator. It may be
possible to correct the running of the generator. It may be possible to correct the running
condition after the protective relay gives an alarm, there by avoiding the loss of revenue
and damage of the machine. In the later case , it is necessary to restrict the damage of
the machine and associate circuit to a minimum by taking it out from the service.
a)Over current protection: The over current protection is used in generator protection
against external fault as back up protection. Normally external short circuits are cleared

by protection of the faulty section and are not dangerous to the generator. If this
protection fails the short circuit current contributed by the generator is normally higher
than the rated current of the generator and caused over heating of the stator, hence the
generators are provided with back up over current protection which is usually definite
time lag over current relay.
b)Over load protection: Persistent over load in rotor and stator circuit cause heating of
winding and temperature rise of the machine. Permissible duration of the stator and
rotor over load depends upon the class of insulation, thermal time constant, cooling of
the machine and is usually recommended by the manufacturer. Beyond these limits the
running of the machine is not recommended and over load protection thermal relays fed
by current transformer or thermal sensors are provided.
c)Over voltage protection: The over voltage at the generator terminals may be caused
by sudden drop of load and AVR malfunctioning. High voltage surges in the system
(switching surges or lightning) may also cause over voltage at the generator terminals.
Modern high speed voltage regulators adjust the excitation current to take care against
the high voltage due to load rejection. Lightning arresters connected across the
generator transformers terminals take care of the sudden high voltages due to external
surges. As such no special protection against generator high voltage may be needed.
Further protection provided against high magnetic flux takes care of dangerous increase
of voltage.
d)High flux density: High flux density in the machine causes saturation core leading to
over heating in the iron core of both the generator and the transformer due to increased
iron losses and additional losses from the eddy currents. High magnetic flux density may
occur because of over excitation at no load or due to low frequency running. A relay
which operates on V/f (volts per Hz) basis is recommended as a preventive measure for
protection against high flux densities.
e)Unbalance loading protection: Unbalance loading is caused by single phase short
circuit out side the generator, opening of the one of the contacts of the generator circuit
breaker snapping of conductors in the switchyard or excessive single phase load.
Unbalance load produces ve phase sequence current which cause over heating of the
rotor surface and mechanical vibration. Normally 10% of unbalance is permitted provided
phase current do not exceed the rated values. For ve phase sequence currents above
5-10% of rated value dangerous over heating of rotor is caused and protection against
this is an essential requirement. The relay provided for this is an inverse characteristic

with definite minimum time delay relay connected to a network which segregates the
ve sequence current from the positive and zero sequence currents. The I2t
characteristics of the relay is matched to the rotor heating characteristic.
f)Loss of excitation protection: The loss of excitation in a synchronous machine may be
caused by tripping of field circuit breaker or trouble in AVR. On loss of excitation the
generator starts drawing reactive power from the grid instead of supplying it. The power
factor of the generator becomes capacitive and as a result of this asynchronous running
( higher slip frequency) over heating of the rotor surface takes place. In case the
generators connected to the system can not supply this reactive power there will be large
voltage drop in the system leading to instability. The protection provided against loss of
excitation is by an off-set Mho relay. Its operating characteristics is so chosen that during
extremely low excitation faults within the tripping zone.
g) Loss of prime mover protection: In the event of loss of prime mover the generator
operates as a motor and drives the prime mover itself. In some cases this condition could
be very harmful as in the case of steam turbine sets where steam acts as coolant,
maintaining the turbine blades at a constant temperature and the failure of steam results
in over heating due to friction and windage loss with subsequent distortion of the turbine
blade. This can be sensed by a power relay with directional characteristics and the
machine can be taken out of bar under the condition. Because of the same reason a
continuous very low level of output from the thermal sets are not permissible. The
generator breaker is tripped under this condition by the use of a relay measuring the
electrical power output of the generator designed to operate when the power output
faults below selected pre-set value.
h)Pole slip protection: A generator may loss synchronism with system without losing the
excitation. In this condition the machine may be subjected to severe mechanical torque
and oscillation with consequent variation of current, voltage and power factor. If the
angular displacement of the rotor exceeds the stable limit, the rotor will slip a pole pitch.
If the disturbance persist the machine must be isolated from the system to prevent
damage to the generator and to minimize power system disturbance. The pole slipping
protection relay operates on the criteria that the angle of the generator EMF exceeds a
certain fixed value with the operation of the reverse power relay. The occurrence of
these criteria are counted and the machine is tripped out after a certain number of
oscillations. These relays are capable of detecting the first pole slip condition when a slip,
corresponding to the speed of pole slipping is in the range of +0.1% to +10% on a 50Hz

basis. The protection must remain inoperative for steady state lading, power switching
and correctly cleared system fault condition.

a)Stator short circuit: Short circuits are among the faults which cause the heaviest
damage to the generator. Not only do they result in thermal damages such as the
welding of the core laminations and burning of the winding but also result in possible
mechanical damage like deformation of the ends of the coil. Very fast operating
protection is required , otherwise the damage may be beyond repair. Differential
protections, inter turn short circuit protections are the main protection against short
circuits in stator winding. As back up protection for the same faults, minimum impedance
and over current protections are used.
b)Differential protection: The protection is used for detection of internal faults in a
specified zone defined by the CTs supplying the differential relay. For an unit connected
system separate differential relays are provided for generator, generator transformer
and unit transformer in addition to the overall differential protection. In order to restrict
damage very high differential relay sensitivity is demanded but sensitivity is limited by CT
errors, high inrush current during external fault and transformer tap changer variations.
c) Inter turn fault protection: Inter turn faults comprise of insulation failure between
turns of the same winding or between the parallel winding of the same phase which can
not be detected by longitudinal differential protection. Inter turn faults have commonly
been disregarded on the basis that if the occur the will quickly develop into earth faults
or phase to phase faults which will be detected by the sensitive protections provided for
these faults. With this idea sometimes no specific protection for inter inter-turn fault is
provided. However considering the risk of severe damage to the machine before the
faults convert into above types of faults inter turn fault protection is recommended, In
large machine as all the three windings are brought out separately it is possible to
employ a system to transverse differential protection consisting of balanced current
arrangement between current transformers connected in the line ends of the windings in
which current in the parallel paths of the windings are compared. A bias system is always
used as it is not possible to guarantee in advance that exact current sharing between
windings take place.

d) Back-up impedance protection: This protection is basically designed as back up
protection for the part of the installation situated between the generator and the
generator and unit transformers. A back up protection in the form of minimum
impedance measurement is used, in which the current windings are connected to the
CTs in the neutral connection of the generator and its voltage windings through a PT to
the phase to phase terminal voltage. The pick up impedance is set to such a value that it
is only energised by short circuits in the zone specified above does not respond to faults
beyond the transformers.
e) Stator earth fault protection: The earth fault protection is the protection of the
generator against damages caused by the failure of insulation to earth. Present practice
of grounding the generator neutral is so designed that the earth fault current is limited
within 5 and 10 AMPs. Fault current beyond this limit may caused serious damage to the
core laminations. This leads to very high eddy current loss with resultant heating and
melting of the core.
f) 95% stator earth fault protection: Inverse time voltage relay connected across the
secondary of the high impedance neutral grounding transformer relay is used for
protection of around 95% of the stator winding against earth fault.
g)100% stator earth fault protection: earth fault in the entire stator circuits are detected
by a selective earth fault protection covering 100% of the stator windings. This 100% E/f
relay monitors the whole stator winding by means of a coded signal current continuously
injected in the generator winding through a coupling. Under normal running condition
the signal current flows only in the stray capacitances of the directly connected system
circuit. In case of an earth fault , this capacitance is bypassed and the monitoring current
which is determined mainly by the resistance to earth increases. This increased current
value and reproduction of the signal code are used for the operation of the relay.
h)Rotor earth fault protection: Normally a single rotor earth fault is not so dangerous as
the rotor circuit is unearthed and current at fault point is zero. So only alarm is provided
on occurrence of first rotor earth fault. On occurrence of the second rotor earth fault
between the points of fault the field winding gets short circuited. The current in field
circuit increases, resulting in heating of the field circuit and the exciter. But the more
dangerous is disturbed symmetry of magnetic circuit due to partial short circuited coils
leading to mechanical unbalance. Severe vibration may seriously damage the machine.
Thus the protection circuit should be so designed as to give an alarm in case of

development of 1
rotor earth fault and it should trip the machine on the occurrence of
earth fault.
The operation of the generator is concerned with the basic processes of synchronization,
loading , voltage maintenance, stability and safe tripping/shutting down of the machine.
In the power system the generator is required to operate in parallel with other running
machines and to share both active and reactive power demand of the system.
Synchronization of generator: The process of interconnection of the generator with the
grid to which a number of generators are already connected is known as synchronization.
For successful synchronization and parallel operation of the generator the voltage,
frequency and phase sequence of the incoming generator must be same as that of the
grid(running system ). To determine the exact instant of synchronism synchroscope with
three lamps is provided at the generator control desk. In some machine auto
synchronization facility is also provided. Before rolling of the TG to match the speed of
the machine corresponding to the grid frequency and increasing generator terminal
voltage readiness of the machine itself and it is various auxiliaries are to be ensure. The
synchronization process is to be in close co-ordination with the mechanical system of the
power house. In general following operation and checking are to be carried out in steps
before synchronization of the generator.
Before machine starts rolling check and ensure-
Generator auxiliary system:-
a)The lube oil flow to generator bearings is adequate with correct pressure and
temperature and there is no oil leakage.
b)Casing H pressure is adequate and with required purity. There is no sign of drop in gas
pressure. The machine may be synchronized at a lower H pressure within allowable limit
but in that case load is to be restricted as per the manufacturers recommendation.
Hydrogen extractor fan is in service.
c)Stator cooling water flow is established and distillate conductivity is below 5 micro
d)Generator exciter end bearing pedestal insulation is clean and free from dust , dirt or

Generator bus duct:
All the inspection windows are properly closed and there is no oil or water dropping over
the duct. The dehumidifier blower is off.
Neutral grounding transformer(NGT):
a)All the doors are properly closed and locked.
b)There is no drop of oil or water on the cubicle.
Generator P.T and surge protection cubicles:
a)All PT drums are completely rotated towards/inserted in service position and locked in
that position and doors are properly closed.
b)PT fuses are o.k. and tightly inserted within the grips. Door for the box containing fuses
and terminal strip is closed.
Various failsafe protection
and safety interlocks are provided in the power plant for safe starting, running and
shutting down of electrical equipments. These interlocks play vital role to prevent or
reduce damage of costly equipments during internal fault or fault in connected system/
equipments operational error as well as for safety of personnel and the system as a
In general, it is based if generator protection relays initiate non-sequential
trip mode(Class A) for unit isolation. However, sequential tripping (Class B) provides a
better means of tripping a steam turbine generator on some abnormal operating
condition where delayed tripping of the generator will not result in increased damage to
the turbine, generator or other electrical equipment. The reason for sequentially tripping
a steam turbine generator is to avoid the over-speed condition that results when the
generator main breaker is tripped while steam is supplied to the turbine.

Proper control logic is critical to the design of a sequential tripping scheme
switches, trip oil system pressure switches etc) which is supervised by an electrical Low
Forward Power relay/ Reserve Power relay. This relay is normally set to detect very low

power levels and incorporates a brief time delay of the order of few seconds for added

It has been recommended that generator protective relays, initiates non-sequential
trip mode for isolation of the unit due to electrical faults. Only devices protecting unit
from an abnormal mechanical operating condition or an abnormal (not faulted) electrical
condition or normal shut down should initiate a sequential trip.

Class A Lockout Relay will operate for the following conditions indicating major
electrical faults in the Generator stator, Generator rotor, Generator Transformer and
Unit Auxiliary Transformers and excitation transformer and associated field Breaker
Cubicle and similar other faults as detailed below:
a) Generator stator differential relay operated.
b) Generator stator inter-turn differential relay operated.
c) Generator Transformer differential operated
d) Generator Transformer overall differential relay operated
e) Unit auxiliary transformer differential relay operated
f) Generator stator E/F relay(0-95%)operated
g) Generator stator E/F relay (95-100%) operated
h) Generator rotor earth fault relay operated
i) Loss of excitation relay operated
j) Generator transformer restricted E/F relay operated
k) Generator over voltage relay operated
l) Generator reverse power relay operated
m) Generator transformer over-fluxing relay operated
n) Generator transformer back-up E/F relay operated
o) UAT back-up E/F relay operated
p) Back-up distance relay operated
q) Generator negative sequence relay operated
r) Bus differential protection relay operated
s) GT buchholz relay operated
t) UAT buchholz relay operated
u) Thyristor bank failure
v) Generator Neutral isolator open
w) EBP pressed
x) GT SPR(Sudden pressure relay)

Class-B lockout relay will operate for the following conditions:
a)Boiler trip
b) Turbine trip
c)UAT backup O/C relay operated
d)AVR protection
Class-C lockout relay will operate for the following conditions:
a)Back-up distance relay operated stage I
b)Generator negative sequence stage I
c)GT breaker protection
d)GT winding temperature/ oil temperature operated
e) Under frequency relay operated
Unit trip sequence:
The difference sequence of tripping shall be as mention below:
a)Boiler to Turbine to Generator
b)Turbine to Generator
c)Generator to Turbine

Generator field breaker interlocks:
Generator field breaker can only be closed if the
following per missives are available
a)Turbine is running at its rated speed(3000 rpm for thermal machine with
+/- tolerance).
b)To be detected by speed switch contact at ATRS cubicle
c)All generator class-A lockout relay are in reset condition
d)Field flushing system is healthy

Generator field breaker trip interlocks:
Generator field breaker can trip through the
following initiating contacts:
a)Class-A relays operated
Generator field breaker manual trip block interlocks:
When generator is in service
manual tripping of field breaker is not permitted owing to loss of excitation and

subsequent harmful effects on the machine. Operation of F8S relay indicate that
generator is in service(connected in the grid) with its own breaker of bus coupler breaker.
One NC contact of F8S relay is used in series with the manual tripping circuit of the field

Generator field breaker auto-trip block interlocks:
When generator is in service, auto
tripping (through Class-A lockout contacts) of field breaker is permitted only after
opening of generator breaker or transfer B/C breaker as case may be and there by
drop out of F8S relay to avoid momentary loss of excitation and subsequent harmful
effect on the machine.

Single Line Diagram Of Generating Station(unit#5 and 6)


Transmission of power at generated voltage is not economical. The need for transformers
is paramount for a power system considering the fact that transmission losses are
minimum for high voltages where as a distribution has to be done at the relatively safe
voltage. In essence the transformer transforms a voltage and current one level to a
voltage and current at another level while keeping the frequency and power level
unaltered. So generator output voltage is step up to the transmission voltage system
voltage by a transformer known as Generator transformer(GT). Capacity of generator
transformer is determined based on the MVA capacity of generator. The open type
terminals of the HV bushing of the generator transformer are connected to switchyard
conductor through GCB. The LV terminals are kept suitably enclosed to facilitated
connection to generator bus duct. Cooling method adopted is OFAF.
In MTPS Unit#1 to 6, GTs are single 3 phase transformer and in phase II, GTs are a bank
of three single phase transformers . The only step up transformer is GT in this station.


Specification of GT:-
Unit# 1 to 4
Make: BHEL
Type of cooling: ONAN/ONAF/OFAF
Rating of HV(MVA): 150/200/250
Rating of LV(MVA): 150/200/250
Frequency(Hz): 50
Phase: 3
Connection symbol: YNd1
No Load Voltage of HV(KV): 240
No Load Voltage of LV(KV): 15.75
Line Current of HV(Amp): 301/482/602
Line Current of LV(Amp): 3505/7340/9175
Temperature rise of oil(:C): 40 over ambient of 50:C
Temperature rise of winding(:C): 45 over ambient of 50:C
Core and windings(kg): 139000
Complete Transformer including oil(kg): 38070
Transport(kg): 237100
Insulation level: HV SI 750 LI 1050
LV LI 95 AC 50
H.V.N LI 170 AC 70

Unit# 5 and 6
Make: BHEL
Type of cooling: ONAN/ONAF/OFAF
Rating of HV(MVA): 109/252/315
Rating of LV(MVA): 109/252/315
Frequency(Hz): 50
Phase: 3
Connection symbol: YNd1
No Load Voltage of HV(KV): 220
No Load Voltage of LV(KV): 16.5
Line Current of HV(Amp): 757.77

Line Current of LV(Amp): 11022.14
Temperature rise of oil(:C): 40 over ambient of 50:C
Temperature rise of winding(:C): 45 over ambient of 50:C
Core and windings(kg): 165000
Complete Transformer including oil(kg): 253250
Transport(kg): 180000
Oil quantity(lit): 57000
Insulation level: HV SI 750 LI 1050
LV LI 95 AC 50
H.V.N LI 170 AC 70
Unit#7 and 8
Make: BHEL
Type of cooling: ONAN/ONAF/OFAF
Rating of HV(MVA): 120/160/200
Rating of LV(MVA): 120/160/200
Frequency(Hz): 50
Phase: 1
Connection symbol: YNd11
No Load Voltage of HV(KV): 420/3
No Load Voltage of LV(KV): 21
Line Current of HV(Amp): 824.79
Line Current of LV(Amp): 9523.8
Temperature rise of oil(:C): 40 over ambient of 50:C
Temperature rise of winding(:C): 45 over ambient of 50:C
Core and windings(kg): 153520
Complete Transformer including oil(kg): 257500
Transport(kg): 174900
Oil quantity(lit): 56220
Insulation level: HV SI 1180 LI 1425-AC 38
LV 125-AC 50

There is one unit transformer for each unit in phase ii. There are some machines whose
operating voltage is 11kv.To supply these machines we have to step down the generating
voltage. These can be done by unit transformer by tapping from generating terminal.
Unit transformer step down the voltage 21kv to 11 kv. This is a three phase transformer.
But, in case of unit#1to 6 there is no need of UT, because there is only two
voltage level-6.6kv and 415v.
Specification of UT:-
Make: BHEL
Type of cooling: ONAF/ONAN
Rating of HV(MVA): 45/36
Rating of LV(MVA): 45/36
Frequency(Hz): 50
Phase: 3
Connection symbol: Dyn1
No Load Voltage of HV(KV): 21
No Load Voltage of LV(KV): 11.5
Line Current of HV(Amp): 1238.64
Line Current of LV(Amp): 2261.87
Temperature rise of oil(:C): 40 over ambient of 50:C
Temperature rise of winding(:C): 45 over ambient of 50:C
Core and windings(kg): 40065
Complete Transformer including oil(kg): 86205
Transport(kg): 50000
Oil quantity(lit): 25580
Insulation level: HV LI 125-AC 50
LV LI 75-AC 28
Unit Auxiliary Transformer:
The normal source of HV power to unit auxiliaries is unit auxiliary transformer. The sizing
of the UAT is usually based on the total connected capacity of running unit auxiliaries i.e
excluding the stand by drives. It is safe and desirable to provide about 20% excess

capacity than calculated. With the help of UAT we stepped down the generated 15.75kv
(in case of unit#1to4) and 16.6 kv(in case of unit#5,6) into 6.6kv to supply the 6.6kv
auxiliary drives. But, in case of phase II UAT is used to stepped down the 11kv voltage
into 3.3kv to supply the 3.3 kv machines and its high voltage terminal is connected to a
UT and there is two UAT for each UT.
Specification of UAT:-
For Unit# 1to 4
Make: Atlanta Electrical Pvt.Ltd.
Type of cooling: ONAF/ONAN
Rating of HV(MVA): 16/12.50
Rating of LV(MVA): 16/12.50
Frequency(Hz): 50
Phase: 3
Connection symbol: Dyn11
No Load Voltage of HV(KV): 15.7
No Load Voltage of LV(KV): 6.9
Line Current of HV(Amp): 586.5 /458.2
Line Current of LV(Amp): 1338.8/1045.9
Temperature rise of oil(:C): 40:C
Temperature rise of winding(:C): 45:C
Core and windings(kg): 14300
Weight of oil(kg): 8600
Total weight(kg): 30500
Oil quantity(litre): 7650
Insulation Level:
HV : 95 KVP 38 KV rms
LV : 30 KVP 20 KV rms
For Unit#5 and 6
Make: BHEL
Type of cooling: ONAF/ONAN
Rating of HV(MVA): 20/16
Rating of LV(MVA): 20/16

Frequency(Hz): 50
Phase: 3
Connection symbol: Dyn11
No Load Voltage of HV(KV): 16.5
No Load Voltage of LV(KV): 6.9
Line Current of HV(Amp): 699.81/559.85
Line Current of LV(Amp): 1673.479/1338.783
Temperature rise of oil(:C): 50:C
Temperature rise of winding(:C): 55:C
Core and windings(kg): 20600
Weight of oil(kg): 15050
Total weight(kg): 46300
Oil quantity(litre): 16900
Insulation Level:
HV : 95 KVP 38 KV rms
LV : 30 KVP 20 KV rms

For Unit#7 and 8
Make: BHEL
Type of cooling: ONAF/ONAN
Rating of HV(MVA): 16/12.50
Rating of LV(MVA): 16/12.50
Frequency(Hz): 50
Phase: 3
Connection symbol: Dyn1
No Load Voltage of HV(KV): 11
No Load Voltage of LV(KV): 3.45
Line Current of HV(Amp): 839.78/656.08
Line Current of LV(Amp): 2677.57/2091.85
Temperature rise of oil(:C): 40:C
Temperature rise of winding(:C): 45:C
Core and windings(kg): 16700

Weight of oil(kg): 9800
Total weight(kg): 40000
Oil quantity(litre): 11000
Insulation Level:
HV : LI 75 KVP AC 28 KV rms
LV : LI 40 KVP AC 10 KV rms
To supply the 415v rated motors we use this distribution transformer which actually
steps down the 6.6kv supply into 415v.Some of the distribution transformer are dry type
i.e natural cooling system is used here.For each unit(1 to 6) there are 8 distribution
transformer inside plant.
Make: BHEL
Type of Cooling: AN
Rating(KVA): 1250
Rated Current H.V(Amps): 109.4
Rated Current L.V(Amps): 1666.7
Vector Group: DyN11
Freequency: 50Hz
Temperature Rise Over 50
c Ambient
at 85.5% rated voltage: 80
Insulation level H.V: 75KVp/28KV rms
Insulation Class: F
Weight(Kg): 5500

Normal source to the station auxiliaries and stand by source to the unit auxiliaries during
start up and after tripping of the unit is Station Service transformer. Quantity of station
Service transformers and there capacity depends upon the unit sizes and numbers. Each
station service transformer shall be one hundred percent stand by of the other. Station
service transformers shall cater to the simultaneous load demand due to start up power

requirements for the largest unit, power requirement for the station auxiliaries required
for running the station and power requirement for the unit auxiliaries of a running unit in
the event of outage of the unit source of supply. There is three SST for unit#1 to 4 and
two SST for unit#5 and 6.Its steps down 220 kv grid voltage to 6.6 kv voltage and supply
two board-CAB(Common Auxialiary Board) and SEB(Start-up Emergency Board).
For unit#1 to 4
Make: BHEL
Type of cooling: ONAF/ONAN
Rating of HV(MVA): 31.5/25.2
Rating of LV(MVA): 31.5/25.2
Frequency(Hz): 50
Phase: 3
Connection symbol: YNyn0d1
No Load Voltage of HV(KV): 230
No Load Voltage of TV(KV): 11
No Load Voltage of LV(KV): 6.6
Line Current of HV(Amp): 79.1
Line Current of TV(Amp): 2635.8
Temperature rise of oil(:C): 40
Temperature rise of winding(:C): 45
Core and windings(kg): 34400
Weight of oil(kg): 29550
Total weight(kg): 214000
For unit#5 and 6
Make: BHEL
Type of cooling: ONAF/ONAN
Rating of HV(MVA): 40/25
Rating of LV(MVA): 25/15.625
Frequency(Hz): 50
Phase: 3
Connection symbol: YNyn0yn0
No Load Voltage of HV(KV): 230
No Load Voltage of LV1(KV): 6.9
LV2(KV): 6.9

Line Current of HV(Amp): 100.408/62.755
Line Current of LV1(Amp) and LV2: 2091.848/1307.405
Temperature rise of oil(:C): 40
Temperature rise of winding(:C): 45
Core and windings(kg): 48000
Weight of oil(kg): 46000
Total weight(kg): 132000

But in case of phase II this scheme is different and this is elaborated below-
Normal source to the station auxiliaries and stand by source to the unit auxiliaries during
start up and after tripping of the unit is Station transformer. Quantity of station
transformers and there capacity depends upon the unit sizes and numbers. Each station
transformer shall be one hundred percent stand by of the other. Station transformers
shall cater to the simultaneous load demand due to start up power requirements for the
largest unit, power requirement for the station auxiliaries required for running the
station and power requirement for the unit auxiliaries of a running unit in the event of
outage of the unit source of supply. We have two station transformer in 400kv
switchyard. It steps down the 400kv grid voltage to 11kv voltage.
Station auxiliary transformer is also a step down transformer. It steps down 11kv voltage
to 3.3kv voltage. It is mainly used to supply the 3.3 kv machines. Its high voltage is
connected to the secondary of the ST. Its use is similar to the UAT at starting condition
and tripping condition. There is two SAT for each ST.
Specification of ST:-
Make: BHEL
Type of cooling: ONAN/ONAF
Rating of HV(MVA): 72/90
Rating of LV(MVA): 72/90
Frequency(Hz): 50
Phase: 3
Connection symbol: Yn0 Yn0 Yn0

No Load Voltage of HV(KV): 400
No Load Voltage of LV1(KV): 11.5
LV2(KV): 11.5
Line Current of HV(Amp): 130
Line Current of LV1(Amp): 2261.9
LV2(Amp): 2261.9
Temperature rise of oil(:C): 40
Temperature rise of winding(:C): 45
Core and windings(kg): 9769
Weight of oil(kg): 58450
Total weight(kg): 214000
Oil quantity(litre): 67180
Insulation level:
HV : LI 1300-AC38
LV 1: LI 75- AC28
LV2: LI 75-AC28

Specification of SAT:-
Make: BHEL
Type of cooling: ONAN/ONAF
Rating of HV(MVA): 16/12.50
Rating of LV(MVA): 16/12.50
Frequency(Hz): 50
Phase: 3
Connection symbol: DyN1
No Load Voltage of HV(KV): 11
No Load Voltage of LV(KV): 3.45
Line Current of HV(Amp): 839.78/656.08
Line Current of LV(Amp): 2677.57/2091.85
Temperature rise of oil(:C): 40
Temperature rise of winding(:C): 45

UST & SST:- There are other two types of step-down 3 phase transformer for internal
operation, known as UST and SST. UST is fed from UT switch board and SST is fed from ST

switch board. These are dry type cast resin transformer. The voltage ratio is 11KV/433V
for both the transformer. Air natural cooling and Dyn1 connection is used.

The NGT is used to prevent the generator from earth faults. It comprises of primary
winding and secondary winding, the secondary winding is connected with a low value
resistance. When ever a earth fault arises heavy current flows to the primary winding and
as a result an emf is induced in the secondary. The voltage drop across the resistance is
sensed by the NGT relay and it actuates to actuate the GCB(generator circuit breaker)
and thus the generator is tripped. Basically NGT is a step-down(21KV/220V) transformer.
For proper functioning of the transformer it is provided with several auxiliaries sub
systems. Basically they are:

Considering the substantial amount of load delivered by a power transformer a
proper cooling system has to be in place in order to prevent any hazards. Mostly,
OFAF(Oil Forced Air Forced) or ONAF(Oil Natural Air Forced) schemes are used.
There are radiators and fans as well. For OF type cooling butterfly valve is kept to
pump oil.
Since the oil plays a major role in the cooling of a transformer hence it has to be
maintained. The conservator preserves the oil of the transformer while expansion
of oil.
It is a protective device used only in oil immersed transformer. It provides
protection against two types of fault, incipient fault and severe fault. Under
incipient fault it gives an alarm and under severe fault it trips the transformer from
the line by using two floats which acts as a switch. It is universally use for
transformer having rating more than 750 KVA.
The breather basically absorbed any moisture that may be caused due to
vaporization of the oil in transformer. It contains silica gel, which changes colour

from blue to off-white as it absorbs moisture. Thus it provides an indicator
mechanism for the quality of the oil.
There are temperature sensors, which can alarm if the temperature rises beyond a
certain limit. Also the water supply gets activated in case of hazards like fire.
There are also kept RTD(resistance temperature detector) and PRV(pressure relief valve)
for safety.

It is a switching station ,which has the following credits:
Main link between generating plant and transmission system, which has a
large influence on the security of the supply.
Step-up and/or step-down the voltage levels depending upon the Network node.
Switching ON/OFF reactive power control devices, which have effect on quality of

In MTPS has mainly two switchyards. one is 220KV and another one is 400KV.
These two switchyards are of three bus system(also called, one and half bus system).
1. Main bus I
2. Main bus II
3. Transfer bus

Single Line Diagram of 220kv switchyard

Single Line Diagram Of 400kv Switchyard

1. Circuit Breakers
2. Current Transformer
3. Potential Transformer
4. Capacitor Voltage Transformer
5. Isolator
6. Earth Switch
7. Lightning Arrester
8. Wave traps
9. Bus bar & Clamp fittings

It is an on-load switch which can break the circuit under any fault
condition which can damage other instrument in the station. It works automatically and
also manually.
There are mainly two types CB are used. These are a). SF gas CB, b). Vacuum Circuit
In the 220KV switchyard we have SF CBs (single break) and in the 33kv switchyard we
have VCB.
In the 400kv switchyard we have double break SF CB. This type of CB arrangement
consist of i) gradient capacitor, ii) break, iii) pre-insert resistor. The gas is put inside the
circuit breaker by force under high pressure. When if the gas gets decreases there is a
motor connected to the circuit breaker. The motor starts operating if the gas went lower
than 20.8 bar. There is a meter connected to the breaker so that it can be manually seen
if the gas goes low. The circuit breakers use the SF gas to reduce the torque produce in it
due to any fault in the line. The circuit breaker has a direct link with the instruments in
the station, when any fault occur alarm bell rings.
In a single break type only the bus bar end is isolated but in a double break type, both
bus bar(source) and cable (load) ends are broken.


(Double Break) (Single Break)

Current transformers are basically used to take the reading of the currents entering the
station. This transformer steps down the current from 1600amps to 1 amp. This is done
because we have no instruments to measure such type of huge amount current. This
type of transformer are used to i) protection & ii) measurement purpose.
There are 5 cores used in this type of CT.

Potential transformers serve a number of functions in a power system.
They are required for the operation of many types of instrumentations and relay
protective systems. They are mainly used to step down the high magnitude of voltage to
a save value to incorporate measuring and protection logics. They measures voltage and
in conjunction with CT, they measure power. They feed synchronizing equipments. They
can be used as coupling capacitor in power line carrier network.This is used in 220KV


A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) is a
transformer used in power system to step down extra high voltage signals and provide
low voltage signal either for measurement or to operate protective relay. In
its most basic form it consist of three parts: two
capacitor across which the voltage signal is split, an
inductive element used to tune device to the supply
frequency and a transformer to isolate and further step
down voltage for instrumentation and protective relay.
The device has at least four terminals, a high voltage
terminal for connection of high voltage signal, a ground
terminal and at least one set of secondary terminals for
connecting to the instrumentation and protective relay.
CVTs are typically single phase device used for measuring voltage in excess of one
hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage transformer would be uneconomical. In
practice the first capacitor, C1 is often replaced by a stack capacitor connected in series.
This result in large voltage drop across the stack of capacitor that replaced the first
capacitor and a comparatively small voltage drop across the second capacitor, C2 and
here the secondary terminals.

Basically an isolator is off-load switch. The use of this isolator is to protect
the transformer from the other instrument in the line. The isolator isolates the extra
voltage to the ground and thus any extra voltage cannot enter the line. Thus an isolator is
used after the bus for protection also. Two isolator must be kept in both side of a
Type of isolator used in 220KV:
i)Central Rotate Double Break


Types of isolator used for 400KV:
i) HCB(horizontal central break)
ii) pantograph

HCB Pantograph isolator

Earth switch discharges the capacitive voltage stored in line on
generator side in isolated system just after opening of CB and isolator. When earth switch
is connected to the isolated but un-discharged system it discharges the stored energy to
the earth, so that maintenance work can be carried out either in line or in generator side.
Earth switch should be operated only when the isolators are open. In MTPS all earth
switches can be operated manually.


Lightening arrestors are the instruments that are used in the
incoming feeders so that to prevent the high voltage entering the main station.
This high voltage is very dangerous to the instruments used in the substation. Even
the instruments are very costly, so to prevent any damage lightening arrestors are
used. The lightening arrestors do not let the lighting to fall on the station. If some
lightening occurs the arrestors pull the lightening and ground it to the earth. In any
sub-station the main important is of protection which is firstly done by these
lightening arrestors. The lightening arrestors are grounded to the earth so that it
can pull the lightening to the ground. The lightening arrestors work with an angle
of 30: to 45: making a cone. In 400kv switchyard gap-less arrestor are used & gap
less material is ZnO.

8. Wave Traps:-
Wave trap is nothing but a L-R circuit which can trap the high frequency
communication signals sent on the line from the remote substation and diverting
them to the telecom/tele protection panel in the substation control room (through
coupling capacitor and LMU).This is relevant in Power Line carrier
Communication(PLCC) systems for communication among various substation
without dependence on the telecom company network. The signals are primarily
tele protection signals and in addition , voice and data communication signals
through same power line.
The wave trap offers high impedance to the high frequency communication signals
thus obstructs the flow of these signals in to the substation busbars. If there were
not to be there, then signal loss is more and communication will be
ineffective/probably impossible. The total systems occurs by using
modulation/demodulation factors through transmitter and receiver.
9.Bus bar & Clamp fittings:-
The bus is a line in which the incoming feeders come into and get into the
instruments for further step up or step down. There may be double line in the bus
so that if any fault occurs, other can works. Thus the supply will not stop.
In MTPS there have two switchyards with three bus.
i)Main bus-1 & ii)Main bus 2 Buses are main source of power in power system grid the
generators or the alternator are connected in parallel to the main bus 1 or 2 to supply the
power in the grid.

iii)Transfer busUsually there is no power at the time of normal operation in a transfer
bus of a generating station. When there is a fault in certain line so power cannot be
transferred to a main bus. So transfer bus is used to transfer the power from one main
bus to other main bus.
In MTPS 220KV switchyard has 31no.of Bay.Among them six for GT,twelve for Line,five
for SST,two for 80MVA Transformer,four for Bus coupler,two for Bus tie and 400KV
switchyard has 10 no. of bay. Among them four line bay, two for GT, two for ST, one for
bus-tie and another one is bus coupler. Mainly bus coupler is used to maintain the supply
under fault conditions of a breaker.

The overhead line conductors are bare and not covered with any
insulating materials. The line conductors are therefore, secured to the supporting
structures by means of insulating fixtures, called insulators, in order that there is no
current leakage to the earth through the supports. Insulators are mounted on the cross-
arms and the line conductors are attached to the insulator so as to provide the
conductors proper insulation and also provide necessary clearance between conductors
and metal works. The insulators must provide proper insulation and necessary clearance
against the highest voltage in worst atmospheric conditions to which the line is likely to
be subjected. The insulator also prevent short circuiting between the different phase
conductors and provide necessary mechanical support for the line conductors. Thus the
insulators undoubtly one of the most important and vulnerable links in transmission and
distribution of overhead transmission and distribution.
In MTPS switchyards mainly disc type, string type, pin type insulators are used.

Rated voltage :245KV
Rated Impulse withstand voltage :1050 KV
Rated power frequency voltage :460 KVp
Rated frequency :50 Hz
Rated normal current :2000 A
Rated short time current :40 KA
Rated short-circuit duration :1 s
First pole to clear factor :1.3
Symmetrical :40 KA
Breaking capacity equivalent :19000 MVA
Asymmetrical :46.4KA
Rated making current :100 KAp
Rated pressure of hydraulic operated mechanism gauge :250-350 bar
Rated pressure of SF at 20:C(gauge) :6.5 bar
Weight of complete breaker :4051kg
Weight of SF gas :25 kg
Rated trip coil voltage :220V(DC)
Rated closing coil voltage : 220V(DC)

Rated voltage :420 KV
Rated Impulse withstand voltage :1050/1425 KVp
Rated power frequency voltage :520/610 KV
Rated frequency :50 Hz
Rated normal current :3150 A
Rated short time current :40 KA
Rated short-circuit duration :1 s
First pole to clear factor :1.3
Symmetrical :40 KA
Breaking capacity equivalent :29000 MVA
Asymmetrical :52.5 KA

Rated making current :100 KAp
Rated pressure of hydraulic operated mechanism gauge :313 3 bar
Rated pressure of SF at 20:C(gauge) :7.5 bar
Weight of complete breaker :9181 kg
Weight of SF gas :57.5 kg
Rated trip coil voltage :220+ 20
-10 Volt DC
Rated closing coil voltage : 220+ 20
-10 Volt DC
Make :H.L.M.Industries
Type :CRDB
Volt(kv) :245
BIL(kv) :1250
STC(kA/sec) :40
Curent(Amp) :1250
Type of Drive :Motor
Motor Voltage(AC)(V) :415
Control Ckt. Voltage(D.C)(V) :230

Type :HCB
Volt( KV) :420
BIL (KV) :1425
Switching Impulse(KV) :1050/1245
P (KV) :610
STC(KA/sec) :40
Weight of isolator(kg) :1950 approx
Frequency(Hz) :50
Current(A) :2000
Type of drive :Motor
Motor voltage(AC)(V) :415
Control voltage(DC)(V) :220
Weight of drive(kg) :100
Type :Pantograph
Volt( KV) :420
BIL (KV) :1425

Switching Impulse(KV) :1050/1245
P (KV) :610
STC(KA/sec) :40
Weight of isolator(kg) :1950 approx
Frequency(Hz) :50
Current(A) :2000
Type of drive :Motor
Motor voltage(AC)(V) :415
Control voltage(DC)(V) :220
Weight of drive(kg) :100
Type :Telescopic
Volt( KV) :420
BIL (KV) :1425
STC(KA/sec) :40
Weight of isolator(kg) :78/pole
Frequency(Hz) :50
Current(A) :2000
Type of drive :Motor
Motor voltage(AC)(V) :415
Control voltage(DC)(V) :220
Weight of drive(kg) :100

The main protections are given to line & bus-bars under different faults are
1.Distance protection:- In this type, the relay operates when the ratio of the voltage &
current changes beyond a specified limit.

2.Over current protection:- All buses have a specific limit to flow the current, if current is
more beyond this limit, then the o/c relay will operate.

3.Over voltage protection:- Same as o/c protection ,all buses have a specific limit to
withstand a maximum voltage, if this voltage is over, then the over voltage relay will

4.Earthfault protection:- Earth fault protection is one of the main protection of the lines.
If there occur any earth fault, the earth fault relay will operate.

5.Directional protection :- Sometimes after occurring the earth fault in line in radial
system, then the direction of the current may change. Then the directional relay will
Power station grounding system shall be designed a) to
obtain effectively low neutral to ground resistance for limiting the system over voltage
and aid the operation of the protective relays in the event of ground faults and b) to limit
dangerous potential gradients along the surface during short circuit currents for ensuring
safety of operating personnel.
Normally separate ground grids buried below the earth at a depth of 0.5 mts are
constructed for the power house and the switchyard. These two grids are interconnected
at several points, The grid consists of 20 mm dia. MS rod arranged in mesh form and
welded at the inter section points. To improve the conductivity between the earth and
the grid vertical spikes are inserted deep into the earth and welded to these horizontal
rods. Earth pits are also constructed when required. Vertical risers are taken from the
ground grid for connection to the ground bus above the surface.
In a grounded system the neutral point of a transformer or that of a generator is
connected to this bus through resistance or grounding transformer or directly as the case
may be. All, the non current carrying metallic portions of electrical equipments (such as
the enclosure, cable box etc) , steel structures , towers, pole etc are to be connected to
this ground bus.
Electric motors are electromagnetic energy converters whose function is based on
the force exerted between electrical currents and magnetic fieldswhich are usually
electrically excited as well. It basically converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

Various types of motors:
DC motors: shunt series and compound
AC motors: single phase, three phase synchronous motors, induction motors.
Voltage: HT motor, LT motor, Control(servo) motor.

According to the types of excitation motors are divided into two types:
Singly excited:
AC induction motor: An induction motor is an alternating current motor in which
the primary winding of the stator is connected to the power source and a
secondary winding or a squirrel cage secondary winding of the rotor carries the
induced current. There is no physical electrical connection to the secondary
winding, in its current is induced.
Doubly excited:
Synchronous motor: It has a conventional three phase stator. Its rotor winding is
DC excited and its speed is dependent on the number of pairs of stator poles. True
synchronous motor is not self starting, squirrel cage motor or wound rotor motor
are required to accelerate to near synchronous speed. When operating at
synchronous speed the power factor of the motor can be changed by varying the
degree of excitation.

Types of AC motors:
Squirrel cage induction motor: 3 ph. Winding in stator, copper bars in rotor.
Wound rotor:3 ph. Winding in stator, 3 ph. Winding in rotor(shorted internally).
Wound rotor with slip ring: 3 ph. Winding in stator, 3 ph. Winding in
rotor(terminated to slip rings).
Synchronous motor: 3 ph. Winding in stator, DC winding in rotor(terminated to slip

According to voltage level:There are also two types of AC motors, called HT motors
and LT motors.
HT MOTORS: In the unit U#5 and U#6 ,the motor whose operating voltage is 6.6KV is
under below.
HT motor(W/V/Amps)
BFP: 4.6MW/6.6KV/469A
ID Fan: 1825KW/6.6KV/202A
FD Fan: 825KW/6.6KV/91A
PA Fan: 1275KW/6.6KV/133.5A
Coal Mill: 2400KW/6.6KV/264A
BCW(Boiler circulating Pump): 55KW/6.6KV/98.5A
CEP(Condense Extraction Pump): 325KW/6.6KV/36A

Compressor Motor: 250KW/6.6KV/28A
Circulation Water Pump: 1920KW/6.6KV/215A

In this power plant ,the motor whose operating voltage is 11kv and 3.3kv , known as
HT motors.
HT motors(W/KV/Amps):
MD BFP :10 MW/11KV/605A
ID Fan :3400KW/11 KV/2*522A (Synchronous Motor)
FD Fan :1037KW/11 KV/70.4A
PA Fan :2925KW/11KV/176A
Coal Mill :525KW/3.3KV/126.5A
BCW(Boiler circulating water pump) :350KW/3.3 KV/89.1A
CEP(Condensate extraction p/p) :900 KW/3.3 KV/191A
Compressor Motor :315 KW/3.3 KV
LT MOTORS: In this power plant there are so many motors which operates at 415 V
for different purpose, these motors are called LT motors.

Classification of induction motors:
Squirrel cage induction motors: This entire winding is made up of heavy copper
bars connected together at each end by a metal ring made of copper and brass. No
insulation is required between the core and the bars. This is because of very low
voltage generated in the rotor bars.
Slip ring or wound motors: There rotor resistance can be increased by inserting an
external resistance through the slip rings.

Performance terms:
Efficiency: =P t / P in.= 1 (P loss/P in)
Motor loading: Actual operating load to the motor/ Rated capacity of the motor
Power factor: Cos = (KW/KVA)

Motor losses:
Core loss
Stator and rotor resistance losses
Friction and windage losses

Stray load losses

Various insulation:
Class of insulation: Y A E B F H
Max allowable temp(:C): 90 105 120 130 155 180

Reasons for the failure of motors:
Bad manufacturing quality
Continuous over loading
Frequent starts in short duration
Incorrect setting / calibration of protection
Improper maintenance
Failure of interlocks
There are always kept a DC system to operate the auxiliary system under emergency
condition such as start up , tripping of the TG , failure of AC.
In MTPS phase-II two battery banks are present, one for Internal power house,
another for switchyard control. In switchyard control room there is a battery room
and an AC DB room. 220 volt DC for controlling the protection system and 48 volt DC
for PLCC system. There also a back up battery bank is kept.
Batteries are connected in series. For checking the healthiness of the battery specific
gravity measurement is done periodically by hydrometer. In AC DB room Float and
Float cum Boost charger are kept.
Capacity of a battery : 645 Ah(220V DC)
250Ah(48V DC)
Total battery : 110(220V DC)
24(48V DC)
YHP-13 for 220v DC.
No. of negative plate(7)= No. of positive plate(6)+1.
YKP-21 for 48v DC.

In the Black Out Condition when there is no power in Generating Station from Turbo
Generator and also not from grid,in this condition to supply the emergency
equipment,like scanner fan,BFP,ID Fan,Seal Oil Pump,Elevation System through
emergency board, we need this Diesel Generator.In every unit there is one DG set and
in case of unit U#7 and U#8 there is Two DG set to supply the emergency equipment
of that corresponding unit.The capacity of DG Set at unit U#5 and U#6 is 750KVA.

Generation of quality power at a low cost being the prerogative of
a thermal power plant, DVC MTPS aims at using best technologies
through experienced hands to generate profitable outcomes while
scoring points on environmental safety.
Also, transmission of power while keeping safety of grid as well as
power plant at sight is a massive duty that comes at hand in the
whole process of distribution of power. These are done with
utmost care in DVC, MTPS using various components as described
in the previous write-ups.