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Task-4 What is communication? : Communication is one type of process which is exchange information between a sender and a receiver.

The sender must convert information in particular format and transmitted to receiver. The receiver must grasp massage and understood that massage in proper manners and give feedback to the sender. Effective communication takes the place when right people get the right massage on right time.

Organization Communication:
Communication by Strict Chain of Command When communication flows in accordance with an organization chart, we say that communication follows along the chain of command or lines of authority and formal reporting relationships. In downward communication, information flows from the top of the organization toward the bottom. In upward communication, information flows from the bottom of the organization toward the top. Horizontal communication refers to information that flows between departments or functional units, usually as a means of coordinating effort. A lot of organizational communication follows the formal lines of authority shown on organizational charts. However, the reality of organizational communication shows that the formal chain of command is an incomplete and sometimes ineffective path of communication. Deficiencies in the Chain of Command Sticking strictly to the chain of command is often ineffective. Informal Communication. The formal chain of command fails to consider informal Communication between members. This type of communication might not benefit the organization since inaccurate rumours might be spread across the organization. Filtering. At times, effective communication using the chain of command is inhibited by filtering, which is the tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped altogether at some point during transmission. Employees use upward filtering to keep negative performance information out of their supervisor's hands. Supervisors use downward filtering to play the "information is power" card. To prevent filtering, some organizations have an open-door policy in which any organizational member can communicate directly with a manager without going through the chain of command. Managers may also wish to go outside normal channels if information has broad applications. Slowness. Even when the chain of command relays information accurately, it is painfully slow especially for horizontal communication between departments.

Communication Process:


Type of Communication:

• •

• • • Oral • • • • •

Executive memos letters Annual report Company newsletter Bulletin board postings Orientation manual

Telephone Face-to-face Conversation Company meetings Team meetings

Electronic • • • • • E-mail Voicemail Instant Messaging Intranet Videoconferencing

Effective communication:
Letters: Used occasionally within the business and between branches but far more often with customers and external businesses. This is probably to keep a written record of any transactions between the company and the customer and would be too formal and time consuming for regular use within the company.

Memoranda: Memos are an extremely highly used form of communication within the business though not at all externally. This is because they are brief notes and therefore would not be formal enough for conversing with the customer. It would be worthwhile looking into memo systems later in the research. Reports: Also used very widely within the business and for one company, externally as well. Notices: Used in all three cases to a small extent. Can be used to inform people about offers and events so can be geared to most audiences. Face-to-face: One of the most popular forms of communication internally as well as playing some part between sites and businesses, though that could prove more difficult. Telephone: Not used very often internally but very highly used between branches and with customers. This is probably because it is a method in which information can be passed quickly with feedback but makes little sense to use when the person is in the same building as you. Fax: Not used at all. This is probably because it has been replaced with more modern methods such as email which are quicker and easier. Email: Used highly in all three cases, especially between branches. This is probably because it allows the employees to communicate in a slightly less formal way and easily send feedback between the branches. Pager: Not used in any of the organisations who filled in the questionnaire. Video Conference: Not used at all internally but quite popular between branches and externally. This is probably because it is a more efficient method of meetings taking place without people having to leave the building but would not make sense in just one site as it is expensive and they can see each other anyway.

“Effective oral communication requires cultural understanding” (Locker, p.322).
Oral expressions (words) are very simply the most common way of communication. Learning at least a foreign language and specially English can be proved very helpful in order to communicate with people from other cultures. Additionally those who are able to utilize and develop their verbal skills have a plethora of chances and information available to them. After all the most fundamental form of communication is speech, when someone’s methods of speech are developed is then possible to move into more sophisticated ways of communication. Oral communication helps us to understand each other better by establishing an identity, and to express and receive interpersonal needs.


References: Kitty O. Locker. Business and Administrative Communication. United States. McGraw-Hill Companies. 5th edition. 2000. “”