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**one output value. it has an input and an output. And the output is related somehow to the
**

input.

Types of functions

Composite functions

are what you get when you take the output of one function and use it for the input of the next

one. In this discussion, we will discuss the composition of functions which are R

1

R

1

, i.e. a

real number as an input and a real number as an output. The notation for this is (f

g)(x)=f(g(x)), where the output of g(x) becomes the input of f(x) and is described as (f g)(x). As

a real example, let's use f(x)=x

2

+2*x-2, and g(x)=3*x+2. By replacing all of the occurrances

of x in f(x) by the formula for g(x) we can find the formula in x for the composite function. So:

(f g)(x) = f(g(x)) = f(3*x+2)

(f g)(x) = (3*x+2)

2

+2*(3*x+2)-2

(f g)(x) = (9*x

2

+12*x+4)+(6*x+4)-2

(f g)(x) = 9*x

2

+18*x+6

Even and Odd Functions

Even functions are functions for which the left half of the plane looks like the mirror image of

the right half of the plane. Odd functions are functions where the left half of the plane looks

like the mirror image of the right half of the plane, only upside-down.Mathematically, we say

that a function f(x) is even if f(x)=f(-x) and is odd if f(-x)=-f(x).

Inverse Functions

An invertible function is a function that can be inverted. An invertible function must satisfy the

condition that each element in the domain corresponds to one distinct element that no other

element in the domain corresponds to. That is, all of the elements in the domain and range are

paired-up in monogomous relationships - each element in the domain pairs to only one

element in the range and each element in the range pairs to only one element in the domain.

Thus, the inverse of a function is a function that looks at this relationship from the other

viewpoint. So, for all elements a in the domain of f(x), the inverse of f(x) (notation: f

-1

(x))

satisfies:

f(a)=b implies f

-1

(b)=a

And, if you do the slightest bit of manipulation, you find that:

f

-1

(f(a))=a

Yielding the identity function for all inputs in the domain.

Linear, Quadratic, and Cubic Functions

The generalized form for a linear function (1 is highest power):

f(x) = ax+b, where a and b are constants, and a is not equal to 0

The generalized form for a quadratic function (2 is highest power):

f(x) = ax

2

+bx+c, where a, b and c are constants, and a is not equal to 0

The generalized form for a cubic function (3 is highest power):

f(x) = ax

3

+bx

2

+cx+d, where a, b, c and d are constants, and a is not equal to 0

Monotonic functions

are functions that tend to move in only one direction as x increases. A monotonic

increasing function always increases as x increases, i.e. f(a)>f(b) for all a>b. A monotonic

decreasing function always decreases as x increases, i.e. f(a)<f(b) for all a>b. In calculus speak, a

monotonic decreasing function's derivative is always negative. A monotonic increasing

function's derivative is always positive. The same sort of restrictions are also made for

the monotonic non-decreasing and monotonic non-increasing functions, only the rules

governing the derivative's domain are not strict inequalities. Besides lines, some monotonic

functions are the exponential e

x

, and some polynomials where one monotonic factor outwieghs

the others, like f(x) = sin(x)+4x. Because it is uncommon to find functions which strictly increase

or strictly decrease, we sometimes call a function monotonic on a restricted domain. For

instance, cos(x) is monotonic decreasing within 0<x<

Periodic functions

are functions that repeat over and over, or cycle on a specific period. This is expressed

mathematically thatA function is periodic if "there exists some number p>0 such

that f(x)=f(x+p) for all possible values of x".

Graphs Of Function

Linear Function

Quadratic Function

Cubic Function

Even and Odd Function

Inverse Function

Periodic Function

Tangent(x) - another periodic function with period

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