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O u tlin e

 S in g le H u ll T a n k e r P h a s e - o u t – A b rie f h is to ry  C o n v e rs io n in to D o u b le H u ll
 T e c h n ic a l a s p e c ts & A p p lic a b le R u le s f o r c o n v e rs io n in to

D o u b le H u ll O il T a n k e r  D o u b le H u ll C h e m ic a l C a rrie r  D o u b le H u ll B u lk /O re C a rrie rs  O th e r c o n v e rs io n s  C o n c lu s io n

P h a s e -o u t s c h e d u l e o f S i n g l e H u l l t a n k e r s
• f irs t e s ta b lis h e d in 1 9 9 2 , f o llo w in g th e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f E x x o n

V a ld e z a c c id e n t, o f f A la s k a

E x x o n V a ld e z
M a rc h 1 9 8 9 , th e E x x o n V a l d e z , lo a d e d w ith c ru d e o il, ra n a g ro u n d in A la s k a

C o n s e q u e n c e s :.

T h e U n ite d S ta te s in tro d u c e d its O il P o llu tio n A c t o f 1 9 9 0 ( O P A 9 0 ) , m a k in g it m a n d a to ry fo r a ll ta n k e rs c a llin g a t U .S . p o rts to h a v e d o u b le h u lls . 1 9 9 2 “ d o u b le h u ll” a m e n d m e n t s o f M A R P O L R eg. 13 F : T h e a m e n d m e n ts in tro d u c in g d o u b le h u lls a d o p te d in M a rc h 1 9 9 2 a n d e n te re d in to fo rc e in J u ly 1 9 9 3 . R e g u la tio n 1 3 F a p p lie s to n e w ta n k e rs - d e fin e d a s d e liv e re d o n o r a fte r 6 J u ly 1 9 9 6 - w h ile e x is tin g ta n k e rs m u s t c o m p ly w ith th e re q u ire m e n ts o f 1 3 F n o t la te r th a n 3 0 y e a rs a fte r th e ir d a te o f d e liv e ry . R eg. 13G : C o n c e rn e d w ith e x is tin g ta n k e rs ,

e n h a n c e d p ro g ra m m e o f in s p e c tio n s to b e im p le m e n te d , p a rtic u la rly fo r ta n k e rs m o re th a n fiv e y e a rs o ld . A llo w e d fo r fu tu re a c c e p ta n c e o f o th e r s tru c tu ra l o r o p e ra tio n a l a rra n g e m e n ts - s u c h a s h y d ro s ta tic b a la n c e lo a d in g ( H B L ) - a s a lte rn a tiv e s to th e p ro te c tiv e m e a s u re s in th e R e g u la tio n .

 re v is e d in 2 0 0 1 f o llo w in g th e E r i k a in c id e n t.

th e n e w p h a s e - o u t tim e ta b le , s e ts 2 0 1 5 a s th e p rin c ip a l c u t- o f f d a te f o r a ll s in g le - h u ll ta n k e rs

E rik a
D e c e m b e r 1 9 9 9 , s in k in g o f E rik a w h ic h b ro k e in th e h e a v y s e a s o f f th e c o a s t o f B ritta n y , F ra n c e

 A re v is e d re g u la tio n 1 3 G o f M A R P O L A n n e x I th a t

b rin g s f o rw a rd th e p h a s e - o u t s c h e d u le f o r e x is tin g s in g le h u ll ta n k e rs w e re a d o p te d in D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 3 a s a m e n d m e n ts to A n n e x I o f th e M A R P O L C o n v e n tio n , f o llo w in g th e N o v e m b e r 2 0 0 2 s in k in g o f th e o il ta n k e r P r e s t i g e o f f th e S p a n is h c o a s t.

P re s t ig e
N o v e m b e r 2 0 0 2 s in k in g o f th e o il ta n k e r P r e s t i g e o f f th e S p a n is h c o a s t.

A c c e l e r a t e d P h a s e -o u t S c h e d u l e
C a t ego r y o f O il t an k er C a te g o ry 1 D at e or Y ear 5 A p ril 2 0 0 5 f o r s h ip s d e liv e re d o n 5 A p ril 1 9 8 2 o r e a rlie r 2 0 0 5 f o r s h ip s d e liv e re d a f te r 5 A p ril 1 9 8 2 5 A p ril 2 0 0 5 f o r s h ip s d e liv e re d o n 5 A p ril 1 9 7 7 o r e a rlie r 2 0 0 5 f o r s h ip s d e liv e re d a f te r 5 A p ril 1 9 7 7 b u t b e f o re 1 Ja n u a ry 1 9 7 8 2 0 0 6 f o r s h ip s d e liv e re d in 1 9 7 8 a n d 1 9 7 9 2 0 0 7 f o r s h ip s d e liv e re d in 1 9 8 0 a n d 1 9 8 1 2 0 0 8 f o r s h ip s d e liv e re d in 1 9 8 2 2 0 0 9 f o r s h ip s d e liv e re d in 1 9 8 3 2 0 1 0 f o r s h ip s d e liv e re d in 1 9 8 4 o r la te r

C a te g o ry 2 a n d C a te g o ry 3

W h a t it m e a n s
• C a te g o ry 1 o il ta n k e rs , ( P re - M A R P O L ta n k e rs ) - T o b e p h a s e d o u t b y 2 0 0 5

o il ta n k e rs o f 2 0 ,0 0 0 to n n e s d e a d w e ig h t a n d a b o v e c a rry in g c ru d e o il, f u e l o il, h e a v y d ie s e l o il o r lu b ric a tin g o il a s c a rg o , a n d • ta n k e rs o f 3 0 ,0 0 0 to n n e s d e a d w e ig h t a n d a b o v e c a rry in g o th e r o ils , w h ic h d o n o t c o m p ly w ith th e re q u ire m e n ts f o r p ro te c tiv e ly lo c a te d s e g re g a te d b a lla s t ta n k s . • C a te g o ry 2 o il ta n k e rs ( c o m m o n ly k n o w n a s M A R P O L ta n k e rs ) • o il ta n k e rs o f 2 0 ,0 0 0 to n n e s d e a d w e ig h t a n d a b o v e c a rry in g c ru d e o il, f u e l o il, h e a v y d ie s e l o il o r lu b ric a tin g o il a s c a rg o , a n d • o il ta n k e rs o f 3 0 ,0 0 0 to n n e s d e a d w e ig h t a n d a b o v e c a rry in g o th e r o ils , w h ic h c o m p ly w ith th e p ro te c tiv e ly lo c a te d s e g re g a te d b a lla s t ta n k re q u ire m e n ts . C a te g o ry 2 o il ta n k e rs , w ill b e p h a s e d o u t a c c o rd in g to th e ir a g e u p to 2 0 1 0 . • C a te g o ry 3 o il ta n k e rs w h ic h a re g e n e ra lly s m a lle r o il ta n k e rs . C a te g o ry 3 o il ta n k e rs a re o il ta n k e rs o f 5 ,0 0 0 to n n e s d e a d w e ig h t a n d a b o v e b u t le s s th a n th e to n n a g e s p e c if ie d f o r C a te g o ry 1 a n d 2 ta n k e rs T h e y e a r 2 0 1 0 is a ls o a f in a l c u t o f f d a te f o r th e s e ta n k e rs

C a r r ia ge o f H G O
• H ea v y gr a d e o il ( N ew R eg. 2 1 : o ld R eg 1 3 H )

b a n s th e c a rria g e o f H G O in s in g le - h u ll ta n k e rs o f 5 ,0 0 0 to n s d e a d w e ig h t ( D W T ) a n d a b o v e f ro m 5 A p ril 2 0 0 5 , a n d in s in g le - h u ll o il ta n k e rs o f 6 0 0 D W T a n d a b o v e b u t le s s th a n 5 ,0 0 0 to n s D W T , n o t la te r th a n th e a n n iv e rs a ry o f th e ir d e liv e ry d a te in 2008. • H G O m e a n s a n y o f th e f o llo w in g :
• • •

- c ru d e o ils h a v in g a d e n s ity a t 1 5 ºC h ig h e r th a n 9 0 0 k g /m 3 ;   - f u e l o ils h a v in g e ith e r a d e n s ity a t 1 5 ºC h ig h e r th a n 9 0 0 k g / m 3 o r a k in e m a tic v is c o s ity a t 5 0 ºC h ig h e r th a n 1 8 0 m m 2 /s ;   - b itu m e n , ta r a n d th e ir e m u ls io n s .

C o n d it io n A s s es s m en t S ch em e
 T h e C o n d itio n A s s e s s m e n t S c h e m e ( C A S ) f o r o il ta n k e rs • • • • •

a d o p te d in 2 0 0 1 C A S is a p p lic a b le to a ll s in g le - h u ll ta n k e rs o f 5 ,0 0 0 D W T a n d a b o v e a g e d 1 5 y e a rs , o r o ld e r. C A S d o e s n o t s p e c if y s tru c tu ra l s ta n d a rd s in e x c e s s o f th e p ro v is io n s o f o th e r I M O c o n v e n tio n s , c o d e s a n d re c o m m e n d a tio n s , S tip u la te s m o re s trin g e n t a n d tra n s p a re n t v e rif ic a tio n o f th e re p o rte d s tru c tu ra l c o n d itio n o f th e s h ip re q u ire th a t d o c u m e n ta ry a n d s u rv e y p ro c e d u re s h a v e b e e n p ro p e rly c a rrie d o u t a n d c o m p le te d . c o m p lia n c e w ith th e C A S is a s s e s s e d d u rin g th e E n h a n c e d S u rv e y P ro g ra m m e o f I n s p e c tio n s c o n c u rre n t w ith in te rm e d ia te o r re n e w a l s u rv e y s .

E x em p t io n s
• T h e re v is e d re g u la tio n 1 3 G ( N e w R e g .2 0 ) a llo w s th e f la g S ta te to p e rm it c o n tin u e d

o p e ra tio n o f C a te g o ry 2 o r 3 ta n k e rs b e y o n d th e ir p h a s e - o u t d a te
• s u b je c t to s a tis f a c to ry re s u lts f ro m th e C A S , • o p e ra tio n m u s t n o t g o b e y o n d th e a n n iv e rs a ry o f th e d a te o f d e liv e ry o f th e s h ip in

2015 or
• th e d a te o n w h ic h th e s h ip re a c h e s 2 5 y e a rs o f a g e a f te r th e d a te o f its d e liv e ry ,

w h ic h e v e r is e a rlie r.

H o w e v e r ……………….
 D e n ia l o f e n try to p o rts o r o f f s h o re te rm in a ls is p o s s ib le b y a n y p a rty to th e la te s t

M A R P O L c o n v e n tio n .

 F u rth e r a c c id e n ts … … … … … … .

H e b e i S p irit
A c ra n e b a rg e c o llid e d w ith th e M /V H E B E I S P I R I T o n D ecem ber 8, 2007, 10 km off th e c o a s t o f S o u th K o re a

H eb ei S p ir it D ecem b er 7 , 2 0 0 7

D ea t h k n ell o f S in gle H u ll t a n k er s ?
 E U f ro m 2 0 1 0  P h ilip p in e s 2 0 0 8  S o u th K o re a f ro m 2 0 1 0  C h in a , T a iw a n a n d I n d ia e x p e c te d to f o llo w  A lm o s t 9 0 % o f e x is tin g S in g le H u ll V L C C s tra d e in to A s ia , ie . T h e a b o v e m a rk e ts .

A lte rn a te to S c ra p p in g ?
 C o n v e rs io n o f S in g le H u ll T a n k e rs
 C o n v e rs io n in to
      

D o u b le H u ll T a n k e rs D o u b le H u ll C h e m ic a l T a n k e rs D o u b le H u ll B u lk c a rrie rs O re c a rrie rs FSO s /FPSO s H e a v y L if t v e s s e ls C a ttle C a rrie rs

C o n v er s io n t o D o u b le H u ll T a n k er
 S im ila r C a rg o a f te r a n d b e f o re c o n v e rs io n  M in im a l M o d if ic a tio n s to E x is tin g S tru c tu re s  C o n v e rs io n s o f th is ty p e a re n o t o f f ic ia lly c o n s id e re d m a jo r c o n v e rs io n s u n d e r

M A R P O L a s th e re le v a n t le g is la tio n a im s to e n c o u ra g e th e m .
 M a y re d u c e C a rg o c a p a c itie s f o r P a n a m a x - A f ra m a x T a n k e rs  C o n s id e rin g b e tte r c h a rte r ra te s f o r d o u b le h u lls , c o n v e rs io n w o u ld b e w o rth w h ile

e v e n if it re d u c e s e f f ic ie n c y .

T ec h n ic a l A s p ec t s
M in im a l M o d if ic a tio n s to E x is tin g S tru c tu re s I n c o rp o ra tio n o f I n n e r S h e ll a n d /o r I n n e r b o tto m a t s p e c if ie d d is ta n c e s f ro m o u te r s h e ll

w = 0 .5 + D W T /2 0 0 0 0 o r 2 m , w h ic h e v e r is le s s ,

w ith a m in im u m d is ta n c e w o f 1 .0 m .

h = B /1 5 o r 2 m , w h ic h e v e r is le s s , w ith a m in im u m d is ta n c e o f 1 .0 m

T ech n ica l A s p ect s
 A d d in g a d o u b le b o tto m - h ig h e r c e n tre o f g ra v ity  J- s h a p e d ta n k s p re f e rre d o v e r U - s h a p e d ta n k s  H o w e v e r, J- s h a p e d ta n k s le a d to in c re a s e d p re s s u re h e a d o n D B T a n k s – s c a n tlin g s

to b e v e rif ie d .
 S p re a d in g b a lla s t o v e r th e e n tire le n g th o f th e c a rg o a re a - h ig h e r- h o g g in g s till-

w a te r b e n d in g m o m e n ts

S t ru ct u ral A sp ect s
 L o n g itu d in a l s tif f e n e rs to b e c o n tin u o u s th ro u g h tra n s v e rs e b u lk h e a d s

D if f ic u lty a t s ite

B u t,
  

E lim in a te s th e ris k o f e x c e s s iv e m is a lig n m e n t A v o id s tre s s c o n c e n tra tio n s I f L o n g itu d in a l s tif f e n e rs a re w e ld e d to b u lk h e a d s , th e y h a v e to b e f u ll p e n e tra tio n w e ld e d , to c o u n t in S M c a lc u la tio n s F u ll p e n e tra tio n w e ld s - ris k o f la m e lla r te a rin g

S t ru ct u ral A sp ect s
 A b ru p t in te rru p tio n o f th e lo n g itu d in a l m e m b e rs is to b e a v o id e d a t b o u n d a rie s o f

th e c a rg o a re a in th e a f t a n d f o re b o d y s e c tio n s .
 G e n e ro u s b ra c k e t a rra n g e m e n ts a re e s s e n tia l.  G e n e ro u s S c a rp h in g b ra c k e ts a t b o u n d a rie s o f in n e r b o tto m a n d in n e r

s h e ll/lo n g itu d in a l b u lk h e a d .
 A d e q u a te s tif f e n in g a t in n e r s h e ll k n u c k le s

D o cu m en t / D r a w in g f o r C la s s a p p r o v a l
 S tru c tu ra l D ra w in g s iw o N e w I n n e r s h e ll/b o tto m  T a n k C a p a c ity P la n w ith n e w T a n k c o n f ig u ra tio n  S c h e m a tic d ra w in g s o f P u m p in g , p ip in g a n d ta n k v e n tin g s y s te m s to b e re      

a p p ro v e d . N e w a llo w a b le lim its w ith re g a rd to b e n d in g m o m e n ts a n d s h e a r f o rc e s m a y b e d e f in e d I n c lin in g e x p e rim e n t n e e d s to b e p e rf o rm e d L o a d in g M a n u a l a n d T rim a n d S ta b ility B o o k le t O il D is c h a rg e a n d M o n ito rin g ( O D M ) to b e u p d a te d . C ru d e O il W a s h in g ( C O W ) M a n u a ls to b e u p d a te d . T h e n e w b a lla s t ta n k s c re a te d m u s t b e c o a te d a c c o rd in g to I M O re q u ire m e n ts .

M id s h ip S ec t io n a f t er c o n v er s io n

M id s h ip S ec t io n a f t er c o n v er s io n

O u r E s t im a t io n s …
V essel t y p e A d d it io n a l S t eelw eigh t ex p ect ed in ( T ) 7 ,0 0 0 - 8 ,0 0 0 1 ,0 0 0 450 C h an ge ca r go ca p a c it y ( C u .m ) I n c re a s e 8 ,0 0 0 - 1 0 ,0 0 0 D e c re a s e 1 0 ,0 0 0 D e c re a s e 6 ,0 0 0 - 7 ,0 0 0 I n c re a s e 8 ,0 0 0

S in g le - h u ll V L C C D o u b le s id e o n ly a f ra m a x D o u b le b o tto m o n ly h a n d y s iz e ( 3 0 ,0 0 0 d w t) S ta n d a rd s in g le - h u ll suezm ax

4 ,3 0 0

C o n v er s io n t o D o u b le H u ll C h em ic a l T an k er
 A m e n d m e n ts to M A R P O L A n n e x I I a n d th e I n te rn a tio n a l B u lk C h e m ic a ls ( I B C )

C o d e c a m e in to f o rc e o n 1 Ja n u a ry 2 0 0 7
 M a in te c h n ic a l c h a n g e - s u b s ta n c e s h a v e b e e n re - c la s s if ie d in to n e w p o llu tio n

c a te g o rie s .
 O il- lik e s u b s ta n c e s n o t p e rm itte d o n O il T a n k e rs , w h ic h d o n o t m e e t I B C C o d e

re q u ire m e n ts .
 M a n y h a v e h a d th e ir c a rria g e re q u ire m e n ts u p g ra d e d f ro m T y p e 3 to T y p e 2
 

X y le n e V e g e ta b le O ils

 I n 1 9 9 3 - o ils a n d f a ts m o v e d b y S e a - 2 5 m illio n T o n n e s  B y 2 0 0 7 - in c re a s e d to 5 0 m illio n T o n n e s  I n a d e q u a te to n n a g e f o r th e c a rria g e o f o ils a n d f a ts b y 2 0 0 7 .  H e n c e , th e a d v a n ta g e in c o n v e rtin g e x is tin g T a n k e rs to e n a b le c a rria g e o f o il- lik e

s u b s ta n c e s , V e g e ta b le o ils a n d f a ts .

I B C C o d e R eq u ir em en t f o r C a r r y in g V eg. O ils
 F la g S ta te e x e m p tio n s u n d e r M A R P O L A n n e x I I R e g u la tio n 4 .1 .3 - C a rg o e s

id e n tif ie d a s “2 ( k) ” o f I B C C o d e C h a p te r 1 7 to b e c a rrie d in S h ip T y p e - 3 p ro v id e d th e e n tire c a rg o b lo c k le n g th is p ro te c te d b y d o u b le h u lls th a t c o m p ly w ith th e f o llo w in g d im e n s io n s :
 760m m  B /1 5

w in g ta n k w id th , or

and

2 m d o u b le b o tto m h e ig h t, w h ic h e v e r is le s s e r b u t n o t le s s th a n 1 m ) .

 T e c h n ic a l A s p e c ts in a d d itio n to s tru c tu ra l is s u e s c o v e re d

e a rlie r.
  

  

S trip p in g e f f ic ie n c y : 7 5 lite rs U n d e rw a te r d is c h a rg e P u m p ro o m v e n tila tio n ( 3 0 a ir c h a n g e s p e r h o u r v s 2 0 ) P u m p ro o m e x h a u s t v e n t to b e d is ta n c e o f a t le a s t 1 0 M tr f ro m th e n e a re s t a ir in ta k e o r o p e n in g to a c c o m m o d a tio n , m a c h in e ry s p a c e a n d ig n itio n s o u rc e s . N e w F ire C o n tro l & S a f e ty e q u ip m e n ts a s p e r I B C C o d e P & A M anual R e q u ire m e n ts f o r d a m a g e s ta b ility a s p e r re le v a n t I B C C o d e re q u ire m e n ts C e rtif ic a te o f F itn e s s f ro m C la s s

C o n v er s io n t o D o u b le H u ll B u lk / O r e C a r r ier
 M a jo r c o n v e rs io n w rt L O A D L I N E

 N o t a m a jo r c o n v e rs io n w rt S O L A S ( n e w s h ip ru le s n e e d n o t b e a p p lie d  - p e n d in g

c o n f irm a tio n f ro m F la g )  

 M a jo r c o n v e rs io n w rt M A R P O L

T ech n ica l a s p ect s
 S tru c tu re

C S R n o t a p p lic a b le – im p ra c tic a l
 

    

I n s ta lla tio n o f in n e r b o tto m s tre n g th e n e d a s p e r c a rg o S tre n g th e n in g o f e x is tin g b o tto m tra n s v e rs e w e b s – R e q u ire m e n t o f I n te rm e d ia te f lo o rs S tre n g th e n in g o f T ra n s v e rs e b u lk h e a d s S tre n g th e n in g L o n g itu d in a l b u lk h e a d s H o p p e r a n d T o p s id e ta n k s H a tc h e s a n d H a tc h c o a m in g s C o n tin u ity o f in n e r b o tto m – a v o id in g e x c e s s iv e te a rin g lo a d s o n lo n g itu d in a l b u lk h e a d s D e c k s tif f e n in g ( S e c tio n m o d u lu s re q u ire m e n ts )

O t h er asp ect s
 T y p e A to T y p e B c o n v e rs io n : R e q u ire m e n t o f F o re c a s tle ( p o s t 2 0 0 4 n e w b u ild s …

f o r c o n v e rs io n s ? ? )
 B rid g e V is ib ility  R e q u ire m e n t o f F E M  M e a n s o f A c c e s s re g u la tio n s  U R S 3 0 re q u ire m e n ts  U R S 2 6 /2 7 re q u ire m e n ts

P ip in g, M a c h in er y , C o n t r o ls & O t h er S y st em s
 U tiliz a tio n o f e x is tin g C a rg o /B a lla s t lin e s  D e w a te rin g s y s te m  W a te r in g re s s m o n ito rin g s y s te m  B ilg in g a rra n g e m e n ts f o r n e w v o id s p a c e s  E le c tric a l s y s te m s  D e c k m a c h in e ry
 H a tc h c o v e rs  D e c k C ra n e s

D o cu m en t a t io n
 I n c lin in g E x p e rim e n t  S ta b ility & L o a d in g m a n u a l  D a m a g e S ta b ility  D a m a g e C o n tro l P la n & M a n u a l  F re e b o a rd P la n  W a te rtig h t in te g rity P la n  F ire C o n tro l & S a f e ty P la n

O u r E s t im a t io n s ?
 F o r a S in g le H u ll V L C C to V L O C
 

A p p ro x . 6 0 0 0 T a d d itio n a l s te e l w e ig h t A p p ro x . 1 5 0 0 T re m o v e d

 F o r a S in g le H u ll S u e z m a x to D o u b le H u ll B u lk c a rrie r
 

A p p ro x 5 5 0 0 T a d d itio n a l s te e l w e ig h t A p p ro x 1 2 0 0 T re m o v e d

 F o r a S in g le H u ll S u e z m a x to D o u b le H u ll O re c a rrie r
 

A p p ro x 4 0 0 0 T a d d itio n a l s te e l w e ig h t A p p ro x 9 0 0 T re m o v e d

E s tim a tio n s b a s e d o n s p e c if ic M id s h ip s e c tio n s a s s e s s e d

O t h er C o n v er s io n s
 S in g le H u ll V L C C s to F S O / F P S O  S in g le H u ll S u e z m a x ta n k e rs to H e a v y L if t v e s s e ls  S in g le H u ll A f ra m a x ta n k e rs to C a ttle C a rrie rs

C o n clu s io n
 W h e th e r to g o in f o r C o n v e rs io n ?
 1 5 – 2 0 y e a r o ld v e s s e ls in g o o d c o n d itio n  M a rk e t d riv e n C o n v e rs io n s

   

C o n f irm e d c h a rte rs  F o re c a s tin g m a rk e t d e m a n d R ig h t k in d o f c o n v e rs io n s u ite d f o r th e s p e c if ic v e s s e l c o n s tru c tio n A v a il a d d itio n a l a d v a n ta g e s f ro m C la s s  A g e R e d u c tio n ? A p p ro a c h th e rig h t y a rd A p p ro a c h th e rig h t c o n s u lta n ts

T h an k Y ou