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Study of the therapeutic effectiveness of perfuse through the tissue.

But solid malignant


Microwave heating based therapy for the tumors have less blood perfusion than the
surrounding normal tissue. And hence for a given
treatment of cancer absorbed thermal dose, the tumor within normal
Probir Kumar Dhar Electronics and Communication tissue will therefore reach a higher temperature than
Department. Bengal College of Engineering and Technology. SSB
Sarani. Bidhan Nagar, Durgapur. West Bengal the surrounding normal tissue. And tumors when
probir_2010@yahoo.com heated to higher temperatures for at least an hour, in
Abstract: Analytical model of tumor growth in the some cases it have been shown to decrease in size
absence and on application of microwave heat (which are a and to exhibit necrosis (death of the tumor cells).
non-ionizing form of radiation) based therapy is of major Therefore, hyperthermia also shrinks tumors. For
importance for studying the dynamics of treatment in tumors of the head, neck and breast etc a smaller
oncology. A time varying state space model for tumor tumor due to hyperthermia treatment may reduce the
growth has been made and the tumor growth dynamics was disfiguration associated with surgical removal of the
observed to investigate the role of microwave heat based tumor.
therapy in combination with other existing therapies. The
Application of hyperthermia boost ups the
system dynamics has been observed with different therapy
administration strategies such as metronomic chemotherapy immunity level within body and hence it may reduce
(MCT), maximum tolerable dose chemotherapy (MTD) in the chance of future recurrence of the tumor growth.
presence and in absence of microwave heat based therapy. Again hyperthermia increases the drug sensitivity of
It has been found that presence of controlled microwave the tumor cells. Hence it may result a positive
heating may be a better workable strategy for positive outcome for the treatment of tumor growth when
treatment outcome. In practical case it has been observed applied in combination with MCT and MTD.
that there is a deviation in output from the theoretical
prediction. Since there is variation in biological parameters
from person to person and it is not always possible to made The system model: In the system model different
separate theoretical prediction for a particular human body. types of tumor cells with two stages of maturation
In this paper this variation has been considered in system (less and more differentiated) are considered. The
model equation. Stochastisity has been incorporated in the growth rate, apoptotic rate, transformation rate of
system controlling parameters to consider the variation in each type of cells and transformation delay time from
different human species [3]. Incorporation of controllability one type to another type tumor cells are also
criterion has an advantage in the assessment of different considered.
therapeutic outcome.
Introduction: Microwave thermotherapy
System equation: The dynamical equation of the
(hyperthermia) is a cancer treatment processes being
model is based on the difference equation. The whole
followed since 80’s in many countries around the
is being iterated for about 1000 days, starting from
world. Biologically it is based on the fact, that
day 1. Hence the system equation is a time-varying
cancerous tissue due to reduced blood flow is not
system and can be written as follows:
able to survive the temperature above 41 degree C,
N(t) = [N(t-1) + r(t-1)×N(t-1)] – [a(t-1)×N(t-1)]
while healthy tissue resist up to 45 degree C. So
… (1)
heating into this temperature interval cancerous cells
N(t) = [N(t-1) + r(t-1)×N(t-1) + dr(t-1) ×N(t-1)] – a(t-
can be selectively killed. [1]
1)×N(t-1)] …. (2)
It has been found that within a certain
Where N stands for number of tumor cells at an
percentage of patients tumors recur in local area. For
instant of time t, which depends on the factors of
example although modern treatments of breast cancer
multiplication rate (r), apoptosis rate (a) and also on
are quite effective, there is a percentage of patients in
the number of differentiated tumor cells from the
whom tumors will recur in the remaining breast
main tumor cells. However for the main tumor cell
tissue and the local area. Local chest wall recurrences
compartment the factor of differentiation is a
have been reported in 3 to 22 percent of cases. [2]
subtractive term and equation (1) will be governed
And this area cannot be treated easily by
when there is a time delay in differentiation. For the
conventional therapy since surgery may be
subsequent tumor cells equation (1) will be governed
problematic and chemotherapy may not show
when the precursor cells are in the process of
significant response. Since the area is likely to have
differentiation and the moment differentiation is
been irradiated before, large doses of radiation may
being completed the state will be governed by the
not be recommended. The only solution to this
equation (2). Minor stochastic component has been
problem is to elevate temperature of this affected
incorporated to the system model equation to add a
region (tumor).
realistic flavor to the system model.
Biological tissues are heated as a result of
molecular excitation by the electromagnetic energy System simulation: the simulation study has been
produced by the microwave treatment. The heat done using MATLAB. The simulation results are
energy is dissipated in normal living tissues by blood given below.
Less Differentiated Tumor Cell Growth Dynamics with
only hyperthermia. (e) 'Tumor stem cell and Less
Differentiated Tumor Cell Growth Dynamics with
hyperthermia and MTD only hyperthermia. (f)Tumor stem
cell and Less Differentiated Tumor Cell Growth Dynamics
with hyperthermia and MCT.
Simulation results of only two
compartments having four types of tumor cells (ie,
Fig 1 (a) sg, p1, p2, p3) are given here. Simulation results
show a positive outcome with the application of
microwave heating based therapy.
Clinical trial and results: Transurethral
Microwave Thermotherapy for BPH (TUMT) - a
treatment procedure for the treatment of Benign
Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) shows a positive
outcome. [7] Observation of data collected from
clinical trial shows that Prolieve Thermodilatation®
Fig1 (b) System based on microwave heating offers a
symptomatic relief for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
(BPH).

Number Number Duration Percentage of


of of of improvements
patients patients therapy In AUA
treated showing symptom score
** positive
outcome
Fig1(c) 115 59 2 weeks >30%
92 68 12 >30%
months

The prolieve System claims to provide patient comfort


during and after the procedure. It provides the
following advantages over the other mode of therapy
(a) Generally topical anesthesia only
(b) 82% of patients go home without a catheter*
Fig1 (d) (C) 99% of patients treated with the Prolieve System
did not experience any form of erectile dysfunction
following the treatment*
* Results based on clinical trial, 140 patients treated.
** Total number of patients not including who
discontinued
Conclusion If a correct approach is made with a
expert domain knowledge of physics, biology and
Fig1 (e) physiology the perspectives of hyperthermia in
oncology are very bright and promising. What we
have in hand is a practically nontoxic effect with
huge potential and advantages. However, we have to
clarify the technical issues to make this method
technically comparable, and provide for a control,
which is safe enough in terms of modern medical
demand. Proper selection of antenna radiator to target
the actual tumor cell, proper control over the
Fig1 (f) microwave power to maintain the temperature level
Fig1 (a) Tumor stem cell and Less Differentiated Tumor required for the necrosis of the tumor cell, and
Cell Growth Dynamics. (b) Tumor stem cell and Less development of a user friendly system for treatment
Differentiated Tumor Cell Growth Dynamics with MTD. procedure may make the system clinically successful.
(c) Tumor stem cell and Less Differentiated Tumor Cell
Growth Dynamics with MCT. (d) Tumor stem cell and