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Module 1: Water Impurities

Course Teacher
Dr Muhammad Azizul Hoque
Associate Professor
Sources of water/water quality
Water is a solvent
Source Quality
Rainwater natural distillation
Air quality + catchment
Surface water The above + pollutants
specific to the catchment
Groundwater Rainwater characteristics+
geological formation+
minerals
Potable Reuse (Unplanned)
Water Treatment
City A
Wastewater
Treatment
Water Treatment
City B
Wastewater
Treatment
Important water-borne poisons
Toxic substances from mineral formations such as fluorine,
selenium, arsenic, boron etc.
Phytotoxin produced by specific algae
Heavy metals from water-works structure, metallic pipes, industrial
effluents such as lead, copper, chromium, mercury, cadmium etc.
Poisonous compounds contained in industrial and household
wastes and wastewater discharged into water courses
Residues of pesticides and insecticides reaching water courses
from chemical dust and sprays applied to crops, land, and water
surfaces fro the control of pests,, nuisance insects, vectors of
diseases, weeds etc.
Radioactive substances reaching water bodies
Impurities of water
Impurities of mineral origin
Impurities organic origin
Living impurities
Radioactive impurities
Four categories:
Effect of impurities present in water
Source: ITN-Bangladesh
Water quality parameters
pH, Color, Turbidity, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Alkalinity,
Hardness, Chloride, Nitrate, Iron, Sodium, Total coliformand faecal
coliform, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Lead,
Nickel, Zinc
Go through: Source, Measuring unit and Significance of water
quality parameters
#Physical #Chemical #Bacteriological #Radiological
Solids
Sample
Settleable
solids
Total
Solids
Filter
(glass fibre)
Evaporation
Evaporation
Dissolved
Solids
Suspended
solids
Furnace (550C)
TS
Total
Fixed Solids
Total volatile
Solids
Fixed SS
Volatile
Suspended solids
Volatile
Dissolved Solids
Fixed filterable
solids
Furnace (550C)
Imhoff
cone
Evaporation
Filtrate
Sample
Settleable
solids
Total
Solids
Filter
(glass fibre)
Evaporation
Evaporation
Dissolved
Solids
Suspended
solids
Furnace (550
0
C)
TS
Total
Fixed Solids
Total volatile
Solids
Fixed SS
Volatile
Suspended solids
Volatile
Dissolved Solids
Fixed filterable
solids
Furnace (550
0
C)
Imhoff
cone
Evaporation
Filtrate
Total Dissolved Solids
Soluble inorganic salts
Cations of Ca, Na, Mg, K
Anions of Cl
-
, HCO
3
-
and NO
3
-
Need to filter using 0.45 micrometer
Drinking water can be treated Excellent
when TDS < 300 mg/L
TDS >1200 mg/L is Unacceptable
Hardness
Presence of polyvalent (but not singly charged)
metallic cations.
Most polyvalent are divalent Ca and Mg
expressed as the sum of concentrations of these
elements (mg/L as CaCO
3
)
Principal anions and cations indicating hardness
Cations Anions
Ca
++
HCO
3
-
Mg
++
SO
4
2-
Sr
++
Cl
-
Fe
++
NO
3
-
Mn
++
SiO
3
-
Total Hardness
Temporary hardness (Carbonate hardness)
Solution of Ca and Mg with bicarbonate in water
Removed by boiling water containing HCO
3
-
can be
heated to precipitate (CO
3
2-
) as scale
Permanent hardness (Noncarbonate hardness)
Caused by Ca and Mg compounds of sulfates, chlorides
or silicates
Cannot be removed by boiling, but precipitation
softening process or ion exchange using selective ions
Problems with hardness
Hard water (>200 mg/l as CaCO
3
)
Reduction in cleaning action of soap
Scale formation in boilers, water systems and heat
exchangers
Soft water (<60)
Can be possibly corrosive
Plumbosolvency problems particularly in lead-iron pipes
Alkalinity
Measure of the ability of a water to neutralize the
acids. (absorb H
+
ions without significant pH
change)
The principal alkaline ions are OH
-
, CO
3
2-
and
HCO
3
-
and usually expressed in terms of CaCO
3
Important during coagulation
Depending on pH, alkaline samples can contain
OH
-
alone, OH
-
+ CO
3
2-
, CO
3
2-
alone, CO
3
2-
and
HCO
3
-
or HCO
3
-
alone.
pH>10, OH
-
or OH
-
and CO
3
2-
(No significant OH
-
exist
below this pH)
pH>8.3 CO
3
2-
and HCO
3
-
(No significant CO
3
2-
exist
below this pH)
Hardness and Alkalinity
Hardness by multi-positive ions and alkalinity by
negative ions
Alkaline water can be hard
If hardness and alkalinity are same, then there
are no SO
4
2-
, Cl
-
or NO
3
-
(no non-carbonate
hardness)
If hardness > alkalinity, non carbonate hardness
is present and carbonate hardness = alkalinity
If hardness < alkalinity, all hardness is carbonate
hardness and extra HCO
3
-
comes from other
sources such as NaHCO
3
Radiological (uranium and thorium ) Radioactivity
is the energy released from the breakdown of
radionuclides
Naturally occurring radioactive species in drinking water
sources
Contamination from concentration of natural levels such as
mining and processing of minerals
Artificial radionuclides which may enter drinking water
supplies from medical and industrial use of radioactive
materials
Pathogenic Bacteria and viruses
Bacterial water borne diseases (bacteria 0.5-5
micrometer)
Cholera, Typhoid fever, Gastro-enteritis
Viral diseases (Viruses 20 -100 nm)
Smallpox, influenza, diarrhoea, polio and hepatitis
Indicator Microorganisms for Drinking
Water
Coliformgroup of microorganisms is present in large
numbers in animal and human excreta. Why is there a need
for such indicators?
Pathogenic microorganisms are small in numbers
Routine testing is not practicable and expensive
Involves skilled labour and specialist equipment
Time-consuming
Specific tests may not be available
Indicator Microorganisms Properties
Always present when pathogens of like origin are present
Present in large numbers, >> pathogens
Easy and quick to detect
Equal or greater survival time than pathogens
Absent from unpolluted waters
Similar sensitivity to disinfection as pathogens
Basic requirements of Drinking water
Should be completely free of pathogenic micro-organisms that can
cause disease
Should contain no element or compound in concentrations that can
cause acute or long-term adverse effect on human health
Should be fairly clear and aesthetically attractive, i.e. low turbidity
and color
Should not be saline to cause salty taste
Should contain no compounds that can cause an offensive taste
and odouor
Should not cause corrosion, scale formation, discoloration or
staining
Should not have a temperature unacceptable to the consumers
Drinking water standards
Source: ITN-Bangladesh