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750 VDC

TRACTION SYSTEM
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Table of contents
1. General introduction 3
1.1. Supply Voltages 4
2. Scope of supply 5
2.1. Scope of supply of basic composition for one unit 5
3. Power unit 6
3.1. Power circuit 6
3.2. Traction converter 8
3.2.1. Line contactor and precharge circuit 10
3.2.2. Input flter 10
3.2.3. Current and voltage sensors 12
3.2.4. Three phase inverter or inverter core 12
3.2.5. Braking chopper 13
3.2.6. Cooling system 13
3.2.7. Electrical gear 13
3.2.8. Control unit 13
3.3. Brake resistors 14
3.4. Traction motor 15
3.5. Cooling 17
4. Control electronics 18
4.1. Control electronics architecture 18
4.2. Inverter control unit 19
4.3. Traction control unit 20
4.3.1. Supply flters board 20
4.3.2. DC/DC Converter 20
4.3.3. CPU Board 20
4.3.4. PWM inputs and digital inputs board 21
4.3.5. PWM outputs and digital outputs board 21
4.3.6. Analogue input and output board 21
4.4. Standards 22
5. Software description 23
5.1. Train software 23
5.1.1. Driving modes 23
5.1.2. Communication with the train 23
5.1.3. Coordination with the brake equipment 23
5.1.4. Self-adjustment of the wheel diameter 23
5.1.5. Cooling control 24
5.1.6. Log and alarm record 24
5.1.7. Monitoring 24
5.1.8. Self-diagnosis 24
5.2. Control software 25
5.2.1. Inverter control 25
5.2.2. Braking chopper control 25
5.2.3. Anti-slip/slide system 25
5.2.4. Limits 25
5.2.5. Protections 25
5.2.6. Self-diagnosis 25
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1. General introduction
This specifcation describes the characteristics of the 750V traction system for Tramways.
This system supplies the two motor bogies of the Tramway unit.
Each bogie is supplied via its inverter box.
Each inverter also supplies two of the four motors of each bogie.
The proposed traction equipment is a proven solution developed by Trainelec deeply tested in laboratory,
validated on the track in a unit of Metro of Seville and installed on the Tramway of Vitoria.
The following information is included in this document:
General characteristics information of the vehicle.
Power electronics description.
Description of the control electronics and the communications schematic of the vehicle.
Description of the software that shall govern the traction control strategy.
Description of the Autonomous Power Supply System (optional in the offer).
Technical data
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1.1. Supply voltages
The voltages available on the unit are as follows:
Catenary voltage
Rated voltage U
n
750Vdc
Voltage variations (EN 50163) 500 900Vdc (continuous)
Non-permanent maximum voltage 950 Vdc (during a max. of fve minutes)
Overvoltages According to Appendix A of EN50163
Medium AC voltage
Rated voltage U
n
400 Vac eff.
Voltage variations (EN 50155)


0.9U
n
1.1 U
n
(continuous)
0.7U
n
1.25U
n
(for 1 sec.)
0.6U
n
1.4U
n
(0.1 sec.)
Frequency variation 49-51 Hz
Low DC voltage
Rated voltage U
n
24Vdc
Voltage variations (EN 50155)


0.7U
n
1.25U
n
(continuous)
0.6U
n
1.4U
n
(for 0.1 sec.)
1.25U
n
1.4U
n
(1sec. with no equipment damages)
Ripple <15% (EN 50155)
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2. Scope of supply
2.1. Scope of supply of basic composition for one unit
The scope of supply for the Tramway unit includes:
Two traction boxes with four independent inverters.
Two brake resistor boxes.
Two master controllers.
A circuit-breaker.
Eight traction motors.
A lightning arrestor.
A pantograph.
Two autonomous power supply systems (optional).
Each traction box also includes the following functional items:
2 Main contactors and 2 more for pre-charge circuit.
2 Input flter inductances.
2 Input flter capacitors.
2 Bus capacitors.
2 Braking choppers.
2 Inverter cores.
2 Control electronics.
2 Cooling systems.
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3.1 Power circuit
Each unit shall be ftted with one mounted inverter box per motor bogie. Each box shall consist of two indepen-
dent inverters that shall supply the four traction motors (one per wheel) of each bogie.
3. Power unit
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Figure 1 shows a schematic of the power circuit of the Tramway with its main components.
Each inverter shall include the pre-charge circuit, the input flter and the inverter core. The latter shall consist of
six IGBTs to generate input voltage in the motors. There are also two IGBTs (one per inverter) that make up part
of the crowbar brake.
As all the traction box items are duplicated, there is total redundancy in the system, whereby the cancellation of
one of the inverters guarantees 75% traction performance.
The following sections specify the characteristics of the traction equipment power unit. The scope of supply also
includes a pantograph for the unit, a lightning arrestor to provide protection against transient overvoltages to the
equipment connected directly to the catenary. It also includes a single pole direct current circuit breaker which
protects the traction equipment.
Figure 1. Tramway power preliminary schematic.
75% traction performance.
Inverter
Box
Inverter
Box
E D C B A
Resistor
Motor Motor Motor Motor
Inverter 1 Inverter 2
Resistor
Lightning
arrestor
HSBC
Circuit
Breaker
Resistor
Motor Motor Motor Motor
Inverter 1 Inverter 2
Resistor
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3.2 Traction converter
The traction converter provides to traction motor the wave shape of voltage and frequency required to achieve
the performance required at each moment. It requires protection and safety items (main circuit breaker, lightning
arrestors, pantograph...).
Each traction converter box consists of two completely independent inverters. Each inverter supplies two
traction motors. The inverter core consists of six IGBTs, controlled by the drivers and tripped via fbre optics, to
execute the trips required to generate input voltage in the motors. Also, the braking chopper consists of an IGBT
+ diode assembly. The braking resistors are installed in a separate box. Therefore there is a total of 6 semicon-
ductors for the inverter and 1 semiconductor for the braking chopper.
Both boxes (traction and resistors) are ftted on the roof of the unit.
Main electrical and mechanical characteristics
Dimensions W=1677mm; L=1335mm; H=478mm
Weight 447 kg
Material Aluminium self-supporting box
Rated Power (per box) 300 KW
Maximum Power 500 KW
Maximum Output Current 370 A
Performance 97%
V
supply
According to EN 50163 (500 900Vdc)
V
output
565V
rms
(V
cat
= 750 Vdc)
680 V
rms
(V
cat
= 900 Vdc)
Semiconductors (IGBT)
V
CEmax
= 1,7KV
I
Cmax
= 800A
I
Cpic
= 1600A
T
junction
= 125C
Maximum Switching Frequencies 1200 Hz
Chopper Switching Frequency 700 Hz
Stator Frequency 0 145 Hz
Cooling Forced air ventilation
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Below is a schematic of the power unit of one of the inverter boxes:
Figure 2. Traction converter schematic.
N
U
M
3
V
W
N
U
M
3
V
W
N
U
M
3
V
W
N
U
M
3
V
W
RP1
CMC2
CMC1
A
K
A
K
BRAKE RESISTOR
BRAKE RESISTOR
CONVERTER BOX
Vcatenary (+)
Return (-)
PR2
L-FILTER2
L-FILTER1
FC
FC
Power Core1
Power Core2
PRD
PRD
750V
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The traction converter consists of the following functional assemblies:
3.2.1. Line contactor and precharge circuit:
Each traction inverter is equipped with a connection and precharge circuit. This consists of a network
contactor, a precharge resistor and a precharge contactor. Its purpose is to limit the charge current of the
capacitor of the intermediate circuit and to prevent its voltage from overoscillating. The control unit regulates
the load of the capacitor of the intermediate circuit and that of the flter capacitors. To this end the precharge
contactor and the precharge resistor are used until the voltage reaches a preset value. Only after this is the
network contactor closed and the precharge contactor opened. The contactors permit isolation of the inver-
ter even when it is operating at maximum power (both in traction and in braking).
Figure 3 shows the tramway traction equipment input contactors:
3.2.2. Input flter:
The traction equipment input flter consists of a series inductance with parallel capacitor, both of which are
included in the traction converter. Its function is to minimise dumping to the electrical network of harmonics
produced by the traction system and to protect the system itself against network transient conditions. It also
limits the input impedance. Based on the data relating to the input flter the maximum impedance is:
The values of the input flter components for the tramway traction equipment are that normally used on
tramways:
The input flter contains air core inductances to minimise the weight of the equipment. Inductance cooling is
forced, making use of the cooling outlet warm air of the inverter cores. The fans are powered by three phase
motors, each with 250W of power.
A single stage flter is used to reduce the total volume and weight of the flter inductances and to provide
optimum voltage conditions in the intermediate circuit.
The coils have been sized to meet the harmonics fltering requirements and to support the permanent maxi-
mum rated current.
Figure 3. Traction equipment line contactor and precharge circuit.
di
dt
mx
V
mx
L
A
ms
1000
4.28
= = = 233
Tramway unit L flter C flter Cut Freq. Z
50Hz
Tramway 4,28 mH 5 mF 34 Hz 0,708
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The main characteristics of the flter inductances are as follows:
Figure 4 shows the inductances of the tramway traction equipment:
As is the case for the inductance, the flter capacitor is mounted inside the inverter box, as close as possible
to the inverter cores and also performs the function of bus capacitor. This capacitor stabilises the voltage and
provides active and reactive power for the traction motors.
The main characteristics of the flter capacitors are as follows:
Inductance characteristics
Inductance 4.28mH
Permanent rated current 200A
Maximum current 350A
Type of insulation class H
Degree of pollution PD4
Cooling type forced air ventilation
Dimensions (max.) H = 300mm; L = 380mm; W = 272mm
Figure 4. Tramway traction equipment inductances.
Capacitor characteristics
Capacity 5000F
Rated voltage 1000V
DC
Effcient rated current 180A
Maximum effcient current 460A
Internal series resistance 0.24 m
Internal inductance 60nH
Technology Polypropylene flm dry capacitor
Dimensions (max.) H = 560mm; L = 240mm; W = 130mm
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3.2.3. Current and voltage sensors:
The traction converter contains a series of current and voltage sensors by means of which the DC voltages
and DC and AC currents are measured at various points of the capacitor. The information of these sensors
and their conditioners is sent to the traction control unit to control the various processes (bus capacitor pre-
charge, protections, fault detection, etc.).
Figure 5 shows the various sensors of the tramway traction equipment:
3.2.4. Three phase inverter or inverter core:
The inverter core transforms the bus voltage in a three phase current with variable frequency and amplitude
to supply the traction motors. The losses in the traction motors as well noise generation are minimised by
means of optimised modulation patterns. This is a two level inverter equipped with IGBTs with a blocking
voltage of 3.3kV. Each branch of each phase is equipped with 2 IGBTs.
The main characteristics of the IGBTs are adapted in accordance with the simulations performed:
Figure 5. Tramway tractIon equipment sensors.
IGBT characteristics
Semiconductor topology

Collector-transmitter maximum voltage VCES 1700V
DC
Rated Current (75 C) 1200 A
Maximum current (tp=1msec) 2400A
Insulation voltage 4 KV (50Hz, 60s)
Base material AlSiC
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Each IGBT is controlled by its corresponding drivers which create the interface between the control signals
and the power signals required to control the IGBTs via fbre optics.
These drivers are ftted with various protections such as:
Short circuit: Detection of a short circuit to open the IGBT.
Undervoltage: Detection of a drop in the supply voltage for the opening of the IGBT.
Overvoltages: The driver prevents the voltage between collector-transmitter exceeding the VCES
breakdown voltage. The voltage value is 1700V
DC
.
Also, the inverter core contains a busbar which serves as the connection interface between the bus capacitor
and the semiconductors or the Inverter. The Busbar consists of two plates which are separated from each
other by means of an insulating material.
Also, the permanent discharge resistor is fxed on the same radiator that the semiconductors of each Three
phase Semi-inverter are supported on. This resistor short circuits the positive pole with the negative pole
of the bus to discharge the accumulated power in the bus capacitors when the inverter is not supplied. The
ohmic value is such that the bus discharges in under 5 minutes at a voltage value of less than 50V from the
maximum bus voltage.
3.2.5. Braking chopper:
The braking chopper enables and controls the dissipation of kinetic power of the unit in the braking phase
when the line is not receptive. It is also activated in the case of overvoltage in the intermediate circuit.
Each traction box includes two crowbar circuits, one per Three phase Inverter. Each Crowbar circuit consists
of an IGBT, a diode and an external dissipation resistor. Both circuits are controlled independently according
to the braking requirements and/or over voltages in the corresponding bus.
Each braking chopper branch connects to a Braking Resistor where the kinetic power of the train and the
over voltages generated are absorbed.
3.2.6. Cooling system:
This system evacuates the heat produced by the losses of the semiconductors of the three phase inverter
and the braking chopper. This system is explained in section 3.5.
3.2.7. Electrical gear:
This consists of all the contactors required for the operation and control of auxiliary items.
3.2.8. Control unit:
This controls all items making up the system. This system is explained in section 4.
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3.3. Brake resistors
The function of the brake resistors is to convert the kinetic energy generated by the traction motor into heat
energy in the event that the catenary is not receptive and this energy cannot be fed back into the grid. They are
also activated in the case of overvoltage in the intermediate circuit of the traction converter.
Brake resistor characteristics
Ohmic Resistance (each branch) 1.31 (+7%, - 5 %) at 20 C
Maximum Ohmic Resistance 1.7 5 %
Rated Power to Dissipate (2 branches) 2x265 KW
Rated Voltage 750 V
Maximum Voltage 1270 V
Maximum Current (each branch) 480 A
Type of Insulation Double
Cooling Type Natural ventilation
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3.4. Traction motor
The motors (four per motor bogie) are suspended in the bogie and the effort is transmitted via the existing
couplings between the motor and gear unit. The motor insulation is H thermal class (class 200), in accordance
with standard IEC 60349-2.
Figure 6. Tramway traction motor.
Electrical and mechanical characteristics
Rated Power 60 KW
Catenary Voltage 650 V; 625V in motor
Maximum Current 162 A
Maximum Rotation Speed 3960 rpm
Weight 300 10%
Transmission Factor 5.44
Number of Poles 4
Number of Bearings 2
Power Factor 0.86
Performance 0.90
Insulation Type
Thermal class C (class 200) according to
standard IEC 60349-2 and IEC 60085
Cooling
Cooling Type
Self-ventilated
Closed motor
Coolant Air
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Motor characteristics
Motor Type 4DDA3030
Number of Poles 4
Cooling Motor
Self-ventilated and totally enclosed with double
circuit ventilation, external air is not in contact with
the internal parts of the motor.
Max. Temperature Tamb max=45 C
Nominal Link Voltage 625 V
DC
Nominal Line Voltage 650 V
DC
Max. Motor Voltage 490 V
rms
(traction)
Max. Motor Voltage 680 V
rms
(braking)
Nominal Frequency (S1) 53 Hz
Rated Current (S1) 106 A
Rated Torque (S1) 370 Nm
Max. Current of Motor 162 A
Rated Power of Motor 60 kW
Max. Power in Traction 106 kW
Max. Torque in Traction 460 Nm
Max. Power in Braking 160 kW
Max. Torque in Braking 565 Nm
Max. Speed of Motor 3960 rpm
Max. Speed of Train 70 km/h (overspeed 80 km/h)
Train characteristics
Wheel Diameter 590 / 510 mm
Gear Ratio 5.44
Effcency Gear Box 97%
Starting Effort 65.5 kN
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3.5. Cooling
The inverter cooling system evacuates the heat produced by the losses of the semiconductors of the three
phase inverter, of the braking chopper and of the input flter inductances located in the same box.
Converter cooling is executed by means of forced ventilation with fans. These absorb air from the outside and
circulate it with the support of a dissipator where the power semiconductors are located. The IGBTs of the
inverter and of the braking chopper are located on the base plate, which distributes the dissipated power as
uniformly as possible and cooling must be by means of the absorbed air fow.
Also, this fow of air is used to cool the flter inductance. The coolant system design is optimised to effciently
absorb the semiconductors losses. In this way the temperature of the IGBTs is maintained below a design
threshold defned in accordance with the rupture temperature of the semiconductors.
The following table shows the main characteristics of the cooling equipment:
Cooling
Cooling Type Indirect via coldplate and fans
Coolant Air
Ventilation Method forced
Cool. Pow. (high speed) 250 W
Coldplate Plate Temp. 85 C
Air Flow Rate (high speed) 520 m
3
/h
Maximum Temperature of the Inlet Air 50 C
Maximum Temp. of the Inlet Air of the
Inverter Core
60 C
Maximum Temp. of the Air at the Box Outlet 85 C
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4.1. Control electronics architecture
Each traction inverter is ftted with independent traction control electronics. This traction control electronics is
based on two modules: The TCU or Traction Control Unit and the ICU or Inverter Control Unit which are
ftted inside the traction converter box. In total, each inverter has two TCU modules and two ICU modules.
The main function of the TCU is communication with the cab controls and high level traction control application.
The TCU sends the ICU traction commands via CAN bus. It shall also calculate the friction brake required in
the discs and perform coordination between the electric brake and the hydraulic brake (blending) in the motor
bogies of the unit.
The ICU applies the low level traction control strategies generating the settings for the power semiconductors.
It shall also control wheel slide protection in the motor bogies. Both modules must interact with other train items
using series communication lines and discreet inputs/outputs.
Figure 7 schematically represents the approximate interface of the control electronics.
4. Control electronics
Figure 7. Approximate architecture of the control electronics.
C
A
N
C
A
N
C
A
N
C
A
N
ICU-1 ICU-3 ICU-2 ICU-4
TCU-1 and TCU-2 are
suppl. TCUs
BUS MVB
TCU-3 and TCU-4 are
suppl. TCUs
TCU-1 TCU-3 TCU-2 TCU-4 CCU
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4.2. Inverter control unit
This unit is designed in single plate format (see Figure 8) and is ftted with three basic control blocks:
1. The microcontroller, which supervises the general operation of the ICU and of the communications via CAN
with the TCU.
2. The DSP which executes the control algorithms in real time.
3. The FPGA block which resolves communication with all the peripheral equipment external of the board and
provides hardware protection to preserve the integrity of the system.
The ICU is supplied from the 24V train battery voltage required for the ICU. This supply stage is equipped with
protections against reverse polarity and the flters required to meet EMC standards.
The ICU interface with the other system items is as follows:
2 CAN channels for TCU-ICU communication.
8 Fibre optic two direction channels (Command/acknowledge) for IGBT control.
4 Encoder reading channels.
4 Fourteen bit resolution analogue inputs for current readings.
3 Fourteen bit resolution analogue inputs for voltage readings.
7 multiplex channels for temperature reading with Pt100 sensors.
Two independent sets of 4 digital inputs + 4 digital outputs. For each set the inputs share trip threshold and
zero. The inputs accept rated voltages of 24V to 110V. The outputs admit currents of up to 1A and are pro-
tected against overcurrents and overtemperatures.
Figure 8. Inverter Control Unit ( ICU).
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4.3. Traction control unit
The TCU is a modular unit mounted in a rack of 3U x 42 E (1/2 de 19).
It is ftted with the following boards:
Supply flters board (1 per rack).
DC/DC board (1 per rack).
CPU Board (1 per rack).
Board with 12 digital inputs.
Board with 8 digital outputs.
Boards each with 4 analogue inputs and 4 analogue outputs.
4.3.1. Supply flters board:
This is the point where the supply voltage (battery voltage) enters the module. It contains flters to meet the
electromagnetic compatibility and reverse polarity protections requirements.
4.3.2. DC/DC Converter:
This converts the battery voltage to the module operation 5V
DC
, giving power in excess of 50W even in the
least favourable of conditions.
4.3.3. CPU Board:
The core of this board is the 32 bit ColdFire MCF5272 processor. The board is designed so that on-board
applications can be executed. The input/output boards are accessed via the VME bus. It is also equipped
with MVB (class 2) redundant communication, two CAN channels and two isolated series RS232 lines. To
record logs, the CPU board shall be ftted with at least 1Mbit of non-volatile memory.
Figure 9. Traction Control Unit (TCU).
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4.3.4. PWM inputs and digital inputs board:
The digital inputs board is ftted with three blocks each with 4 inputs, giving a total of 12 inputs per board.
Each block shares the reference voltage and zero. The inputs admit a wide range of voltages, including 24,
72 and 110V
DC
(-30 % + 25 %) which are usual in batteries.
The trip threshold of the inputs of each set is set at 50% of the reference voltage. Thus, if a 24V reference
voltage is chosen for a set, the inputs shall be activated as of 12V.
The input impedance of each channel is 75.5K whereby the current permanently consumed by each inlet
shall be between 0.3mA for 24V and 1.5mA for 110V. However, each input is ftted with a contact cleaning
circuit which creates a periodic consumption of 60mA. The current peak lasts for 1ms, and the period can be
set between 50 and 250ms.
The 4 inputs of one of the sets can be set in PWM mode. The voltage levels permitted in this mode as the
same as those in the normal input reading mode, and the base frequency of the PWM signal can be up to
2KHz. Readings shall be made with a resolution of 8 bits.
During the initial phase of the project the number of digital input boards required for internal signals of the
power unit (ICU supply monitoring, fan status monitoring, etc.) and external signals (PWM signal of the
traction controller) shall be defned providing a suffcient number of available inputs.
4.3.5. PWM outputs and digital outputs board:
This board is ftted with 8 independent digital outputs all isolated from each other. Each output is ftted with
two power free terminals where the charge can be connected in the high or low side of the contact. The
contact switch is a MOSFET type and can support a rated current of 1A and peaks of 5A with a rated voltage
of 110V.
As well as the usual protections for transients, each channel is ftted with protection against reverse polarity,
short circuits and overheating.
4 of the 8 outputs can be confgured as PWM outputs, with external voltage of up to 110V (+30%), a maxi-
mum base frequency of 2KHz and a resolution of 8 bits.
During the initial phase of the project the number of digital output boards required for internal signals of the
power unit (ICU supply, fan control, cooling system, pump control, etc.) and external signals (circuit breaker
opening loop, etc) shall be defned providing a suffcient number of available outputs.
4.3.6. Analogue input and output board:
The analogue input and output board is ftted with a set of 4 analogue inputs and another of 4 analogue
outputs, all with a resolution of 12 bits. Both the inputs and the outputs can be confgured in the production
phase as voltage channels (0 - 5V 10V) or current loop channels (0 - 20mA). Also, one of the 4 inputs can
be set to read 4 Pt100 type temperature sensors (-50 C to 150 C).
During the initial phase of the project the number of analogue input/output boards required for internal
signals of the power unit (inputs for reading temperature sensors, etc.) and external signals (signals for cab
monitoring) shall be defned providing a suffcient number of available inputs/outputs.
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4.4. Standards
It fulfls the rails standards in effect, specifcally:
EN50155: Railway applications. Electronic equipment used on rolling stock.
EN 50121: Railway applications. Electromagnetic compatibility. Part 3-2: Rolling stock. Apparatus.
IEC 61375-1: TCN: Train Comunication Network.
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5.1. Train software
The train software is executed in the high level traction control unit and shall principally provide communication
with the control and monitoring equipment via TCN and implement the specifc traction control functions for the
traction unit, sending the necessary torque settings to the low level control unit and supervising its operation.
The high level traction unit also calculates the friction brake settings of the motor bogies and provides coordi-
nation between the electric brake and hydraulic brake (blending), i.e. carries out the BCU function. If there is a
trailer bogie, it shall be equipped with its own BCU.
5.1.1. Driving modes:
The driving modes defned for the specifc traction unit are implemented.
5.1.2. Communication with the train:
This permits connection by means of a TCN bus with the train control and monitoring equipment. This is a
class 2 node permitting sporadic messaging.
Communication with the control and monitoring equipment must be in accordance with the TCN reference
document, that shall be established in the initial phase of the project.
5.1.3. Coordination with the brake equipment:
This establishes a dialogue (called blending), via the TCN bus, between the traction equipment and the
brake equipment whereby the operation of the electric brake and the hydraulic brake are coordinated.
5.1.4. Self-adjustment of the wheel diameter:
This calculates the diameter of the wheel according to the reference diameter and the train speed, which rea-
ch the control and monitoring equipment via TCN, and also in accordance with the motor encoder reading.
5. Software description
ICU ICU
TCU
Inverter Power
Electronics
(Dinamic Brake)
Inverter Power
Electronics
(Dinamic Brake)
MOTOR BOGIE
BCU
(Friction Brake)
Vehicle
Wheels
TCU
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5.1.5. Cooling Control:
This controls the fans of the traction box and other items making up the cooling system of the motors, flters,
brake resistors, etc.
5.1.6. Log and alarm record:
This records the alarms that trip on a non-volatile memory device, saving a log of events and the context of
their occurrence whereby the problem can be analysed. The alarms can be notifed, as appropriate, in real
time via TCN bus to the control and monitoring equipment.
It is equipped with a remote download mechanism for log and alarm records via the TCN bus and also via
local connection (RS-232).
5.1.7. Monitoring:
A list of adjustable parameters can be monitored dynamically via the TCN bus without interfering with the
execution of the control strategy.
5.1.8. Self-diagnosis:
This implements self-detection of faults logics which are executed periodically, as a result of a specifc event
(start up of control equipment, connection of electronic equipment, etc.), or at the discretion of maintenance
staff.
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5.2. Control software
The control software is executed in the inverter control unit and basically provides low level control of the power
electronics (inverter, braking chopper, etc.). It implements the control strategy receiving periodic settings of the
high level traction control unit via a CAN bus.
5.2.1. Inverter control:
This implements the control strategies required to control the motors, optimising consumption and operation
cycles of the power unit. It implements the appropriate algorithms to meet the requirements laid down, regar-
ding speed, consumption and comfort.
It is capable of implementing control modes ISC, DSC-A, TLC and DSC-W.
5.2.2. Braking chopper control:
This controls the braking chopper to implement various functions such as the control of the bus voltage in
electric braking, protection against sudden voltage surges, etc.
5.2.3. Anti-slip/slide system:
This implements a shoe detection and correction system during traction and a wheel slide system during bra-
king. The wheel slide protection system detects and corrects the slide during the application of the electric
brake. During application of the blended brake the electric and hydraulic wheel slide shall be coordinated by
the traction equipment.
5.2.4. Limits:
Various limits are implemented: Excessive acceleration limit, torque slopes limit, limits according to the cha-
racteristic curves of traction/braking, limits according to maximum speed, limits according to temperatures,
etc.
5.2.5. Protections:
Various protections are implemented: Overcurrents, overvoltages, excessive temperatures, peripheral equi-
pment data reading errors, loss of communications and execution logic errors. There may be a reduction of
performance, the traction may be disenabled or the equipment may be started, according to the situation.
5.2.6. Self-diagnosis:
This performs operation checks on all components during start up. If serious error is detected during this
process, the start up is aborted immediately to prevent damages to the equipment.
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