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Baseline Survey Report

Gender Based Violence in Mohanpur


Block of West District of Tripura

Study Conducted by:


Voluntary Health Association of Tripura
Circuit House Area, Po- Kunjaban
Agartala- 799006, West Tripura
Ph- 03812300482/2222849
Email: vha_tripura@rediffmail.com
Website: www.vhatripura.co.in

Study Supported By:


Foundation for Social Transformation
J. N. Borooah Lane, Jorpukhuri,
Guwahati- 781 001
Assam, India
Phone- 0361 2733696

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Published By:
VOLUNTARY HEALTH ASSOCIATION OF TRIPURA
Circuit House Area, Po- Kunjaban
Agartala- 799006, West Tripura
Ph- 03812300482/2222849
Email: vha_tripura@rediffmail.com
Website: www.vhatripura.co.in

Date: September 2009

Study team:
Dr. Prof. Dilip Kumar Ray, President, VHAT
Dr. Sreelekha Ray, Executive Director, VHAT
Mr. Jyotirmoy Majumder, Coordinator, VHAT
Mr. Sushil Debbarma, Program Staff, VHAT

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Contents

CHAPTER Page

1. Introduction

2. Background

3. Methodology

4. Findings of the study

5. Fact Sheet

6. Recommendations

7. Annexures

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Voluntary Health Association of Tripura
Introduction:
Voluntary Health Association of Tripura (VHAT) is a state level federation of more
than 70 civil society organizations and has been working for the promotion of holistic
health, elementary education, environment, income generation of the downtrodden
through formation of SHGs and handicrafts, prevention of gender based violence and
human trafficking, prevention of transmission of HIV & AIDS, promotion of the
rights of the children & women as well as Person with Disabilities etc since last two
decades.
Prevention of gender based violence and human trafficking became important areas of
VHAT since 1999 – 2000.
The baseline survey under the project, “Community based initiatives for tackling
gender based violence in Mohanpur Block of West District of Tripura” with financial
support from Foundation for Social Transformation, Guwahati was conducted in
Mohanpur Rural Development Block. We have selected this block as this is one of the
most populated block of West District of Tripura. It has both tribal & non tribal
population. It is near to the state capital and has accessibility without any extremist
activities at present. The population data of this block is as follows:

Synopsis of Population

Total Number of Family

ST SC OBC Minority Other Total

5653 10456 9747 23 7877 33756

Total Number of Population


ST SC OBC Mino UR Total Male Female Total
32692 54012 47722 121 37908 17245 88268 84187 172455
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Methodology adopted in the study


This study was conducted through interviews, questionnaires and focus group
discussion over a period of four months from April 2009. Interviews were with
155respondents who were selected through focus group discussions with the
Panchayat Members, Women Self Help Groups, local CBOs and village leaders. The
respondents were either victims of violence or relatives or close neighbours of the
victims.

The summarized methodologies were as follows:


 Development of the questionnaire in consultation with the expert.
 Training of the surveyors centrally in Agartala
 Field testing of the questionnaire
 Focus group discussion with the Members of the PRIs, women organizations
 Selection of the respondents and survey through interviews with the
respondents
 Compilation of the data

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 Verification of the data in the field (atleast 20%)
 Data analysis and finalization of the report.

The objectives of the:


i) To assess the magnitude of the gender based violence in the Mohanpur
Block of West District of Tripura so that future plan could be framed to
reduce the gender based violence.
ii) To identify the victims of gender based violence to provide them legal
support and economic rehabilitation.
iii) To identify the civil society organizations in the blocks and ensure their
participation for sustainability of the project.
iv) To do the policy level advocacy with the block level administration to take
rehabilitation plan for the victims of the gender based violence

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Findings of the Study

1. Status of Education: From the study it has been revealed that 25.16% of the
respondents are illiterate, 30.3% of the studied upto the primary level, 39.35% studied
upto upper primary level and only 5.16% studied upto madhyamik and above.

40

30

20

10

0
Illiterate Primary level Upper Primary Madhyamik &
above

Fig: Shows the educational status of the respondents

2. Age: 3.2 % of the victims are below 18 years of age, 19.35% between the age
group of 18-25 years, 72.90% of the respondents are between the age group 18-45
years, and 4.5% of the respondents are above of 45 years.

Below 18 yrs
18-25 yrs
26-45 yrs
above 45 yrs

Fig: Show the age status of the respondents.

3. Occupation: At present occupationally 41.29% of the respondents are daily labour,


1.93% is involved in service, 7% are working as the maid servant, 10.32% are house
wife, 4.51% are involved in small business and finally 34.83% are involved in other
works.

6
50

40

30

20
10

0
Daily Service Maid House Small Other
labor Servant Wife Business w orks

Fig: Shows the station of occupation of the respondents

4. Religion: About 95% of the respondents are belongs to hindu religion and the rest
5% are from Christian religion.

5%

95%

Fig: Shows the religion of the respondents

5. Monthly income of the family/respondents: It is revealed from the study that


23.87% of the respondents have no income or have no source of income, 33.54% are
earning less than Rs. 1000/- per month, 38.06% earns between Rs.1000/- to Rs.
2000/- , earnings of the 3.22 % are fall in the ranges between Rs.2000/- to Rs. 3000/-
and only 1.2% are earning above Rs. 3000/- per month.

40

30

20

10

0
No income Less than 1000 Betwn 1000-2000 Between 2000 - 3000 abov e 3000

Fig: Shows monthly income of the respondents

6. Marital Status: Out of 155 respondents 144 are married and the rest 11 are un-
married.

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Fig: Shows the
marital status of
the respondents

7. Current place of living: About 83% of the respondents are now living in the
parental house, 3.2% are living in the husband’s house, 12.25% are living separately
and 0.64% is living in other place.

100
80

60 Fig: Shows the current


40
status of living of the
victim/respondents
20
0
Parental Husband's Living Other place
House House separately

8. Type of violence faced: About 55% of the respondent faced physical violence,
16.12 % faced verbal/mental abuse, 10.96% faced dowry related violence, in 3.2%
cases husband left the wife, and 1.9% are the rape victims.

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Physical verbal dow ry husband left rape
related

Fig: Shows the type of violence faced by the respondents

9. Perpetrators of the violence: It has been observed that in 80% cases the
perpetrators of the violence is husband, 1.9% in cases the perpetrators is the relatives,
in 10.32% case immediate family members are the perpetrators, in 2.58% cases the
perpetrators are the neighbors and in 3.87 cases the perpetrators are the others which
was not disclosed by the victim or victims family members which means they may be
the close family members.

8
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Husband Relatives Family Neighbors Other
Members

Fig: Shows the perpetrators of the violence.

10. Reasons for leaving home: About 80% of the respondents left parental home due
to marriage purpose, 5.16% of the respondents left home due to employment, 1,93%
left home due to love affairs, one woman left home because she become victim of the
social stigma being the unmarried mother; 1.29% of the respondents left home due to
sexual abuse, one each left home because he was recruited by the militant group and
kidnapping by the under ground group, 1.93% left home due to due to death of the
husband and subsequent abuse by the other, in 6.45% cases the victims did not left the
home and 1.29% cases the reason is other.

11. How many times victims visited home: About 55% of the victims never visited
home after they left home, 10.45% victims visited home atleast once, 16.77% of the
victims visited home for 2-5 times, 11.61% of the victims visited home more than five
times, and in case of 11.61% cases this issue is not applicable.

The further investigation revealed that one victims sent letter to the parents of parental
family members, four victims sent letter for two times, and 129 victims never sent any
letter to the parents of parental family members. In case of 21 victims this is question
is not applicable.

12. Whether victims in safe place: It is important to notice that in 62.58% cases the
victims are in safe place, where as in 30.96% the victims at present are not in safe
place and finally in 6.45% cases victims are not in position to say whether they are in
safe place or not.

9
70
60
50
40 Fig: Shows whether the
30 victims are in safe place
20 or not.
10
0
Yes No Can't Say

Reasons for not in a safe place: The following are the reasons for the victims are not
in a safe place:
-Extra marital affairs of the husband and continue threat by the husband.
- Verbal abuse by the husband and members of the in laws house.
- No faith in police action
- Family members did not initiate action on this
- Battering by the husband who is a drunker
- Victim is mentally ill and vulnerable to abuse.
- Constant dowry demand from the husband
- Economic instability
- Violence at work place and abuse
- No news from the victims
- Abuse by the other
- Psychological abuse.

13. Information to Police: It has been observed that about 38% of the respondents
informed police regarding their abuse, while the 62% of the respondents did not
informed to the police.

70
60
Fig: Shows the trend
50
40
to inform Police
30
when they became
20 38 62% the victims of
10 % Violence
0
Informed Police Did not informed

Further study shows that people normally do not inform the police due to the
following reasons:
 Long procedure in legal systems
 Matter mutually settled
 Family did not initiate action
 Due to poverty
 Lack of awareness

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 Threaten by the accused
 Not considered as the important issues
 Social stigma

14. Lodging of FIR: The study reveals that 36% of the respondents lodged an FIR in
the police station while the 64% of the respondents did not lodge the FIR in the police
station.

70
60
50 Fig: Shows the trends of
40 FIR lodging in the
30
Police Station
20
10
0
Lodged FIR Did not lodge FIR

The reasons for not lodging the FIR are as follows:


 Lack of money
 Matter mutually settled
 There were no one to help
 Not interested to file an FIR
 Threaten by the other
 Not considered as the important issue by the victims
 Lack of awareness
 Afraid of police and legal systems
 Victim recovered
 No faith in legal procedure
 Family did not initiate actions
 Other

15. Did you approach someone for help: It was revealed that about 82% of the
respondents asked someone for help, 17% did not ask anyone for help, and 1% can’t
say anything about the issue.

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100

80

60 Fig: Shows that most


40
of the victims
proposed other for
20
help
0
Asked for Did not ask Can't Say
Help for help

Further analysis of the study shows that victims asked the following persons for help:
i) Local panchayat – 62.06%
ii) Mahila Samiti – 12.4%
iii) Government organizations – 6.2%
iv) Women Commission – 2.75%
v) Local clubs – 0.68%
vi) Relative – 8.2%
vii) Local influential leader- 5.5%
viii) Friend – 0.68%
ix) Other – 1.37%

16. Help from the other: It was observed from the study that 64.5% of the
respondents got help from people to whom they approached, while the rest of the
respondents did not received help from the other.

70
60
50
40 Fig: Shows the trends of
30 the persons received help
20 after the incidence
10
happen.
0
Received help Did not rece ive
help

Further analysis of the information collected during the survey it has been found that
in most of the cases the following agencies helped the victims:
i) Panchayat
ii) Mahila Samiti
iii) Government body
iv) Women Commission
v) Local Club
vi) Relative
vii) Local influential leader
viii) Other
ix) Friend and other

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18. Help require at present: It was replied by the respondent that 76.1% of the
respondent still need help, 11.61% does not require any help at present and finally
12.2% of the respondents can’t say whether they need any help or not.

Yes
Fig: Shows the victims require
No
help at present
Can't Say

19. Future plan of the respondent: When questioned the respondents 71% of the
respondents said that they have some future plan for economic empowerment, 10.32%
of the respondents do not have any future and 18.7% of the respondents can’t say
anything about their future plan.

80
70
60
50
Fig: Shows that most of the
40 respondents have their future
30 plan for their economic
20
10 empowerment.
0
Have plan Don't Can't say
have plan

Further analysis of the information collected during the survey is was found that the
following plans the respondents are having at present:
i) Start own plan
ii) To be engaged in family business
iii) Want to settle with the husband
iv) Looking for marriage proposal
v) Try for employment
vi) Continue education

It was also noted that due to lack of resources and trauma/stigma some of the
respondents do not have any plan at present.

20. NGOs in the survey area: Altogether 58 respondents replied that there are some
NGOs who are working on reducing the violence and the rest of the respondents said
that they don’t know any such organizations

Annexure I

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Summary Sheet:
Issues Number of the respondents Percentage (%)
1 Education Illiterate: 39 25.16
Primary: 47 30.32
Upper primary: 61 39.35
Madhyamik and above: 8 5.16
2. Age >18 age: 5 3.22

Age between 18 – 25: 30 19.35


Age between 26- 45: 113 72.9
Above 45: 7 4.5

3. Occupation Daily labor: 64 41.29


Service: 3 1.93
Maid servant: 11 7.09
House wife: 16 10.36
Small business: 7 4.5
Other: 54 34.86
4. Religion: Hindu: 148 95.48

Christian: 7 4.5
5. Monthly income Nil : 37 23.87
> Rs. 1000/-: 52 33.5
Rs. 1000 – 2000: 59 38.06

Rs. 2000- 3000: 5 3.2


Rs. 3000 & above: 2 1.3
6. Marital status i) Married: 144 92.9
ii) Unmarried: 11 7.1

7. Present Status i) Parental house: 130 83.8

ii) Husband House: 5 3.2


iii) Staying separately: 19 12.2
iv) Other : 01 0.6

8. Type of violence faced i) Physical assult: 86 55.4


ii) Verbal abuse/mental: 25 16.1

10.9
iii) Dowry related: 17
iv) Husband left: 5 3.2
v) Rape: 3 1.9
vi) Other : 44 28.38

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9. Perpetrators of Violence i) Husband: 124 80
ii) Relative: 3 1.9
iii) Family members: 16 10.3

iv) Neighbour: 4 2.5


v) Other : 6 3.9

10. Reasons for leaving i) Marriage: 124 80


home ii) Employment: 2 1.3
iii) Love affairs: 3 1.9
iv) Unwanted pregnancy before marriage: 1 0.6
v) Abuse: 2 1.3
vi) Recruited by the militant group: 1 0.6
vii) Kidnapped: 1 0.6
viii) Death of husband and subsequent 1.9
abuse by the other: 3
ix) Other: 2 1.3
x) Nil: 10 6.4
11. Visit to home by the i) Nil: 83 53.5
pregnant ii) Atleast once: 10 6.4
iii) two – three times: 26 16.7
iv) More than 5 times: 18 11.6
v) Not applicable: 18 11.6
12. Phone call & letter to i) Once: 1 0.6
the family by the victims ii) Two times: 4 2.5
iii) Nil: 129 83.2
iv) Not applicable : 21 13.5

13. No of times visited by i) Not applicable:8 5.1


the family members ii) Atleast once: 25 16.1
iii) Two & more: 34 22.0
iv) Nil : 88 56.9

14. Whether victim is in i) Yes: 97 62.9


safe place at present ii) No : 48 31.3
iii) Can’t say: 10 6.6

15. Why they are not in a safe i) Extra marital affairs of husband and continue
place threat.
ii) Verbal abuse
iii) No faith in police action and family did not
initiate any action on this
iv) Battering by the husband who is a drunker
v) The victim is mentally challenged and
vulnerable to abuse
v) Constant dowry demand from the husband

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vi) Economic instability
v) Violence at work place and verbal abuse
vi) No news from the victims
vii) Abuse by the other
viii) Physiological abuse
16. Information to police i) Yes: 59 38.0
about violence ii) No: 96 62.0

17. If no why? i) Long procedure of legal system: 24 15.4


ii) No faith in legal system: 2 1.3
iii) No one to support : 2 1.3
iv) Matter mutually settled: 29 18.7
v) Family did no initiate action: 38 24.6
vi) Due to poverty: 12 7.9
vii) Lack of awareness: 4 2.6
viii) Threatened by the accused : 13 8.4
ix) Not considered as the important issue: 28 18.1

x) Social stigma: 5 3.3


18. Whether FIR Lodged i) Yes : 56 36.1
ii) No: 99 63.9
19. Reasons for not lodging i) Lack of money: 12 7.7
the FIR
ii) Matter mutually settled: 38 36.1
iii) No one help: 3 2.0
iv) Not interested : 1 0.6
v) Threatened by the other :14 9
vi) Not considered as the important issue: 15 9.6
vii) Lack of awareness: 1 0.6
viii) Afraid of Police: 1 0.6
ix)Victim recovered : 1 0.6
x) No faith in legal system: 1 0.6
xi) Family did not initiate action: 7 4.5
xii) Other : 5 3.2

20. Did you approach i) Yes: 127 81.9


someone for help ii) No : 26 17.3

iii) Can’t say : 2 1.3


21. If yes, to whom? i) Panchayat : 90 58.0
ii) Mahila Samity : 18 11.6
iii) Govt. Body : 9 5.8
iv) Women Commission : 4 2.6
v) Local club: 1 0.6
vi) Relative: 12 7.7
v) Local influential leader: 6 3.9
vi) Friend: 1 0.6

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vii) Other : 2 1.3
22. Whether some one helped i) Yes : 100 64.5
ii) No : 53 34.19
iii) 2 1.3
23. If yes, who helped i) Panchayat : 79 79
ii) Relative : 12 12
iii) Influential leader: 3 3
iv) Govt. body: 1 1
v) Other : 6 6
24. Do your require help at i) Yes: 118 76.12
present ii) No: 16 10.3
iii) Can’t say: 21 13.6
25. Do you have any future i) Yes: 110 70.9
plan ii) No: 16 10.3
iii) Can’t say: 29 18.7
26. Type of plans i) Start Own business: 67 60.9
ii) To be engaged in family business: 8 7.2
iii) Want to settle with the husband: 5 4.5
iv) Looking for marriage : 10 9
v) Try for employment: 14 12.7
vi) Continue education: 1 0.9
27. If no why? i) No resources available : 06 3.8
ii) Can’t decide what to do: 09 5.8

28. Presence of organization i) Yes: 58 37.4


ii) No : 97 62.6

Annexure II

Survey Instrument to find out the Gender Based Violence


(VHAT-FST)

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Form Number Interview date

1. Respondent details : Panchayat Member / CBO / NGO / Women Org / Gov.


Employee / Individual
1.1 State : 1.2 District : 1.3 Block :
1.4 Panchayat: 1.5 Name of the respondent :
Ag
1.6 Education: 1.7 Gender: 1.8
e:
1.9 Occupation : 1.10 Category(ST/SC/OBC/other):

2. Information about the violence / Family


2.1 Religious status: 2.4 Whether the victims is married or
unmarried:
2.2 What is average monthly
Victims: Family:

3. Violence victims/survivors: Present status.


3.1 Present status of the violence victim/survivors:

3.2 What kind of violence has she/he faced –– Physical assault / dowry related/sexual molestation /
rape
/ repeated sexual exploitation/ /verbal abuse/economic/psychological/other (specify)
3.3 Who was responsible for this violence to her/him :- Immediate family member / relative /
friends / Neighbour/ Unknown person / other (specify)–

4. Information of the victim Working / Employed / Married / and staying away from
home.
4.1 At what age did the victim leave home? :
4.2 For how many months the victim is now away from home?
4.3 Why did the child leave home? :– Marriage / Higher Education / Employment / Love
Affairs/elopement / Kidnapped /recruited by underground groups/ lured by agents/ (Other
specify):

4.4 Since the victim left home, how many times s/he has visited home?
4.5 How often does s/he send a letter or make a phone call in a month?
4.6 How many times you or someone from the family has visited the victim at the place of her/his
employment/residence / in-laws’ house?
4.7 Where is the victim currently living? : At her in-laws / At a relative’s place / At workplace / At
some rented place / Hostel / Brothel / Short stay / rescue home / Other ( specify )

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4.8 Are you convinced/satisfied that victim is at a safe place and having a decent life? : Yes / No /
Can’t say
4.9 If no or can’t say, then why? :– No news from the victim / constant dowry demand / violence
at workplace /
wife battering by alcoholic husband / extra marital affair of
husband / violence by other /verbal
abuse/economic/psychological/ Other (specify)

5. Legal actions in case of Violence Victims/Survivors


5.1 Was police informed about violence? : – Yes / No / Can’t say.
5.2 If no, why? :– Family did not initiate action / Threatened / No police station nearby / No faith
in police or legal system / Scared of long legal proceedings / Matter mutually settled / Not
considered important issue by the family or community / social stigma/Other (Specify).
5.3 Was FIR lodged against those responsible? : – Yes / No / Can’t say.
5.4 If no, why? :- Threatened/police refused to accept the case/victims recovered/matter mutually
settled/ other (specify):
5.5 Did you approach someone else for help? : – Yes / No / Can’t say.
5.6 If yes, who. :– Local panchayat / NGO worker / Mahila Samiti/ Local influential leader /
Relative / friend / neighbor/ Govt. body/ Other (specify )/ Protection officer under PWDV Act
2005
5.7 Did someone help you in recovering or to come out of trauma/legal help etc.? : – Yes / No /
Can’t say.
5.8 If yes, who :– Local panchayat / NGO worker / Local influential leader / Relative / friend /
neighbor/ Other (specify )
5.9 At present do you require any legal support? Yes/No/Can’t say

6. Future plan of the victims/survivors/family


6.1 What plans do you have now: Yes/No/Can’t say
6.2 If yes what plans do you have? Looking for marriage proposals/continue
education/engage in family business/start own business/try for employment
6.3 If no, why? :- Can’t decide what to do/traumatized/stigmatized/no resources available/other
(specify):-
6.4 Is there any organization in your area working on prevention of gender based violence: Yes/No
If yes, please give the name and address of the organization:
Organization 1:

Organization 2:

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Name of the Interviewer: Date:

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