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HW 1 Solution

Please declare any collaborations with classmates; if you ﬁnd solutions in books or online,

acknowledge your sources in either case, write your answers in your own words.

Please attempt all questions and justify your answers.

(1) (Set theory) Let R be the set of real numbers. Consider the map f : R → R deﬁned by f (x) := x

2

.

Find a maximal subset M of R such that the restriction map f |

M

is injective, i.e. ﬁnd a subset M

of R such that f |

M

is injective and and there is no subset of R containing M properly.

Solution: R

≥0

= {x ∈ R | x ≥ 0} or R

≤0

= {x ∈ R | x ≤ 0}.

(2) (Set theory) Let g : X → Y be a map. Let A ⊂ X and B ⊂ Y be subsets. If g is injective, then we

can show that A = g

−1

(g(A)). The proof goes as follows:

• To prove the equality, we need to show that (a) A ⊂ g

−1

(g(A)) and (b) g

−1

(g(A)) ⊂ A.

(a) Let a ∈ A. We need to show that a ∈ g

−1

(g(A)). By the deﬁnition of pre-image, we have

a ∈ g

−1

(g(A)) if and only if g(a) ∈ g(A).

The RHS is obviously true and hence the LHS, a ∈ g

−1

(g(A)), is true.

(b) Let c ∈ g

−1

(g(A)) ⊂ X and then we need to show c ∈ A. Again by def of pre-image,

c ∈ g

−1

(g(A)) ⇔ g(c) ∈ g(A).

RHS means that there is a ∈ A such that g(a) = g(c). However, by the injectivity of g, we have c = a.

Thus c ∈ A.

Now prove that, if g is surjective, then g(g

−1

(B)) = B.

Solution: Let b ∈ B, then clearly by subjectivity b ∈ g(g

−1

(B)), so B ⊂ g(g

−1

(B)). Now let

c ∈ g(g

−1

(B)), then c = g(a) for some a ∈ g

−1

(B) and so c = g(a) ∈ B, which gives the other

inclusion.

(3) (Set theory) Let f : X → Y be a map and let A

1

, A

2

⊂ X be subsets.

(3.1) Prove the following

(a) f (A

1

∪ A

2

) ⊃ f (A

1

) ∪ f (A

2

).

(b) f (A

1

∩ A

2

) ⊂ f (A

1

) ∩ f (A

2

); the equality holds if f is injective.

(3.1) Deﬁne a map f : Z → {0, 1} by sending even integers to 0 and odd integers to 1. Find subsets

A

1

and A

2

of Z such that f (A

1

∩ A

2

) f (A

1

) ∩ f (A

2

).

Solution:

(3.1) (a) Let y ∈ f (A

1

) ∪ f (A

2

). If y ∈ f (A

1

), then ∃x ∈ A

1

such that f (x) = y. Since x ∈ A

1

, we

have x ∈ A

1

∪ A

2

, so y ∈ f (A

1

∪ A

2

). Same argument works if y ∈ f (A

2

).

(b) Let y ∈ f (A

1

∩ A

2

). Then ∃x ∈ A

1

∩ A

2

such that f (x) = y. Since x ∈ A

1

and x ∈ A

2

,

we get y ∈ f (A

1

) ∩ f (A

2

).

Now assume f is injective and let y ∈ f (A

1

) ∩ f (A

2

). Since f is injective there is a

unique pre-image of y, say f (x) = y. Then x ∈ A

1

and x ∈ A

2

and so y ∈ f (A

1

∩ A

2

).

(3.2) The key is that f is not injective so that two points can go to the same point under f . For

example, 0 and 2 go to 0 under f . Let A

1

= {0} and A

2

= {2}. See that this gives an example

such that f (A

1

∩ A

2

) f (A

1

) ∩ f (A

2

).

1

2

(4) (Topology) A discrete topology on a set X is given by the collection T of all subsets. Prove that

it satisﬁes all axioms.

Solution: Clear by deﬁnition of the power set.

(5) (Topology) Let R be the set of real numbers. Deﬁne open sets in R by subsets that are complement

of ﬁnite subsets or the whole set R. Check that it deﬁnes a topology in R (known as the ﬁnite

complement topology).

Solution:

(T1) R = ∅

C

∈ T and ∅ = R

C

∈ T.

(T2) Let U

i

∈ T and say U

C

i

= V

i

for all i. Note that V

i

are ﬁnite subsets or the whole set R. Let

U =

U

i

and let V = U

C

= (

U

i

)

C

=

(U

C

i

) =

V

i

. If all of the V

i

were R, then V = R

and U ∈ T, otherwise some V

i

is ﬁnite and so V is ﬁnite, giving U ∈ T.

(T3) Again let U

i

∈ T and say U

C

i

= V

i

for 1 ≤ i ≤ n. Again V

i

are ﬁnite subsets or the whole set

R. Let U =

n

1

U

i

and let V = U

C

= (

n

1

U

i

)

C

=

n

1

(U

C

i

) =

n

1

V

i

. If any of the V

i

were R,

then V = R and U ∈ T, otherwise V is ﬁnite since we are taking ﬁnite union of ﬁnite sets and

hence U ∈ T.

(6) (Topology) Show that R − {1/n | n = 1, 2, · · · } is not an open set in the standard topology of R.

You are only allowed to use the materials from Section 1 of the lecture notes.

Solution: Let A := R − {1/n | n = 1, 2, · · · }. Notice that 0 ∈ A. To show A is open, we

need to prove the condition (G1) in Lemma 1.5. [L]. The standard topology is given by B =

{ all open intervals} (Example 1.7 [L]). Take any open interval containing 0, say (a, b) where

a < 0 < b. We can ﬁnd n such that 0 < 1/n < b, so that 1/n ∈ (a, b). Thus any interval (a, b) is

not a subset of A.

(7) (Topology) Let (X, T) be a topological space. Prove that a collection B of open sets is a basis for

T if and only if for every U ∈ T and x ∈ U, there is B ∈ B such that x ∈ B ⊂ U.

Solution: One direction is the content of Lemma 13.2 of [M]. Please see the proof written

there. The other direction is the straightforward consequence of the condition (G1) in the Lemma

1.5 of [L].

R

[M] Munkres, Topology.

[S] Basic Set Theory, http://www.math.cornell.edu/∼matsumura/math4530/basic set theory.pdf

[L] Lecture Notes, available at http://www.math.cornell.edu/∼matsumura/math4530/math4530web.html

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