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n II: Nhn dng ging ni Ting Vit iu khin xe ln thng minh

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Li cm n
thc hin ti: Nhn dng ging ni Ting Vit iu khin xe ln
thng minh, bn thn ti nhn c rt nhiu s ch dn, gip v ng vin
qu bu t gia nh, thy c v bn b.
Trc ht, ti xin by t lng cm n su sc i vi Thy Hunh Thi
Hong, gio vin hng dn ng vin v tn tnh hng dn cho ti v phng
php nghin cu khoa hc, cung cp cho ti rt nhiu kin thc chuyn su
thc hin ti ny.
Ti cng v cng cm n cc Thy, C trong Khoa in in t, Trng
i Hc Bch Khoa Tp.HCM ging dy v hng dn ti trong sut thi gian
hc i hc. Nh cc Thy, C m ti c kin thc v t tin thc hin ti
nghin cu ny cng nh cc ti nghin cu khc trong tng lai.
Bn cnh , s hp tc v gip ca bn b v cc th h n anh i trc
cng gip ti rt nhiu trong vic thc hin ti ny.
Ti cng xin cm n gia nh lun chm sc, quan tm v ng vin trong
qu trnh hc tp.
V cui cng, ti xin gi li cm n ti nhng ngi gip ti trong qu
trnh thc hin n II m ti thiu st cha nu tn y, s gip ca h d t
hay nhiu cng ng gp mt phn vo kt qu thc hin ti n mn hc ny
chun b tht tt cho ti lun vn sp ti.
Tp. H Ch Minh, ngy 17 thng 06 nm 2014
Nguyn V Nht Hong
n II: Nhn dng ging ni Ting Vit iu khin xe ln thng minh
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Gii thiu ti:
Ting ni l phng tin giao tip c bn nht ca con ngi, s
dng li ni l mt cch din t n gin v hiu qu nht. t lu,
con ngi lun m c n cc h thng my iu khin t ng c th
giao tip bng ting ni t nhin ca con ngi. Ngy nay, cng vi s
pht trin ca khoa hc k thut v cng ngh, c bit trong lnh vc
tin hc, cc h thng my t ng dn thay th con ngi trong
nhiu cng vic. Nhu cu giao tip vi thit b my bng ting ni l rt
cn thit, l phng thc giao tip vn minh v t nhin nht.
Nhn dng ting ni l mt vn khng mi. Trn th gii v
ang c c rt nhiu cng trnh nghin cu v vn ny vi rt nhiu
phng php nhn dng ting ni khc nhau. V nhng nghin cu
cng c nhng thnh cng ng k. Nhng i vi nc ta, nhn dng
ting ni vn l mt lnh vc kh mi m. Ch c mt s cng trnh ca
cc nhm nh: AILab, Vietvoice, Vspeech nghin cu n vn
ny. n nay tuy c nhiu nghin cu v nhn dng ting ni ting
Vit v t c mt s thnh tu, nhng nhn chung vn cha t
c kt qu cn thit c th to ra cc sn phm mang tnh ng
dng cao.
Vi mong mun c th dng ting ni Ting Vit iu khin xe
ln thng minh, n ny nghin cu cc phng php nhn dng ting
ni Ting Vit, t xy dng mt chng trnh demo nhn dng ting
ni ting Vit pht trin ln lun vn Nhn dng ging ni Ting
Vit iu khin xe ln thng minh.


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n gm 05 chng:
Chng 1: Tng quan v tnh hnh trong v ngoi nc lin
quan n vic nhn dng ting ni, mc tiu ti v gii
hn ca ti.
Chng 2: Trnh by v h nhn dng ting ni.
Chng 3: Cc khi nim lin quan n h nhn dng ting
ni v h tr cho cng c SPHINX.
Chng 4: Gii thiu v cng c h tr nhn dng ting ni
CMUSphinx
Chng 5: Kt qu chng trnh demo nhn dng ting ni
Ting Vit dng trong iu khin xe ln thng minh s dng
cng c Sphinx v kt lun.

n II: Nhn dng ging ni Ting Vit iu khin xe ln thng minh
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MC LC
Li cm n .............................................................................................................. i
Gii thiu ti ...................................................................................................... ii
Mc lc................................................................................................................... iv
Chng 1: Tng quan ............................................................................................. 1
1.1. Tng quan v tnh hnh trong v ngoi nc ....................................... 2
1.2. Mc tiu t c ................................................................................. 4
1.3. Gii hn ti ...................................................................................... 5
Chng 2: Trnh by v h nhn dng ting ni .................................................... 6
2.1. Gii thiu ............................................................................................. 7
2.2. Phn loi cc h thng nhn dng ting ni ........................................ 8
2.3. Mt s phng php nhn dng ting ni ........................................... 8
Chng 3: Cc khi nim lin quan n h nhn dng ting ni v h tr cho cng
c Sphinx ................................................................................................................ 10
3.1. Rt trch c trng tn hiu ting ni ................................................... 11
3.1.1. Khi nim ..................................................................................... 11
3.1.2. Lm r tn hiu ............................................................................. 12
3.1.3. Tch t ......................................................................................... 12
3.1.4. Phn on thnh cc khung ......................................................... 13
3.1.5. Ly ca s khung tn hiu ............................................................ 14
3.2. Rt trch c trng bng phng php MFCC ....................................... 15
3.2.1. Bin i FFT ................................................................................ 17
3.2.2. Lc qua b lc Mel- Scale ........................................................... 18
3.2.3. Logarit gi tr nng lng ............................................................ 21
3.2.4. Bin i cosin ri rc ................................................................... 21
Chng 4: Gii thiu v cng c h tr nhn dng ting ni CMU SPHINX ...... 23
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4.1. Gii thiu CMU Sphinx ....................................................................... 24
4.2. Cc c im ca CMU Sphinx .......................................................... 24
4.3. Kin trc Sphinx 4 .............................................................................. 25
4.3.1. B ngoi vi FrontEnd ............................................................... 27
4.3.2. B ngn ng - Linguist ................................................................ 28
4.3.3. B gii m Decoder .................................................................. 31
Chng 5: Xy dng chng trnh demo nhn dng ging ni ting Vit iu
khin xe ln ............................................................................................................ 33
5.1. Ci t Sphinx ..................................................................................... 34
5.1.1. Chun b h iu hnh ................................................................. 34
5.1.2. Chun b cc gi ci t Sphinx .................................................. 34
5.2. Ci t v hun luyn .............................................................................. 35
5.2.1. Xy dng m hnh ngn ng ....................................................... 36
5.2.2. Xy dng m hnh ng m .......................................................... 37
5.2.3. Xy dng t in ......................................................................... 37
5.3. Kt qu th nghim ................................................................................. 38
Chng 5: Kt lun ................................................................................................ 39
6.1. Kt qu t c ................................................................................. 40
6.2. Nhng hn ch .................................................................................... 40
6.3. Hng nghin cu v pht trin ......................................................... 41



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1
TNG QUAN
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1.1. Tng quan v tnh hnh trong v ngoi nc:
Vn nghin cu cc phng php nhn dng ting ni v ang
thu ht rt nhiu s u t v nghin cu ca cc nh khoa hc trn khp th
gii. tng v xy dng cc h thng nhn dng ting ni c t nhng
nm 50 ca th k 20 v n nay t c nhiu kt qu ng k.
Trn th gii c rt nhiu h thng nhn dng ting ni ting Anh
v ang c ng dng rt hiu qu nh: Via Voice ca IBM, Spoken
Toolkit ca CSLU (Central of Spoken Laguage Under-standing), Speech
Recognition Engine ca Microsoft, Hidden Markov Model toolkit ca i
hc Cambridge, CMU Sphinx ca i hc Carnegie Mellon, ngoi ra, mt
s h thng nhn dng tin ni ting Php, c, Trung Quc, cng kh
pht trin.
i vi nc ta, nhn dng ting ni vn l mt lnh vc kh mi m.
n nay tuy c nhiu nghin cu v nhn dng ting ni ting Vit v
t c mt s thnh tu, nhng nhn chung vn cha t c kt qu cn
thit c th to ra cc sn phm mang tnh ng dng cao. C th k n
cc cng trnh sau:
AILab: y l cng trnh c phng th nghim Tr tu Nhn to -
AILab thuc i hc Khoa hc T nhin to ra da trn cc cng ngh tin
tin nht v nhn dng v tng hp ting ni p ng nhu cu ca ngi
dng. Da trn cng ngh x l ting ni ting Vit, AILab xy dng phn
mm iSago chuyn h tr tm kim thng tin qua ting ni. Thng qua ng
dng phn mm ngi s dng c kh nng h tr giao tip vi in thoi di
ng trc tip bng li ni. T ngi s dng tm kim thng tin nh hng,
qun Bar, Caf trn a bn TP. HCM. Khi ngi dng t cu hi bng ting
n II: Nhn dng ging ni Ting Vit iu khin xe ln thng minh
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ni, iSago s truyn ni dung truy vn ny v server x l v gi li kt
qu tm kim, dng mt danh sch: tn nh hng, a ch.
Vietvoice: y l phn mm ca mt ngi dn Vit Nam ng ti
Canada. Phn mm c kh nng ni ting Vit t cc tp tin. chy c
chng trnh, cn ci t Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 Redistributable
Package (x86). i vi ngi khim th, phn mm ny cho php s dng
cch g tt (nhn nt Ctrl v mt ch) chn la mt trong cc tnh nng
hin th trn mn hnh. Ngi dng c th cp nht t in cc ch vit tt
v cc t ng ting nc ngoi.
Vspeech: y l mt phn mm iu khin my tnh bng ging ni do
mt nhm sinh vin i hc Bch Khoa TP. HCM vit. Phn mm s dng
th vin Microsoft Speech SDK nhn dng ting Anh nhng c chuyn
thnh ting Vit. Nhm kh thnh cng vi tng ny, do s dng li
th vin nhn dng engine nn thi gian thit k rt ngn li m hiu qu
nhn dng kh tt. Phn mm Vspeech c cc lnh gi h thng n gin
nh gi th mc My Computer, nt Start, Phin bn mi nht c tng
tc vi MS Word 2003, lt web vi trnh duyt Internet Explorer. Khng
c cc chc nng ty chnh lnh v gi tt cc ng dng. Phn mm chy
trn nn Windows XP, microphone v card m thanh s dng tiu chun
thng thng.
Tuy nhin vic ng dng nhn dng ging ni vo iu khin my tnh
cn nhiu hn ch. Vit Nam th hu nh ch mi c b phn mm
Vspeech ca nhm sinh vin trng i hc Bch Khoa TP. HCM, cc phn
mm khc ch th nghim trong phng th nghim, cha c s dng thc
t v cha t trn 100 t. Phn mm Vspeech c pht trin t m ngun
m Microsoft Speech SDK nhn dng ting Anh, thng qua d liu, phng
n II: Nhn dng ging ni Ting Vit iu khin xe ln thng minh
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thc trung gian, vic nhn dng c chuyn trong Vspeech nhn bit
ting Vit.

1.2. Mc tiu t c:
n nghin cu nhng tng c bn v cc phng php c s
dng trong nhn dng ting ni. ng thi n tm hiu v cng c
nhn dng ting ni SPHINX t xy dng mt chng trnh demo nhn
dng t dng iu khin.
Mc ch chi tit:
- Tm hiu cc khi nim c lin quan n h nhn dng ting ni
lm r hn mt s yu t quan trng trong vic s dng cng c h
tr SPHINX nh: rt trch c trng bng MFCC (Mel Scale
Frequency Capstral Coefficient), m hnh Markov n, m hnh m
hc, v hc p dng cho ting Vit.
- Tm hiu phng php ci t cng c h tr xy dng h nhn dng
ting ni trn h iu hnh UBUNTU 12.04.
- Tm hiu xy dng m hnh m hc, m hnh ngn ng thch hp
cho ting Vit.
- Xy dng chng trnh demo m phng, thc nghim gia cc m
hnh vi nhau, nhn dng khong 20 t, 5 cu lnh ting Vit iu
khin xe ln thng minh.





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1.3. Gii hn ti:
n ch gii hn trong vic tm hiu v ting ni, cc phng php x
l ting ni, rt trch c trng ting ni; m hnh Markov n, m hnh m
hc, m v p dng cho ting Vit; kin trc h thng nhn dng ting ni
qua cng c Sphinx. V thi gian hn ch nn chng trnh demo ch dng
mc nhn dng c khong 10 cu lnh c bn iu khin xe ln. Khi c
lnh iu khin, my tnh s hiu v xut hin dng lnh trn mn hnh
ca chng trnh.
Do thi gian c hn nn demo chng trnh ch mi thc hin nhn
dng thnh cng vi mt, hai ngi dng. Xc sut ng thc t xp x ln
hn 80%.
n II: Nhn dng ging ni Ting Vit iu khin xe ln thng minh
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2
TRNH BY V H NHN DNG
TING NI
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2.1. Gii thiu:
Nhn dng ting ni l mt h thng to kh nng my tnh nhn
bit ng ngha ca li ni. V bn cht, y l qu trnh bin i tn hiu m
thanh thu c ca ngi ni qua Micro thnh mt chui cc t. Kt qu ca
qu trnh nhn dng c th c ng dng trong iu khin thit b, nhp d
liu, son tho vn bn bng li ni, quay s in thoi t ng hoc a ti
mt qu trnh x l ngn ng mc cao hn.
Tn hiu ting ni u tin c tin x l v rt trch c trng. Kt
qu thu c sau qu trnh ny l tp hp cc c trng m hc (aucostic
features), c to dng thnh mt hay nhiu vecto gi l vecto c trng.
c th thc hin vic so snh, trc ht h thng phi c hun
luyn v xy dng cc c trng, sau mi c th dng so snh vi cc
tham s u vo nhn dng.
Trong qu trnh hun luyn, h thng dng cc vecto c trng c
a vo c lng, tnh ton cc tham s cho cc mu. Mt mu tham
kho l bn mu dng so snh v nhn dng, cc mu tham kho ny m
phng cho mt t, mt m tit, hoc thm ch mt m v.
Trong qu trnh nhn dng, dy cc vecto c trng c em so snh
vi cc mu tham kho. Sau h thng tnh ton tng ng ca dy
vecto c trng v mu tham kho. Vic tnh ton tng ng c thc
hin bng cch p dng cc thut ton c chng minh hiu qu nh
thut ton Vitertbi ( trong m hnh Hidden Markov Model HMM). Mu c
tng ng cao nht c cho l kt qu nhn dng.


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2.2. Phn loi cc h thng nhn dng ting ni:
Mt h thng nhn dng ting ni c th l mt trong hai dng: nhn
dng lin tc v nhn dng tng t. Nhn dng lin tc tc l nhn dng
ting ni c pht lin tc trong mt chui tn hiu, chng hn nh mt cu
ni, mt mnh lnh hoc mt on vn c c ln bi ngi dng. Cc h
thng loi ny rt phc tp, n phc tp ch cc t c pht hin lin tc
kh x l kp, hoc kh tch ra nu nh ngi ni lin tc khng c khong
ngh. Kt qu l tch t nh hng rt ln n cc bc sau, cn x l tht
tt trong qu trnh ny. Tri li, i vi m hnh nhn dng tng t, mi t
cn nhn dng c pht m mt cch ri rc, c cc khong ngh trc v
sau khi pht m mt t. M hnh ny d nhin n gin hn m hnh nhn
dng lin tc, ng thi cng c nhng ng dng thc tin nh trong cc h
thng iu khin bng li ni vi chnh xc kh cao, tuy nhin kh p
dng rng ri vi m hnh ni trn.

2.3. Mt s phng php nhn dng ting ni:
C 3 phng php nhn dng ting ni c s dng ph bin:
- Phng php m hc- ng m hc
- Phng php nhn dng mu
- Phng php ng dng tr tu nhn to
n ny s dng cng c SPHINX nhn dng ting ni nn
phng php s dng y l phng php nhn dng mu. Phng php
ny khng cn xc nh c tnh m hc hay phn on ting ni m ch s
dng trc tip cc mu tn hiu ting ni trong qu trnh nhn dng. Cc h
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thng nhn dng ting ni theo phng php ny c pht trin theo hai
bc c th:
Bc 1: S dng tp mu ting ni (c s d liu mu ting ni)
o to cc mu ting ni) o to cc mu ting ni c trng ( mu
tham chiu) hoc cc tham s h thng.
Bc 2: i snh mu ting ni t ngoi vi cc mu c trng ra
quyt nh. Trong phng php ny, nu c s d liu ting ni cho o
to c cc phin bn mu cn nhn dng th qu trnh o to c th
xc nh chnh xc cc c tnh m hc ca mu ( cc mu c th l m
v, cm t ). Hin nay, mt s k thut nhn dng mu c p dng
thnh cng trong nhn dng ting ni l lng t ha vector, so snh
thi gian ng(DTW), m hnh Markov n (HMM) v mng nron
nhn to (ANN).
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3
CC KHI NIM LIN QUAN N
H NHN DNG TING NI V
H TR CHO CNG C SPHINX
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3.1. Rt trch c trng tn hiu ting ni:
3.1.1. Khi nim:
Rt trch c trng ca ting ni l mt trong nhng khu quan trng
trong qu trnh nhn dng ting ni. D liu ting ni thng thng di dng
sng m lu tr trong my tnh l loi d liu kh x l, hc mu hun
luyn v so snh. Do vic trch rt c trng ting ni l cn thit. Kt qu
ca qu trnh trch rt c trng l mt hoc nhiu vector c trng. Cc
vector ny cha tham s mang gi tr quan trng ca tn hiu ting ni, lm
gim i rt nhiu s lng tnh ton cn thit, lm r rng hn s khc bit
gia hai tn hiu ting ni.
Hnh sau minh ha cho qu trnh rt trch c trng:

Hnh 3.1. Qa trnh rt trch vector c trng
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3.1.2. Lm r tn hiu (pre emphasis- tin khuch i)
Theo cc nghin cu v m hc th ging ni c s suy gim
20dB/decade khi ln tn s cao do c im sinh l ca h thng pht m con
ngi. khc phc s suy gim ny, chng ta phi tng cng tn hiu
ln mt gi tr gn 20dB/decade. Bn cnh , h thng thnh gic con ngi
c xu hng nhy cm hn vi cng tn s cao. Da vo nhng c im
trn, ta s dng b lc thng cao tin x l cc tn hiu thu c nhm lm
r vng tn hiu m tai ngi c th nghe c. B lc p dng cng thc
sau:
1
( ) 1
pre pre
H z a z

= +
Trong , a
pre
l h s nhn mnh, thng c gi tr 0.9700002861.
B lc ny c chc nng tng cng tn hiu ti tn s cao (trn 1 KHz).
Tn hiu ting ni c s ha l s(n), c a qua mt h s bc
thp, lm phng tn hiu v ph v lm n t b nh hng bi cc hiu ng
c chnh xc hu hn ny trong qu trnh x l tn hiu. H thng s c
dng trong khi tin khuch i va c nh, va thch nghi chm.
Trong trng hp s dng b lc p theo cng thc 2.1, u ra ca dy
tin khuch i s

(n) lin quan n u vo ca dy tn hiu s(n) theo ng


thc sau:
s

(n) = s(n) a
pre
s(n-1)
3.1.3. Tch t
Tn hiu ting ni s(n) sau khi c lm r tn hiu s c chuyn sang
tch t. y l cng on chia ton b tn hiu thu c thnh nhng on
tn hiu trong ch cha ni dung ca mt t.
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C nhiu phng php tch im u v im cui ca mt t ra khi
ton b tn hiu ting ni, trong phng php dng hm nng lng thi
gian ngn l phng php ph bin nht. Vi mt ca s kt thc ti mu th
m, hm nng lng thi gian ngn E(m) c xc nh:

1
2
[ ( )* ( )]
m N
m
n m
E x n w n m
+
=
=


3.1.4. Phn on thnh cc khung (Framing)
Tn hiu ting ni l mt i lng bin thin theo thi gian v khng n
nh nn khng th x l trc tip trn c. Do , tn hiu phi c
chia ra thnh cc khung vi chiu di tng i nh ly c cc on tn
hiu tng i n nh v x l trong cc b lc tip theo. Theo cc nghin
cu c th trong khong thi gian 10-20 ms, tn hiu ting ni tng i n
nh. Nn bc ny ngi ta thng phn tn hiu thnh cc khung vi kch
thc 20-30 ms. Nhng trnh mt mt v lm gin on tn hiu ban u,
khi phn khung, ngi ta chng lp cc khung ln nhau trong khong 10-
15ms.
n II: Nhn dng ging ni Ting Vit iu khin xe ln thng minh
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Hnh 3.1.4. V d phn on khung tn hiu

3.1.5. Ly ca s khung tn hiu
lm r tn hiu ng thi tnh gin on tn hiu u v cui ca
mi khung trong qu trnh x l c trng, khi x l, cc khung s c nhn
vi hm ca s, thng l ca s Hamming. Kt qu l vic ny lm cho
khung tn hiu mt hn, gip cho cc thnh phn c tn s cao xut hin
trong ph. Cng thc hm ca s tng qut:
2
(1 ).cos ,
2
( )
0,
2
n
N
n
N
w n
N
n
t
o o
| |
+ s
|
\ .
=

>

(2.5)
Trong : w(n) gi l hm ca s. Ty vo gi tr ca m c cc ca s
sau :
Vi =0.54, ta c ca s Hamming (Hamming Windown) :
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2
0.54 0.46.cos ,
2
( )
0,
2
n
N
n
N
w n
N
n
t | |
+ s
|
\ .
=

>

(2.6)
Vi nh ngha ca s w(n) theo cng thc trn, 0 1 n N s s , th kt qu
chia ca s cho khung x(n):
1
( ) ( )w( )
t
x n x n n = 0 1 n N s s (2.7)

ngha ca vic p ca s: l nhm mc ch c c d liu theo
min tn s chun a vo php bin i Fourier ri rc.
3.2. Rt trch c trng bng phng php MFCC:
Trong lnh vc x l v nhn dng ting ni, vic tin x l cc tn hiu
thu c v rt trch c trng l mt k thut thit yu m bt c h thng
nhn dng no cng bt buc phi c. Trch rt c trng c vai tr quan
trng quyt nh hiu sut ca qu trnh nhn dng mu (c trong qu trnh
nhn dng v trong qu trnh hun luyn). Cng vic ca bc ny l phn
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tch ph spectral nhm mc ch xc nh cc thng tin quan trng, c trng
ca ting ni, ct gim bt cc yu t khng cn thit trong qu trnh nhn
dng lm gim khi lng d liu cn x l.
Mel Scale Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) l mt phng php
rt trch c trng s dng dy b lc Davis v Mermelstein a ra vo nm
1980 khi h kt hp cc b lc cch khong trng khng u vi php bin
i Cosine ri rc (Discrete Cosin Transform) thnh mt thut ton hon
chnh ng dng trong lnh vc nhn dng ting ni lin tc. ng thi nh
ngha khi nim h s Cepstral v thang o tn s Mel (Mel Scale).

Hnh 3.1.6 Tng qut phng php rt trch c trng MFCC
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Tm tt qu trnh rt trch c trng theo MFCC s nh sau: Ban u tn
hiu sau khi qua tin x l s c chia thnh cc Frame c khong thi gian
ngn. T mi frame sau khi p dng cc bc chuyn i v lc s ra c
mt vecto tng ng. V xong qu trnh ny, ta s c c trng ca dy tn
hiu input l mt dy vecto c trng output ra.
3.2.1 Bin i FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)
Bin i FFT thc cht l mt bin i DFT (Discrete Fourier
Transform) nhng c ti u bng cc thut ton nhanh v gn hn dp
ng cc yu cu x l theo thi gian thc trong cc lnh vc nh x l m
thanh, hnh nh,...
Fast Fourier l mt php bin i thun nghch c c im bo ton tnh
tuyn tnh bt bin, tun hon v tnh tr. Dng bin i tn hiu tng t
sang min tn s, n s gm cc cng thc sau:
Cng thc php bin i thun (dng phn tch tn hiu):
1
2 /
0
( ) ( )
N
j kn N
n
X k x n e
t

=
=

k = 0, 1, 2,., N-1 (2.8)


Cng thc php bin i nghch (dng tng hp li tn hiu):
1
2 /
0
x(n) X(k)
N
j kn N
k
e
t

=
=

n = 0, 1, 2,, N-1 (2.9)


Trong : ( ) ( ) b(n) 1 x n a n = +
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Kt qu chng ta c c khi thc hin FFT l dy tn hiu X
t
(k) a
v b lc Mel Scale.
3.2.2. Lc qua b lc Mel Scale
Trong lnh vc nghin cu v nhn dng ting ni, i hi chng ta phi
hiu v m phng chnh xc kh nng cm th tn s m thanh ca tai ngi.
Chnh v th cc nh nghin cu xy dng mt thang tn s - hay gi l
thang tn s Mel (Mel Scale) da trn c s thc nghim nhiu ln kh nng
cm nhn m thanh ca con ngi. Thang tn s Mel c nh ngha trn tn
s thc theo cng thc:
10
2595log 1
700
f
m
| |
= +
|
\ .
(2.10)
Trong : m l tn s trong thang o Mel, n v l Mel
f l tn s thc, n v l Hz.
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Hnh 3.1.6.b. Biu thang tn s Mel theo tn s thc
Theo biu trn th trong khong tn s thp hn 1kHz th th trn
gn nh l tuyn tnh, ngha l trong khong tn s di 1kHz, tn s Mel v
tn s thc. Trong khong tn s trn 1kHz th mi quan h ny l quan h
Logarit.
Da vo cc thc nghim trn tai ngi, ngi ta xc nh c cc
tn s thc m tai ngi c th nghe c v cha ng nhiu thng tin. Sau
chuyn cc tn s ny sang tn s Mel v xy dng thang o nh sau:
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Hnh 3.1.6.b1. Bng lc tn s Mel
Ta dng thang o ny p dng vo dy sng tn hiu thu c sau khi
thc hin FFT

Hnh 3.1.6.b2. a tn hiu vo bng lc tn s Mel
Kt qu ca bc ny l chng ta s c c tp hp cc tn s Y
t
(m) l
giao im ca sng tn s vi thang tn s Mel t dy tn hiu X
t
(k)

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3.2.3. Logarit gi tr nng lng (Logarit of filter
energies)
Mc ch ca bc ny l nn cc gi tr lc c vo min gi tr
nh hn x l nhanh hn. Nn cc gi tr thu c mi knh lc s c
ly Logarit.

{ }
2
log ( )
t
Y m

3.2.4. Bin i cosin ri rc
Da vo ph tn hiu ting ni ca con ngi trn min tn s, ta c th
thy rng ph tn hiu kh trn, nn khi ly cc gi tr nng lng ra t cc b
lc, cc gi tr ny s c s tng quan kh gn nhau, dn n c trng ta rt
c s khng r rng. Chnh v th, ta thc hin bin i DCT (Discrete
Cosin Transform) lm ri rc cc gi tr ny ra cho n t tng quan vi
nhau, lm tng tnh c trng ca cc tham s. Gi trthu c sau bc ny
ta gi l h s Cepstral.
( )
1
cos 0.5
N
i j
j
j
c m j
N
t
=
| |
=
|
\ .

(2.11)
Trong : N l s knh lc.
M
j
l gi tr logarit nng lng cho mch lc th j.
i l bc ca h s cepstral.
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Thng thng ngi ta ly i trong on [1,12] l s lng c trng
trong mi vecto c trng. Trong cc h nhn dng, s lng c trng nm
trong khong (10,15) l cho kt qu nhn dng tng i m d liu x
l li khng qu ln.
Sau khi thc hin bin i DCT, theo cng thc trn ta thy cc h s
thu c s tng tuyn tnh theo s bc ca n. H s cepstral c s bc cao s
c gi tr rt cao, ngc li cc h s bc thp s c gi tr rt thp. S chnh
lch ny s gy kh khn cho chng ta trong qa trnh m hnh ha d liu v
x l sau ny. V khi c s chnh lch cao, ta s dng min gi tr ln biu
din d liu, v gp kh khn khi a vo cc m hnh x l xc sut,... nn
c cc h s ti u cho cc qu trnh sau, ta s thc hin vic iu chnh
cc h s sau ny gim s chnh lch. Vic ny thc hin bng cng thc:
( )
'
exp * .
n n
c n k c =
(2.12)
Cui cng chng ta s thu c cc gi h s Cepstral c tinh ch.
Cc h s ny l c trng MFCC m chng ta s s dng hun luyn v
nhn dng.
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4
GII THIU V CNG C H
TR NHN DNG TING NI
CMUSPHINX
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24

4.1. Gii thiu CMU Sphinx
Sphinx l mt h thng nhn dng ting ni hon chnh c vit trn
ngn ng JAVA. Sphinx c cng b v chia s m ngun ln u tin vo
nm 2010 do nhm nghin cu Sphinx trng i hc Carnegie Mellon
nghin cu v pht trin. Sau , vi s gip ca cc t chc ( Sun
Microsytems Laboratories, Hewlett Packard, Mitsubishi Electric Research
Labs) v cc trng i hc (University of California at Santa Cruz,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Sphinx tip tc c nghin cu v
b sung cc phin bn mi nh Sphinx 2, Sphinx 3 v mi nht l Sphinx 4
vi tn gi Pocketsphinx, lm cho h thng nhn dng ngy cng ti u hn.
n ny s dng Sphinx 4 thc hin.
4.2. Cc c im ca CMU Sphinx
Sphinx tuy mi c cng b a vo cc ng dng nhn dng cha
lu nhng Sphinx ang dn tr thnh mt framwork nhn dng ting ni
mnh m v c s dng rt nhiu trong cc ng dng trong cuc sng,
l nh cc c im sau :
- H tr nhn dng ting ni ch trc tip hoc chia l, c kh
nng nhn dng ting ni ri rc v lin tc.
- L mt h thng nhn dng s nhng c kh nng tho lp rt linh
ng. H tr sn y cc tnh nng p ng nhu cu nhn dng nh xy
cc b lc, cc hm ca s, cc php bin i, cc cng c h tr rt trch c
trng theo nhiu phng php khc nhau.
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- H tr nhiu m hnh ngn ng dng ASCII v cc phin bn nh
phn ca unigram, bigram, trigram, Java Speech API Grammar Format
(JSGF) v ARPA format FST grammars.
- Xy dng sn cc thut ton tm kim ti u (breath first, word
pruning), d dng tinh chnh cho ph hp vi nhu cu nhn dng.
4.3. Kin trc Sphinx 4
Sphinx 4 l mt framework nhn dng m thanh c thit k kh s
v phc tp. N bao gm cc thnh phn c ghp ni rt linh ng vi
nhau v c cng c ha thnh cc b phn c chc nng ring. Cc thnh
phn ny c th c chnh sa v kt ni vi nhau theo nhu cu ca ng
dng m khng ph v cu trc ca h thng.

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C ba thnh phn c bn to nn Sphinx 4 : B ngoi vi (FrontEnd), B
gii m (Decoder) v b ngn ng (Linguist). d hnh dung cch hot
ng tng qut ca Sphinx ta s tm hiu s lc cc chc nng ca cc b
phn trn. B ngoi vi vi cc cng c h tr cho vic thu nhn v tin xa l
cc tn hiu s nhn v thc hin tham s ha chng thnh tp hp cc vecto
c trng (Feature). B ngn ng s c nhim v c vo cc m hnh ngn
ng vi cc thng tin cch pht m trong t in v thng tin cu trc ca cc
m hnh m hc ri m hnh ha chng vo mt th tm kim (Search
Graph). B phn cn li l b gii m (Decoder) c nhim v quan trng nht
kt ni hai b phn cn li. C th l thnh phn qun l tm kim (Search
Manager) trong b gii m s ly cc thng tin c trng t b ngoi vi ri kt
hp vi th tm kim c pht sinh t b ngn ng gii m v tnh ton
ra kt qu nhn dng.

Khi xy dng Sphinx, cc nh pht trin nghin cu kh k v lnh
vc m hc nn xy dng mt s lng kh ln cc hiu s cu hnh
hiu chnh chung cho ph hp vi nhu cu ca ngn ng v m thanh khc
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nhau. Chng ta c th thay i, iu chnh chng nh thay i cc cch rt
trch c trng, iu chnh cc phng php tm kim, trn file config ca
h thng m khng cn phi can thip su vo bn trong. Bn cnh n cn
xy dng cc tool h tr cho qua trnh nhn dng nh cc tool hun luyn, cc
tool gim st v bo co h thng.
4.3.1. B ngoi vi FrontEnd
Chc nng : Nhn vo cc tn hiu t bn ngoi, thc hin qua mt s
b lc v x l d liu cho kt qu l mt tp cc vecto c trng.

Cu to : Bn trong ca b ngoi vi ny thc cht l mt chui cc
modun con c kh nng x l tn hiu giao tip c ghp ni vi nhau. Cc
chui ny c th hot ng song song cng mt lc vi nhau gi l
Dataproccessor.
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Vic x l bng cc chui Dataproccessor ni ghp vi nhau s gip
chng ta linh ng trong vic rt trch cc thng tin c trng, vi mt tn
hiu ta c th rt trch c trng bng cc phng php khc nhau so snh
tm cc c trng ti u hoc p dng lin tip cc phng php vi nhau
tm ra c trng tt nht. ng thi cho php cc chui ny thc hin song
song vi nhau lm cho h thng nhn din nhanh chng theo thi gian thc
vi lng tn hiu ln thu vo.
4.3.2. B ngn ng - Linguist
Chc nng : Bng cc cng c v phng php ngn ng, b ny s c
vo cc file cu trc ca mt ngn ng ri m hnh ha chng vo th tm
kim s dng trong vic tm kim nhn dng.
Cu to : b phn ny cu to kh phc tp v n quy nh hu nh
ton b phm vi ngn ng m chng ta cn nhn dng, n gm cc thnh
phn nh sau :
a. Thnh phn m hnh ngn ng
Thnh phn ny s c chc nng c vo file cu trc ngn ng cp
l cc t (word level). Thnh phn ny c vai tr quan trng xc nh
nhng th m h thng cn nhn dng. Cu trc ngn ng s c m hnh
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ha thnh phn ny theo hai m hnh : graph driven v Stochastic N
Gram.
- M hnh graph driven grammar : biu din mt th t c hng
trong mi nt biu din mt t n v mi cung biu din xc sut dch
chuyn sang mt t.
- M hnh Stochastic N Gram : m hnh ny cung cp cc xc sut
cho cc t c cho da vo vic quan st n-1 t dng trc.
Sphinx h tr nhiu nh dng ngn ng khc nhau nh :
- SimpleWordListGrammar : nh ngha mt t da trn mt danh sch
cc t. Mt tham s t chn ch ra cc ng php c lp hay khng. Nu ng
php khng lp, ng php s c dng cho mt nhn dng t tch bit. Nu
ng php lp, n s uc dng h tr lin kt nhn dng t tm thng,
tng ng vi mt unigarm grammar vi xc sut bng nhau.
- JSGFGrammar : H tr JavaTM Speech API Grammar Format
(JSGF), nh ngha mt biu din theo BNF, c lp nn tng, Unicode v cc
ng php.
- LMGrammar : nh ngha mt ng php da trn mt m hnh ngn
ng thng k. LMGrammar pht sinh mt nt ng php mi t v lm vic tt
vi vi cc unigram v bigram, xp x 1000 t.
- FSTGrammar : H tr mt b chuyn i trng thi gii hn (finite
state tranducer) trong mt nh dng ARPA FST.
- SimpleNGramModel : Cung cp h tr cc m hnh ASCII N Gram
trong nh dng ARPA. SimpleNGramModel khng c lm ti u vic s
dng b nh, do b lm vic tt vi cc m hnh ngn ng nh.
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- LargeTriGramModel : cung cp h tr cc m hnh N Gram ng
c pht sinh bi CMU Cambridge Statictical Language Modeling
Toolkit. LargeTrigramModel ti u vic lu tr b nh, cho php n lm vic
vi cc tp tin rt ln, trn 100MB.
b. Thnh phn t in
Thnh phn ny cung cp cch pht m cho cc t ta xy dng trong
m hnh ngn ng v h tr phn lp cc t thnh cc lp khc nhau h tr
cho vic tm kim.
c. Thnh phn m hnh m hc
Thnh phn ny m hnh m hc cung cp mt nh x gia mt n v
ting ni v mt HMM (Hidden Markov Model) c th c nh gi da
vo cc c trng c cung cp bi b ngoi vi. Cc nh x c th a thng
tin v tr ca t v ng cnh thnh phn m hnh ngn ng. nh ngha ng
cnh ny c xy dng t cu trc ng php ca m hnh ngn ng.
Khc vi cc h nhn dng khc, m hnh HMM trong Sphinx c cu
trc c nh trong b nh v n thun ch l mt th c hng ca cc i
tng. Trong th ny, mi nt tng ng vi mt trng thi HMM v mi
cung biu din xc sut bin i t trng thi ny sang trng thi khc trong
HMM. Bng cch biu din HMM nh l cc th c hng ca cc i
tng thay v mt cu trc c nh, mt b sung ca m hnh m hc c th
d dng cung cp cc HMM vi cc dng hnh hc tp khc.
Mi trng thi HMM c kh nng pht sinh mt nh gi t mt c
trng quan st. Quy tc tnh ton im s c thc hin bi chnh trng
thi HMM, do che giu cc thc thi ca n i vi cc phn cn li ca h
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thng, thm ch cho php cc hm mt xc sut khc nhau c s dng
trn mi trng thi HMM. M hnh m hc cng cho php chia s cc thnh
phn khc nhau trn tt c cc cp . Ngha l cc thnh phn to nn mt
trng thi HMM nh cc hn hp Gaussian (Gaussian mixture), cc ma trn
bin i v cc trng s hn hp (mixture weight) c th c chia s bi bt
k trng thi HMM no.
d. th tm kim Search Graph
y l kt qu m b ngn ng pht sinh c cui cng a vo s
dng trong b gii m. th tm kim ny l mt th c hng, trong
mi nt c gi l mt trng thi tm kim (Search State): biu din mt
trong hai trng thi: pht hoc khng pht (emitting state hay non-emitting
state). V cc ng cung biu din trng thi bin i c th, trn cc cung
ny c cc gi tr xc sut c tnh ton t m hnh m hc: biu din kh
nng chuyn t trng thi ny n trng thi kia. Mt trng thi c th c
nhiu cung hng n trng thi khc.

4.3.3. B gii m Decoder
Chc nng: B gii m c nhim v chnh l s dng cc c trng
(Features) t b ngoi vi kt hp vi th tm kim c pht sinh t b
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ngn ng tin hnh gii m v p dng cc thut ton suy ra kt qu nhn
dng.
Cu to: Thnh phn ca b ny tuy n gin nhng rt phc tp v
thut ton v nh hng ti tc tm kim, gm mt thnh phn qun l tm
kim (Search Manager) c kh nng tho lp v cc m h tr khc n
gin ha qu trnh gii m cho mt ng dng. Nn trong bo co ch tp trung
gii thiu thnh phn qun l tm kim.
Nhim v ca thnh phn qun l tm kim l nhn dng cc tp hp cc
vector c trng tm ra nh x tng ng ca n trong th tm kim.
p ng tm ra kt qu chnh xc trong th tm kim khi x l kt qu,
Sphinx cung cp cho cc tin ch c kh nng pht sinh li v cc nh gi
tin cy kt qu. V thm c im na khc cc h thng khc l khng
gian tm kim trong Sphinx c th c tinh chnh thay i trong qu trnh
tm kim tng hiu sut tm kim.
Ngoi ra nng cao hiu sut ca kt qu nhn dng, Sphinx con b
sung thm cc cng c h tr cho vic nh gi kt qu nhn c, l
thnh phn nh gi (scorer) v thnh phn ct ta (pruner). Ni v thnh phn
Scorer th n l mt module dng c lng xc sut ca trng thi khi
cung cp cc gi tr mt trngthi xut hin. Khi thnh phn qun l tm
kim yu cu nh gi im s cho mt trng thi, n s gi n thnh phn
Scorer, n s phn tch cc thng tin c trng ca trng thi ri p dng
cc php ton tnh im s.
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5
XY DNG CHNG TRNH
DEMO NHN DNG GING NI
TING VIT IU KHIN XE LN
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5.1. Ci t Sphinx:
5.1.1. Chun b h iu hnh
Linux l m trng h iu hnh thch hp ci t Sphinx v thc
hin hun luyn. Trong cc h iu hnh Linux th Ubuntu c xem l h
iu hnh ph bin nht. Sphinx d dng c ci t trn Ubuntu. Sau khi
hun luyn, cc vecto c trng c a vo b ngn ng cng vi thng s
-hmm v b t in dict c c trong qu trnh hun luyn. Sau , m
hnh ny c a vo h iu hnh Window 7 thc hin nhn dng ting
ni.
5.1.2. Chun b cc gi ci t Sphinx:
Cc gi bao gm:
Pocketsphinx: mt th vin nhn dng vit bng C
- Sphinxbase: mt gi th vin nn, h tr cc th vin cn thit
cho cc gi khc.
- Sphinx4: gi h tr nhn dng vit bng Java
- CMUclmtk: b cng c xy dng m hnh ngn ng.
- Sphinxtrain: B cng c hun luyn m hnh ng m.
Cc gi ci t c th download ti trang ch ca CMU Sphinx.
5.2. Ci t v hun luyn:
Mt h thng nhn dng hot ng cn ti thiu 3 thng s l -hmm, -lm v
dict, trong :
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- Thng s -hmm: l thng s c c bng cch xy dng m hnh ng
m, thng s ny cha trong file c cc tp tin hun luyn
model_parameters\huanluyen.cd_cont_200.
- Thng s -lm: c c bng cch xy dng m hnh ngn ng.
- Thng s -dict: th vin cha cc t cn hun luyn
Qa trnh hot ng ca h nhn dng trong Sphinx nh sau:

u tin, tn hiu ting ni qua micro s c a vo b ngoi vi, y
tn hiu c tham s ha thnh mt dy c trng v chuyn vo cho b gii
m. B ngn ng chuyn i cc m hnh ngn ng, cch pht m trong t
in v thng tin cu trc m trong m hnh m hc vo mt th tm kim
trong b gii m. B gii m s xc nh chui c trng gn ging nht trong
th tm kim so vi c trng ting ni c cung cp bi b ngoi vi v
pht sinh kt qu.
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5.2.1. Xy dng m hnh ngn ng:
M hnh ngn ng:

T file text c a vo l tp hp nhng t cn hu luyn, b t vng
c to ra bi cng c CMUcmlk bng 2 lnh: text2wfreq v wfreq2vocab.
M hnh ngn ng c to ra c dng .arpa. to ra m hnh ngn
ng cn 2 lnh: text2idngram v idngram2lm.
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Xong bc ny ta c thng s cn thit th nht a vo b ngn ng
l lm.
5.2.2. Xy dng m hnh ng m:
M hnh ng m:

Xong bc ny ta s thu c file hmm chnh l thng s cn thit th
hai a vo b ngn ng.
5.2.3. Xy dng t din:
T in c cha trong file huanluyen.dict. N cha ni dung v cch
pht m ca mt t trong b hun luyn.
Mi dng trong tp tin ny l cch nh ngha cch c ca mt t.
Trong ting Vit, cch c v cch vit mt t gn nh l gng lin vi
nhau. Do ta xy dng b t in theo nh cch nh Telex trong Unikey
thng gp.
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V d: t quay tri trong b t in c nh ngha cch c nh sau:
<s> QUAY TRASI </s>
Xong bc ny ta c thng s cui cng l dict a vo b ngn
ng.
5.3. Kt qu th nghim:
V ln u tin lm quen vi cng c v cha c nhiu kinh nghim
trong vic thu m v hun luyn nn thi gian xy dng chng trnh
demo khng nhiu lm. Mc d vy, chng trnh nhn dng c mt s
cu lnh rt chnh xc nh:
- QUAY TRI
- QUAY PHI
- TR LI
- QUAY TRI CHN MI
- QUAY PHI CHN MI
- TR LI CHN MI
S lng cu ng: t trn 80 %
S lng t ng: trn 95 %




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6
KT LUN
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6.1. Kt qu t c
Sau qu trnh tm hiu v nghin cu phng php nhn dng ging ni
Ting Vit, n ny t c nhng mc tiu ra nh sau:
a. Tm hiu cc khi nim c lin quan n h nhn dng ting ni, t hiu
v vn dng c mt s yu t quan trng trong vic s dng cng c h
tr.
b. Tm hiu phng php ci t cng c h tr nhn dng ging ni SPHINX.
Trong bao gm vic chi tit ha tng bc ci t v thc hin. Cc bc
xy dng m hnh hun luyn.
c. Xy dng m hnh m phng nhn dng ging ni Ting Vit trn my tnh
s dng m hnh m hc c hun luyn bng cng c Sphinx, chng
trnh nhn dng cc cu lnh c bn trong iu khin xe ln thng minh.
6.2. Nhng hn ch:
Do y l mt ti tng i kh, mt khc nhng kin thc v x l
ting ni, tn hiu s v cc m hnh ton hc bn thn cha c trang b t
trc m phi t tm hiu nn cn nhiu hn ch v thiu st.
Thi gian lm quen vi h iu hnh UBUNTU 12.04 v xy dng m
hnh hun luyn mt kh nhiu thi gian nn d liu hun luyn cn tng i
hn ch.
B t vng cn qu t so vi tt c cc t n ca Ting Vit. c
c b t vng ln hn i hi mt rt nhiu cng sc v thi gian trong
vic thu m d liu, xy dng m hnh phin m chnh xc.
M hnh ngn ng cn hn ch, h thng nhn dng c chnh xc
kh cao i vi bn thn ti. Tuy nhin i vi ngi khc th m hnh vn c
th nhn dng c nhng chnh xc khng cao.


n II: Nhn dng ging ni Ting Vit iu khin xe ln thng minh
GVHD: TS. Hunh Thi Hong

41

6.3. Hng nghin cu v pht trin
Nhn thy kt qu thu li cng kh kh quan nn vi kt qu ny, n
ny l bc m kh tt hng n ti lun vn sp ti:
- Xy dng b t vng, m hnh ngn ng vi chnh xc cao hn.
- M rng quy m b t vng ca m hnh ng m, rng ri hn, a dng
ging ni hn nhm mc ch xy dng mt h nhn dng ting ni c
chnh xc cao vi bt k ngi no.
- ng dng mt s cu lnh nhn dng c a vo iu khin xe ln
thng minh