+ +


\

+
=
2
'
2 1
2
'
2
1
'
2
2
1
/ 3
x x
s
R
R
s R V
T
s
e
N.m
V
1
= stator applied voltage per phase
R
1
= stator resistance per phase
'
2
R = rotor resistance per phase referred to stator
x
1
= stator leakage reactance per phase
'
2
x = rotor leakage reactance per phase referred to stator
P / f 4
s
= = synchronous speed in rad/s
s = slip
When stator voltage is reduced from rated value, developed torque reduces as proportional to voltage squared.
So, this method is suitable for applications where torque demand reduces with speed, e.g., fan and pump type
AC Drives
load. Speed of a highslip induction
control. Range of speed control is more with fan and pump type load. For constant demand torque loads, range
of speed control is small. In an AC regulator, V
switches). Both developed torque and slip (or speed) vary according to nominal Speed Vrs Torque
characteristics (Fig.1).
Fig. 1 Speed vrs. torque characteristics with variable stator voltage
Domestic fan motors, which are always single phase are
triac. Speed control is obtained by varying firing delay angle of triac. These solid state fan regulators are
preferred over conventional resistance or reactance regulators because of higher efficiency.
(industrial fans and pumps) use three phase induction motors, and three phase voltage controllers to regulate the
voltage. AC voltage controllers (shown in Fig. 2, and Fig. 3 for reversible drives) consist of two SCRs
connected backtoback (in reverse parallel) in each phase. Firing delay angle of SCRs are varied to vary the
stator voltage.
M
o
t
o
r
S
p
e
e
d
(
r
a
d
/
s
)
Developed Torque (N.m)
Vs=0.6pu
Load
torque


2
slip induction motor can be reduced by an amount which is sufficient for the speed
control. Range of speed control is more with fan and pump type load. For constant demand torque loads, range
of speed control is small. In an AC regulator, V
1
is reduced/varied (by varying triggering delay angle of static
switches). Both developed torque and slip (or speed) vary according to nominal Speed Vrs Torque
Fig. 1 Speed vrs. torque characteristics with variable stator voltage
Domestic fan motors, which are always single phase are controlled by single phase voltage controllers using
triac. Speed control is obtained by varying firing delay angle of triac. These solid state fan regulators are
preferred over conventional resistance or reactance regulators because of higher efficiency.
(industrial fans and pumps) use three phase induction motors, and three phase voltage controllers to regulate the
voltage. AC voltage controllers (shown in Fig. 2, and Fig. 3 for reversible drives) consist of two SCRs
ck (in reverse parallel) in each phase. Firing delay angle of SCRs are varied to vary the
Fig. 2 A 3phase voltage regulator
Developed Torque (N.m)
Vs=1pu
Vs=0.9pu
Vs=0.75pu
Vs=0.6pu


motor can be reduced by an amount which is sufficient for the speed
control. Range of speed control is more with fan and pump type load. For constant demand torque loads, range
triggering delay angle of static
switches). Both developed torque and slip (or speed) vary according to nominal Speed Vrs Torque
controlled by single phase voltage controllers using
triac. Speed control is obtained by varying firing delay angle of triac. These solid state fan regulators are
preferred over conventional resistance or reactance regulators because of higher efficiency. High power drives
(industrial fans and pumps) use three phase induction motors, and three phase voltage controllers to regulate the
voltage. AC voltage controllers (shown in Fig. 2, and Fig. 3 for reversible drives) consist of two SCRs
ck (in reverse parallel) in each phase. Firing delay angle of SCRs are varied to vary the
AC Drives
Fig. 3 A 3phase voltage regulator for speed reversible drive
2. Static control of rotor resistance
Smooth speed control of wound rotor induction motor can be obtained by varying effective rotor resistance per
phase, as shown in Fig. 4. The slip frequency output voltage of rotor is rectified by a diode bridge rectifier
(DBR), and fed to a parallel combination of a fixed resistance R and a chopper switch (CH) consisting of a
transistor. Effective resistance across terminals A and B is zero when chopper is ON, and R when chopper is
OFF. If duty ratio of the chopper is: =
average value of resistance across terminal A and B is given by:
R ) 1 ( R
AB
=
Thus, total rotor circuit resistance per phase becomes
) 1 ( R 5 . 0 R R
r rT
+ =
Speed vrs. torque characteristics with variable rotor resistance ar
this method has an advantage of ensuring balanced rotor resistance in the three phases for all operating points.
Fig. 4 Rotor r
3
phase voltage regulator for speed reversible drive
Static control of rotor resistance
Smooth speed control of wound rotor induction motor can be obtained by varying effective rotor resistance per
phase, as shown in Fig. 4. The slip frequency output voltage of rotor is rectified by a diode bridge rectifier
(DBR), and fed to a parallel combination of a fixed resistance R and a chopper switch (CH) consisting of a
transistor. Effective resistance across terminals A and B is zero when chopper is ON, and R when chopper is
) t t ( / t
OFF ON ON
+ = ,
average value of resistance across terminal A and B is given by:
Thus, total rotor circuit resistance per phase becomes
Speed vrs. torque characteristics with variable rotor resistance are shown in Fig.5. Apart from step less control,
this method has an advantage of ensuring balanced rotor resistance in the three phases for all operating points.
Fig. 4 Rotor resistance control using chopper
T1
T3
T5
T3
T5
Smooth speed control of wound rotor induction motor can be obtained by varying effective rotor resistance per
phase, as shown in Fig. 4. The slip frequency output voltage of rotor is rectified by a diode bridge rectifier
(DBR), and fed to a parallel combination of a fixed resistance R and a chopper switch (CH) consisting of a
transistor. Effective resistance across terminals A and B is zero when chopper is ON, and R when chopper is
e shown in Fig.5. Apart from step less control,
this method has an advantage of ensuring balanced rotor resistance in the three phases for all operating points.
AC Drives
Fig. 5 Speed vrs Torque characteristics with variable rotor resistance
3. Static slip power control
It provides the speed control of a wound rotor induction motor below the synchronous speed. The scheme of
speed control is shown in Fig. 6.
Fig. 6
A portion of slip power from rotor is converted to dc by diode bridge rectifier, then converted to line frequency
ac by a line commutated inverter, and fed back to ac mains through a transformer.
Let, V = ac mains voltage per phase
S
p
e
e
d
(
r
a
d
/
s
)
DBR
Starting
Resistances
4
Fig. 5 Speed vrs Torque characteristics with variable rotor resistance
3. Static slip power control
It provides the speed control of a wound rotor induction motor below the synchronous speed. The scheme of
Fig. 6 Static slip power recovery scheme
A portion of slip power from rotor is converted to dc by diode bridge rectifier, then converted to line frequency
ac by a line commutated inverter, and fed back to ac mains through a transformer.
Torque (N.m)
1.5R
r
2.5R
r
3.5R
r
R
r
V
d1
V
d2
LC Inverter [90 165] DBR
L
d
Starting
Resistances
Fig. 5 Speed vrs Torque characteristics with variable rotor resistance
It provides the speed control of a wound rotor induction motor below the synchronous speed. The scheme of
A portion of slip power from rotor is converted to dc by diode bridge rectifier, then converted to line frequency
AC Drives 5
n = stator to rotor turns ratio of induction motor
m = transformer turns ratio
= inverter firing delay angle
V
d1
= dc output voltage of diode bridge rectifier
V
d2
= dc side voltage of line commutated inverter
s = slip
Neglecting stator and rotor drops:
n
V s 6 3
V
1 d
= and
= cos
m
V 6 3
V
2 d
Since voltage drop across dc link inductor is negligible, V
d1
= V
d2
Hence, = cos
m
n
s
By varying inverter delay angle , inverter counter emf V
d2
is varied. Slip power feedback to ac mains is thus
varied, and speed is controlled. Theoretical maximum value of is 180. But it is restricted to 165 for safe
commutation of inverter thyristors. At start, is maximum, and reduced to increase the speed. Maximum speed
is obtained at =90, which is synchronous speed. In (static) rotor resistance control scheme, slip power is
dissipated in external resistance. So, efficiency is low. But in this slip power recovery scheme, slip power is fed
back to ac mains. Hence, high efficiency is obtained, while speed is also variable.
4. Variable frequency control from voltage sources (VSI or Cycloconverter)
Synchronous speed, therefore, the motor speed can be controlled by varying supply frequency. Voltage induced
in stator is proportional to the product of supply frequency and airgap flux. If stator impedance drop is
neglected, terminal voltage can be considered proportional to the product of frequency and airgap flux. In order
to avoid saturation and to minimize losses, motor is operated at rated air gap flux by varying terminal voltage
with frequency so as to maintain V/f ratio constant at rated value.
With a constant V/f ratio, motor develops a constant maximum torque, except at low speeds (or frequencies).
Motor therefore operates at constant torque mode. At low values of frequency or speed, maximum torque will
also be lower because stator impedance drop is a significant fraction of supply voltage (which is small). When it
is required that the same maximum torque is retained at low speeds also, V/f ratio is increased at low
frequencies.
When either V saturates or reaches rated value at base speed, it cannot be increased with frequency because of
limitations imposed by insulation. So, above base speed, frequency is changed, with V maintained constant.
Flux decreases in inverse proportion to speed, and so does the maximum torque. This technique is suitably used
for loads whose demand torque varies inversely to speed in that range, giving a constant power operation.
Torque versus speed characteristics for different frequencies are shown in Fig. 7.
Voltage source inverter (VSI) allows a variable frequency supply to be obtained from a dc supply. Figure 8
shows a VSI using transistors. It can be operated as a stepped wave (180 mode or 120 mode) or a pulsewidth
modulated (PWM) inverter. Frequency is varied by varying the turnon duration of transistors in stepped wave
inverters, and by varying the frequency of control signal in PWM inverters. Variable dc input voltage for
inverter is obtained from a phase controlled converter (as shown in Fig. 9) if supply is ac, and from a chopper
(as shown in Fig. 10) if supply is dc.
AC Drives
Fig. 7 Torque vrs. Speed characteristics with variable frequency
Fig. 9 VSI controlled induction motor drive with front end phase controlled converter
Fig. 10 VSI controlled induction motor drive with front end chopper
Chopper
DC
supply
Phase
Controlled
Converter
T
o
r
q
u
e
(
N
.
m
)
6
Fig. 7 Torque vrs. Speed characteristics with variable frequency
Fig. 8 A Voltage Source Inverter
Fig. 9 VSI controlled induction motor drive with front end phase controlled converter
Fig. 10 VSI controlled induction motor drive with front end chopper
Chopper
VSI
Controlled
Converter
Voltage
Source
Inverter
Speed (rad/s)
Fig. 9 VSI controlled induction motor drive with front end phase controlled converter
AC Drives
A cycloconverter is also used to provide variable frequency supply for induction motor control. But harmonic
content in output increases with frequenc
frequency. Thus, maximum speed is restricted to 40% of synchronous speed at mains frequency. A cyclo
converter circuit is shown in Fig.11. Since cyclo
power and low speed drives.
5. Variable frequency control from current sources (CSI)
A current source inverter (CSI) is also an alternative to obtain variable frequency supply for induction motor
control. Input current of the CSI can be regulated. Typically input current is obtained from a phase controlled
converter (or a chopper) with a smoothing inductor in dc link, as shown in Fig. 12. DC link inductor makes the
current ripple free dc. Current is controlled by varying
Torque of induction motor is controlled by varying dc link current. The advantage of CSI is its reliability. An
autosequentially commutated CSI (ASCSI) circuit using SCRs is shown in Fig. 13.
Fig. 12 Current source inverter fed induction motor drive
Fully
controlled
converter
7
converter is also used to provide variable frequency supply for induction motor control. But harmonic
content in output increases with frequency. So, maximum output frequency is limited to 40% of source
frequency. Thus, maximum speed is restricted to 40% of synchronous speed at mains frequency. A cyclo
converter circuit is shown in Fig.11. Since cycloconverter uses large number of thyristors, it
Fig. 11 A cycloconverter circuit
5. Variable frequency control from current sources (CSI)
A current source inverter (CSI) is also an alternative to obtain variable frequency supply for induction motor
ntrol. Input current of the CSI can be regulated. Typically input current is obtained from a phase controlled
converter (or a chopper) with a smoothing inductor in dc link, as shown in Fig. 12. DC link inductor makes the
controlled by varying of front end converter, and hence the dc link voltage.
Torque of induction motor is controlled by varying dc link current. The advantage of CSI is its reliability. An
sequentially commutated CSI (ASCSI) circuit using SCRs is shown in Fig. 13.
Fig. 12 Current source inverter fed induction motor drive
Fig. 13 A Current source inverter
CSI
converter is also used to provide variable frequency supply for induction motor control. But harmonic
y. So, maximum output frequency is limited to 40% of source
frequency. Thus, maximum speed is restricted to 40% of synchronous speed at mains frequency. A cyclo
converter uses large number of thyristors, it is used for high
A current source inverter (CSI) is also an alternative to obtain variable frequency supply for induction motor
ntrol. Input current of the CSI can be regulated. Typically input current is obtained from a phase controlled
converter (or a chopper) with a smoothing inductor in dc link, as shown in Fig. 12. DC link inductor makes the
of front end converter, and hence the dc link voltage.
Torque of induction motor is controlled by varying dc link current. The advantage of CSI is its reliability. An
AC Drives 8
VIII. Conclusion
Evolution of semiconductor devices has changed the scenario of induction motor control. Static control
techniques of induction motor using voltage controller, VSI, CSI and Cycloconverter have improved
the performances of slipring and squirrel cage induction motors to a great extent. Modern drives using
these techniques have become obvious choice for all industrial drives, and all adjustable speed drive
applications. Static rotor resistance control scheme and static slip power recovery scheme have also
have offered many advantages for slip ring induction machines, for which slip rings are no more
handicap for this type of induction machines. Due to high efficiency, slip power control of wound rotor
induction machines is being a very good option for many high power industrial drives, and for wind
power applications (in generator control). With advent of high switching frequency and low switching
loss semiconductor switches, vector control and direct torque control are being employed to improve
the performance of induction machine further. Vector controlled and direct torque controlled induction
machines have become very common, where performance and precision are important.
Reference Books:
[1] Fundamentals of Electrical Drives, G. K. Dubey, Narosa Publishing House
[2] Modern Power Electronics and A.C. Drives, B. K. Bose, Pearson education
[3] Analysis of Electric Machinery, P. C. Krause, McGraw Hill
[4] Power Semiconductor Controlled Drives, G. K. Dubey, PrenticeHall International
[5] Control of Electrical drives, W. Leonhard, Narosa Publishing House