2 views

Uploaded by ramya2212

Turbulent swirling flows

- Advanced Turbulence Modeling Methods Fluid Flow
- Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Computations of Jet Flows Emanating From Turbofan Exhausts Turbofan Egzoz Cikisi Jet Akisinin Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Ile Hesaplanmasi
- Simulation of Whistle Noise Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
- Study of Heat Transfer for a Pair of Rectangular Jets Impinging on an Inclined Surface
- Convection Chap8
- Modeling Turbulence
- fluid flow.pdf
- Abobaker Mohammed Alakashi
- 01-2d-berl-edm.pdf
- Vertex Sedding
- Art 20172706
- 12_shippropulsion.pdf
- Reynold's Number Demonstration.doc
- Chap 7 Reynolds Exp
- Aspect Ratio of Wings
- NPDF4
- Steady Incompressible Flow in Pressure Conduits Chapter -8
- D. Kivotides et al- Quantum Signature of Superfluid Turbulence
- Bubbly Flow
- Li

You are on page 1of 6

Jawarneh

Assistant Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Hashemite University,

Zarqa 13115, Jordan

e-mail: jawarneh@hu.edu.jo

Georgios H. Vatistas

Professor

Department of Mechanical and Industrial

Engineering,

Concordia University 1455 DeMaisonneuve Blvd.

West,

Montreal, H3G 1M8 Canada

e-mail: vatistas@me.concordia.ca

Reynolds Stress Model in the

Prediction of Conned Turbulent

Swirling Flows

Strongly swirling vortex chamber ows are examined experimentally and numerically

using the Reynolds stress model (RSM). The predictions are compared against the ex-

perimental data in terms of the pressure drop across the chamber, the axial and tangen-

tial velocity components, and the radial pressure proles. The overall agreement between

the measurements and the predictions is reasonable. The predictions provided by the

numerical model show clearly the forced and free vortex modes of the tangential velocity

prole. The reverse ow (or back ow) inside the core and near the outlet, known from

experiments, is captured by the numerical simulations. The swirl number has been found

to have a measurable impact on the ow features. The vortex core size is shown to

contract with the swirl number which leads to higher pressure drop, higher peak tangen-

tial velocity, and deeper radial pressure proles near the axis of rotation. The adequate

agreement between the experimental data and the simulations using RSM turbulence

model provides a valid tool to study further these industrially important swirling

ows. DOI: 10.1115/1.2354530

1 Introduction

Swirling ow occurs in many engineering applications, such as

vortex separators, pumps, gas turbine combustors, furnaces, spray

dryer, the vortex valve, the vortex combustor, and gas-core

nuclear rocket. In modern combustors, swirl is used to produce

good mixing and to improve the ame stability. In all conned

vortex applications, it is important to understand adequately the

overall ow eld evolution as a function of both the geometrical

and ow parameters. A good knowledge of these ows will im-

prove the design and performance of a variety of vortex devices.

It is well known that the tangential velocity of the conned

uid changes from free to forced vortex as the ow approaches

the axis of rotation. The static pressure in an attempt to balance

the centrifugal force will reduce from a maximum value near the

cylindrical wall of the chamber to a minimum on the axis of

rotation. Depending on the inlet swirl intensity, the pressure inside

the core might drop below the outside ambient, thus inducing a

reverse ow. Escudier et al. 1 demonstrated experimentally the

axial and swirl velocities distributions using Laser Doppler An-

emomerty LDA measurements. The experiments were per-

formed with water for a range of exit diameters. The observation

revealed a remarkable change in the vortex structure as the exit

diameter is reduced, where the vortex core size changes from a

thick core to a thin core. In addition, the axial velocity was found

able to develop proles ranging from jetlike to wakelike shapes,

thus revealing the evolution of the reverse ow. Vatistas 2 re-

ported a model for single- or double-celled intense vortices, de-

pending on the values of scaling constants. It was shown that the

axial velocity component may attain proles ranging from jetlike

to wakelike. The last was an attempt to mathematically simulate

the reverse ow conditions. Sullivans 3 two-celled vortex

model can also approximately simulate the direction reversal of

the radial and axial velocity components near the axis of rotation.

The major obstacle in numerical modeling of complex turbulent

swirling ows is the selection of appropriate turbulence closure

models. In simple ow cases, the k model performs well. How-

ever, for strongly swirling ows that involves severe streamline

bending it fails. The last conclusion is clearly evident in a variety

of studies; see for example the work of Nallasamy 4, Nejad et al.

5, and Weber 6. A review of second-moment computations for

engineering ows has been provided by Launder 7, Leschziner

8, and Ferziger and Peric 9. The results of these computations

demonstrate the superiority of RSM over eddy-viscosity models

for curved ows, swirling ows and recirculating ows. Jones et

al. 10 have studied the performance of second moment closure

turbulence models for swirling ow in a cylindrical combustion

chamber. The models are found to predict mean and turbulent ow

quantities well. German and Mahmud 11 have shown that the

overall agreement between the measurements and the predictions

obtained with both the k and Reynolds-stress turbulence mod-

els are reasonably good. However, some features of the isothermal

and combusting ow elds are better predicted by the Reynolds-

stress model. Jakirlic et al. 12 have shown numerically using

three versions of the second-momentum closure and two eddy-

viscosity models that the second-momentum models are superior.

However, difculties in predicting accurately the transformation

from free- to forced-vortex modes or the determination of the

normal stress components inside the core still remain. Vortex

chamber ows at low Reynolds number via direct numerical

simulations were investigated by Orland and Fatica 13. Jones

and Pascau 14 and Hoekstra et al. 15 used the k turbulent

model and a Reynolds stress transport equation model of a strong

conned swirling ow. Once more, comparisons of the results

with measurements show the superiority of the transport equation

model, where k gave large discrepancies between the measured

and predicted velocity elds.

Since a Reynolds stress model RSM takes into consideration

the effects of severe streamline bending due to swirl in a more

appropriate way than the one- and two-equation models, it is best

suited for the present study. The aim of this paper is to study the

ow features in a vortex chamber experimentally and numerically

using FLUENT Fluent Inc., and to compare the results obtained

using a Reynolds stress model to available experimental data of

vortex chambers operating under different swirl numbers. Perfor-

mance assessment of the RSM in the predicting turbulent, strongly

swirling vortex chamber ows will also be one of the objectives.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the

JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 9, 2005; nal manu-

script received March 22, 2006. Assoc. Editor: Ugo Piomelli.

Journal of Fluids Engineering NOVEMBER 2006, Vol. 128 / 1377 Copyright 2006 by ASME

2 Experimental Setup

The experiments have been conducted using a jet-driven vortex

chamber similar to the one utilized by Vatistas et al. 16. The

main difference between the two is that in the latest version,

shown schematically in Fig. 1. It has a cylindrical conguration

with constant cross-sectional area R

o

=7 cm and a central axis

outlet and circumferential inlets. Swirl is imparted to the uid via

the vortex generator shown in Figs. 1 and 2. It has four perpen-

dicular air inlets where the compressed air is induced. The re-

quired set of inlet conditions is obtained by the insertion of the

appropriate vortex generator blocks swirler into the vortex gen-

erator assembly a long the periphery of the vortex generator. A

number of openings of a circular cross section d

in

are drilled at

a specied angle =30 deg. When the air ow passes through the

swirlers, it is guided to enter the vortex chamber in the radial and

tangential directions so that swirl is formed inside the vortex

chamber. The swirler has 16 holes with diameter d

in

=1.267 cm

and inlet area A

in

=20.177 cm

2

. Chamber diameter ratio ,

which is dened as the ratio of the diameter of a vortex chamber

D

o

to the diameter of the exit hole D

e

, was varied from

=2.5, 3.33, 3.67, 4.0, 5.01, 5.29, 5.80, 6.47, 7.08 to 7.45. Chamber

aspect ratio , which is dened as the ratio of the chamber

length L to the diameter of a vortex chamber D

o

was xed at

=3.00. Area ratio , which is dened as the ratio of the total

inlet area A

in

to the cross-sectional area of the vortex chamber

A

o

was xed at =0.131.

The measurements were made at inlet air ow rate Q

in

=0.0187 m

3

/ s, which is corresponding to Reynolds number Re

o

=11,592, which is dened based on the average velocity as

Re

o

=

4Q

in

D

o

The static pressure is measured by a series of taps located ahead

of the tangential ports and is averaged by connecting in parallel all

the pressure pickup tubes into a common tube. The measurements

of the mean gage pressure p=p

in

p

a

were obtained using a

U-tube lled with Meriam oil, having a specic gravity equal to

1.00. The estimated uncertainty is less than 8% for the pressure

drop measurements. A rotameter was used to measure the volu-

metric ow rate of the inlet air. This was carefully calibrated in

standard conditions 1 atm and 200.5 %C. For the ow rate

used, the uncertainty was estimated to be 2%.

3 Computational Details

Governing Equations. In Reynolds averaging, the solution

variables in the instantaneous Navier-Stokes equations are decom-

posed into the mean and uctuating components. For the velocity

components: u

i

=u

i

+u

i

where u

i

and u

i

are the mean and uctu-

ating velocity components. Likewise, for pressure and other scalar

quantities: =

Substituting expressions of this form for the ow variables into

the instantaneous continuity and momentum equations and drop-

ping the over-bar on the mean velocity u yields the momentum

equations. They can be written in Cartesian tensor form as

x

i

u

i

= 0 1

x

j

u

i

u

j

=

P

x

i

+

x

j

u

i

x

j

+

u

j

x

i

2

3

ij

u

l

x

l

+

x

j

u

i

u

j

2

Equations 1 and 2 are called Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes

RANS equations. Additional terms now appear that represent the

effects of turbulence. These Reynolds stresses, u

i

u

j

, must be

modeled in order to close Eq. 2.

Reynolds Stress Transport Equations. The Reynolds stress

model 17 involves calculation of the individual Reynolds

stresses, u

i

u

j

, using differential transport equations. The indi-

vidual Reynolds stresses are then used to obtain closure of the

Reynolds-averaged momentum Eq. 2. The transport equations

for the transport of the Reynolds stresses, u

i

u

j

, can be written

as follows:

x

k

u

k

u

i

u

j

C

ij

=

x

k

k

u

i

u

j

x

k

+

x

k

x

k

u

i

u

j

u

i

u

k

u

j

x

k

+ u

j

u

k

u

i

x

k

P

ij

+

ij

2

3

ij

3

The term on the left-hand side of Eq. 3 represents the convec-

tion, the terms on the right-hand side represent the turbulent dif-

fusion as proposed by Lien and Leschziner 18, molecular diffu-

sion, stress production, pressure strain, and the dissipation,

respectively. The pressure strain term

ij

is simplied according

to the proposal by Gibson and Launder 19:

ij

=

ij,1

+

ij,2

+

ij,w

4

ij,1

= C

1

k

u

i

u

j

2

3

ij

k 5

ij,2

= C

2

P

ij

C

ij

1

3

ij

P

kk

C

kk

6

Fig. 1 Schematic of the vortex chamber

Fig. 2 Inlet ow boundary condition

1378 / Vol. 128, NOVEMBER 2006 Transactions of the ASME

ij,w

= C

1

k

u

k

u

m

n

k

n

m

ij

3

2

u

i

u

k

n

j

n

k

3

2

u

i

u

k

n

i

n

k

k

3/2

C

l

d

+ C

2

km,2

n

k

n

m

ij

3

2

ik,2

n

j

n

k

3

2

jk,2

n

j

n

k

k

3/2

C

l

d

7

where C

1

=1.8, C

1

=0.5, C

2

=0.3, n

k

is the x

k

component of the

unit normal to the wall, d is the normal distance to the wall, and

C

l

=C

3/4

/ , where C

=0.4187. The scalar dissipation rate is computed with a model

transport equation similar to that used in the standard k model

x

i

u

i

=

x

j

+

t

x

j

C

1

1

2

P

ii

k

C

2

2

k

8

where

k

=1.0, C

1

=1.44, and C

2

=1.92 are constants taken from

Launder and Spalding 20. When the turbulence kinetic energy is

needed for modeling a specic term, it is obtained by taking the

trace of the Reynolds stress tensor

k =

1

2

u

i

u

i

9

The turbulent viscosity

t

is computed similarly to the k model

t

= C

k

2

10

where C

equilibrium wall functions were used near wall as proposed by

Kim and Choudhury 21.

Inlet Conditions for the Reynolds Stresses. Whenever ow

enters the domain, the values for individual Reynolds stresses,

u

i

u

j

, and for the turbulence dissipation rate can be input di-

rectly or derived from the turbulence intensity and characteristic

length. The turbulence intensity I can be estimated from the fol-

lowing formula derived from an empirical correlation for pipe

ows

I =

u

V

avg

= 0.16Re

o

1/8

11

The turbulence length scale l is a physical quantity related to the

size of the large eddies that contain the energy in turbulent ows.

An approximate relationship between l and the physical size of

the vortex chamber diameter D

o

is

l = 0.07D

o

12

The relationship between the turbulent kinetic energy k and tur-

bulence intensity I is

k =

3

2

V

avg

I

2

13

where V

avg

is the average axial velocity. The turbulence dissipa-

tion rate can be determined as

= C

3/4

k

3/2

l

14

The values of the Reynolds stresses explicitly at the inlet are

given by

u

i

u

j

= 0 and u

i

2

=

2

3

k 15

4 Turbulence Modeling in Swirling Flows

The problem is considered to be an incompressible, steady, axi-

symmetric, and turbulent swirling ow. In this case, we can model

the ow in two-dimensional 2D i.e., solve the axisymmetric

swirl problem and incorporate the prediction of the swirl veloc-

ity; see Fig. 3.

The difculties associated with the solution of strongly swirling

ows can be attributed to high degree of coupling in the momen-

tum equations. High uid rotation gives rise to large radial pres-

sure gradient, which drives the ow in the meridional plane. This,

in turn, determines the distribution of the swirl in the eld. Nu-

merical instabilities that are attributed to momentum coupling re-

quire special solution techniques in order to obtain a converged

solution. Hence, a segregated, implicit solver, which is wellsuited

for the sharp pressure, and velocity gradients are more appropriate

for the ow under consideration. The mesh is sufciently must be

also sufciently rened in order to resolve the expected large ow

parameter gradients. The under-relaxation parameters on the ve-

locities were selected 0.30.5 for the radial and axial, and 0.9 for

the azimuthal velocity components.

There is a signicant amount of swirl in the chamber. The ap-

propriate choice depends on the strength of the swirl, which can

be gaged by the swirl number. To characterize the degree of swirl-

ing ow in a vortex chamber, a swirl number S is introduced.

Based on Gupta et al. 22 denition,

S =

G

G

z

Re

16

where G

G

0

R

o

V

z

V

r

2

dr 17

G

z

is the axial ux of axial momentum,

G

z

=

0

R

o

V

z

2

rdr 18

To simplify the calculation of swirl number, the free-swirl velocity

prole and the average axial velocity are assumed inside the vor-

tex chamber.

V

=

V

in

R

o

r

, V

z

= V

avg

19

The ultimate form of the swirl number S can be determined as

S =

V

in

V

avg

20

Then, the simulations were performed for different swirl numbers

varied from S=12.520.

Grid Generation. A major challenge in calculating the ow

inside the vortex chamber is providing an adequate description of

the geometry. Because of the complex geometry of the vortex

generator, control over the grid is limited, making it difcult to

reduce the size of mesh without losing accuracy in the results.

Also, the grid size is limited by the computer memory available.

This leads to use axisymmetric problem, the formulation of 2D

grid generation are shown in Fig. 4. Triangular mesh elements and

an unstructured grid were used. A grid independent solution study

was made by performing the simulations for three different grids

consisting of 30,000, 43,000, and 50,000 nodes. The mean swirl

velocity for the three different grid sizes is shown in the Fig. 5.

Fig. 3 Computational domain

Journal of Fluids Engineering NOVEMBER 2006, Vol. 128 / 1379

Boundary Conditions. Boundary conditions have to be speci-

ed in order to solve the governing equations; see Fig. 3. At the

inlet, the values can be calculated from the given conditions at the

inlet, boundary; see Fig. 2. The total inlet velocity vector V

in

has

two components V

r,in

and V

,in

and they are related to each other

by:

V

,in

= V

in

cos , V

r,in

= V

in

sin , V

in

=

Q

in

A

in

21

However, at the outlet boundary there is no information about the

variables and some assumptions have to be made. The diffusion

uxes in the direction normal to the exit plane are assumed to be

zero. The pressure at the outlet boundary is calculated from the

assumption that radial velocity at the exit is neglected since it

does not have the space to develop, so that the pressure gradient

from r momentum is given by

p

r

=

V

2

r

22

At the solids walls, the no-slip condition was applied where the

velocities at the walls were specied to be zero. The centerline

boundary was considered axis of symmetry.

Discretization Scheme. The pressure-velocity coupling is

handled by using the SIMPLE-algorithm, the pressure staggering

option scheme was used for the pressure interpolation, the rst

order upwind schemes were used for momentum, swirl velocity,

turbulence kinetic energy, turbulence dissipation rate, and Rey-

nolds stresses. Convergence was assumed when the residual of the

equations dropped more than 3 orders of magnitude.

5 Results and Discussion

Pressure Drop Coefcient. Pressure drop or loss can be re-

garded as energy loss from the point of view of energy conserva-

tion. In the vortex chamber, pressure drop occurs mainly through

the dissipation of the swirl velocity as proposed by Jawarneh et al.

23. The pressure drop coefcient is dened as

C

p

=

2p

V

in

2

The estimated uncertainty for the pressure drop coefcient C

p

present experimental data to the RSM prediction of the pressure

drop coefcient C

p

for aspect ratio =3.0 and inlet angle

=30 deg. It is clear that as the diameter ratio increases, the

pressure coefcient C

p

increases. Stronger vortices will be pro-

duced by increasing the diameter ratio, resulting in a higher tan-

gential velocity and hence a higher pressure drop. It can be seen

that the Reynolds stress model gives good agreement with the

experimental data and the percentage difference error between the

predicted and experiments is 10%.

Mean Swirl Velocities Proles. The predicted and measured

radial proles of mean tangential, axial velocities and radial pres-

Fig. 4 Computational grid near the exit

Fig. 5 Grid independent solution study

Fig. 6 Pressure drop coefcient

1380 / Vol. 128, NOVEMBER 2006 Transactions of the ASME

sure for the chamber at station H=0.8L are shown in Fig. 7, 8, and

10, respectively. Figure 7 shows the mean swirl velocities proles

for the conguration =30 deg, =3.0, =0.131 at Reynolds

number Re

o

=11,592 and the predicted swirl velocity results are

compared with available experiments data LDA from Yan et al.

24 at three diameter ratios =2.5, 3.33, 4.0. It is shown the

ability of RSM to capture the free-vortex and forced-vortex re-

gions. Because of the intense swirl by increasing the swirl number

S, a high level of swirl momentum is transported around the

centreline and the consequence is the formation of the intense

swirling vortex along the center-line. In the latter gure, the peak

tangential velocity increases with increasing the diameter ratio or

the swirl number, and the location where the tangential velocity is

a maximum moves towards the vortex chamber center.

Mean Axial Velocity Prole. The mean axial velocity compo-

nent is able to develop prole ranging from jetlike to wakelike

shape as shown in Fig. 8. The predicted axial velocity results are

compared with available experiments data LDA from Escudier

et al. 1. The reverse ow backow in the vortex core is due to

the reduction of static pressure to values that are below the ambi-

ent and the stagnation point is appeared clearly in Fig. 8. Figure 9

shows the predicted axial velocities vectors near the chamber exit,

a ow-reversal region is found in the vortex core.

Mean Radial Pressure Proles. The following analysis illus-

trates the mean pressure distribution proles , and the pre-

dicted radial pressure will be compared to available experimental

data. The mean pressure distribution proles is dened ac-

cording to the following equation:

r =

2pr pr = 1

V

in

2

, where r =

r

R

o

Figure 10 compares the predicted radial pressure coefcient

to the experimental results 25,26 at three diameter ratios

=2.5, 3.33, 4.0. A good agreement with the experiments is ob-

served especially with high-diameter ratios i.e., =4.0, where

the ow eld is under strong swirling condition. Increasing the

swirl number S leads to deeper pressure proles.

6 Conclusions

Conned vortex ow inside the vortex chamber was investi-

gated both experimentally and computationally at different swirl

ratio. The RSM model is able to predict the ow features, such as

the press drop, tangential, axial velocities, and the radial pressure

proles. The prediction shows the behavior of the mean tangential

velocity distribution where a forced-vortex inside the core and a

free-vortex outside the core are existed and agree with the experi-

mental data. The reverse-ow, which is associated with the axial

velocity prole, is captured inside the core region and close to the

chamber exit. The swirl number has sufcient impact of the ow

features, the vortex core size contracts with increasing the swirl

number leads to more pressure drop energy loss, the peak tan-

gential velocity grows up, and deeper radial pressure proles. A

comparison of the results with measurement shows clearly the

superiority of the Reynolds-stress turbulence model in capturing

the major features of a conned, strongly swirling ow.

Fig. 7 Mean swirl velocity

Fig. 8 Dimensionless mean axial velocity

Fig. 9 Predicted axial velocity vectors near the exit

Journal of Fluids Engineering NOVEMBER 2006, Vol. 128 / 1381

Nomenclature

A

o

cross-sectional area of the vortex chamber

A

in

total inlet area

C

p

pressure coefcient 2p/ V

in

2

D

e

diameter of the exit port 2Re

D

in

diameter of the inlet port

D

o

chamber diameter 2R

o

L chamber length

p static pressure

p

a

ambient static pressure

p

in

static pressure at the inlet

Q

in

inlet volumetric ow rate

r, , z radial, tangential and axial coordinate

respectively

r normalized radius r/ R

o

R

e

radius of exit port

Re

o

Reynolds number Re

o

=4Q

in

/ D

o

R

o

radius of the chamber

S swirl number

u

i

, u

j

, u

k

velocity components in Cartesian coordinates

V

, V

z

mean tangential and axial velocity components

V

in

total velocity vector at the inlet

V

avg

average axial velocity

V

,in

inlet tangential velocity component

V

r,in

inlet radial velocity component

Greek Symbols

area ratio A

in

/ A

o

in

P

a

in

2

ij

Kronecker delta

turbulence dissipation rate

kinematics viscosity

dynamic viscosity

t

eddy or turbulent viscosity

density of the uid

inlet angle

aspect ratio L/ D

o

diameter ratio D

o

/ D

e

References

1 Escudier, M. P., Bornstein, J., and Zehender, N., 1980, Observations and

LDA Measurements of Conned Turbulent Vortex Flow, J. Fluid Mech., 98,

pp. 4963.

2 Vatistas, G. H., 1998, New Model for Intense Self-Similar Vortices, J. Pro-

pul. Power, 144, pp. 462469.

3 Sullivan, R. D., 1959, A Two-Cell Vortex Solution of the Navier-Stokes

Equations, J. Aerosp. Sci., 2611, pp. 767768.

4 Nallasamy, M., 1987, Turbulence Models and Their Applications to the Pre-

diction of Internal Flows, Comput. Fluids, 152, pp. 151194.

5 Nejad, A. S., Vanka, S. P., Favaloro, S. C., Samimy, M., and Langenfeld, C.,

1989, Application of Laser Velocimetry for Characterization of Conned

Swirling Flow, Trans. ASME: J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 111, pp. 3645.

6 Weber, R., 1990, Assessment of Turbulence Modeling for Engineering Pre-

diction of Swirling Vortices in the Near Burner Zone, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow,

113, pp. 225235.

7 Launder, B. E., 1989, Second-Moment Closure and Its Use in Modelling

Turbulent Industrial Flows, Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 98, pp. 963

985.

8 Leschziner, M. A., 1990, Modelling Engineering Flows With Reynolds Stress

Turbulence Closure, J. Wind. Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 351, pp. 2147.

9 Ferziger, J. H., and Peric, M., 1999, Computational Methods for Fluid Dynam-

ics, 2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

10 Jones, L. N., Gaskell, P. H., Thompson, H. M., Gu, X. J., and Emerson, D. R.,

2005, Anisotropic, Isothermal, Turbulent Swirling Flow in a Complex Com-

bustor Geometry, Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 47, pp. 10531059.

11 German, A. E., and Mahmud, T., 2005, Modelling of Non-Premixed Swirl

Burner Flows Using a Reynolds-Stress Turbulence Closure, Fuel, 845, pp.

583594.

12 Jakirlic, S., Hanjalic, K., and Tropea, C., 2002, Modeling Rotating and Swirl-

ing Turbulent Flows: A Perpetual Challenge, AIAA J., 4010, pp. 1984

1996.

13 Orland, P., and Fatica, M., 1997, Direct Simulation of Turbulent Flow in a

Pipe Rotating About Its Axis, J. Fluid Mech., 343, pp. 4372.

14 Jones, W. P., and Pascau, A., 1989, Calculation of Conned Swirling Flows

With a Second Momentum Closure, ASME Trans. J. Fluids Eng., 111, pp.

248255.

15 Hoekstra, A. J., Derksen, H. E. A., and Akker, V. D., 1999, An Experimental

and Numerical Study of Turbulent Swirling Flow in Gas Cyclones, Chem.

Eng. Sci., 54, pp. 20552065.

16 Vatistas, G. H., Lam, C., and Lin, S., 1989, Similarity Relationship for the

Core Radius and the Pressure Drop in Vortex Chambers, Can. J. Chem. Eng.,

67, pp. 540544.

17 Launder, B. E., Reece, G. J., and Rodi, W., 1975, Progress in the Develop-

ment of a Reynolds-Stress Turbulence Closure, J. Fluid Mech., 683, pp.

537566.

18 Lien, F. S., and Leschziner, M. A., 1994, Assessment of Turbulent Transport

Models Including Nonlinear RNG Eddy-Viscosity Formulation and Second-

Moment Closure, Comput. Fluids, 238, pp. 9831004.

19 Gibson, M., and Launder, B. E., 1978, Ground Effects on Pressure Fluctua-

tions in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer, J. Fluid Mech., 86, pp. 491511.

20 Launder, B. E., and Spalding, D. B., 1974, Numerical Computation of Tur-

bulent Flows, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 32, pp. 269289.

21 Kim, S. E., and Choudhury, D., 1995, A Near-Wall Treatment Using Wall

Functions Sensitized to Pressure Gradient, ASME FED, 217, Separated and

Complex Flows, pp. 273280.

22 Gupta, A. K., Lilly, D. G., and Syred, N., 1984, Swirl Flows, Abacus, Tun-

bridge Wells, England, UK.

23 Jawarneh, M. A., Vatistas, G. H., and Hong, H., 2005, On the Flow Devel-

opment in Jet-Driven Vortex Chambers, J. Propul. Power, 213, pp. 564

570.

24 Yan, L., Vatistas, G. H., and Lin, S., 2000, Experimental Studies on Turbu-

lence Kinetic Energy in Conned Vortex Flows, J. Therm. Sci., 91, pp.

1022.

25 Lam, H. C., 1993, An Experimental Investigation and Dimensional Analysis

of Conned Vortex Flows, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical and in-

dustrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal.

26 Alekseenko, S. V., Kuibin, P. A., Okulov, V. L., and Shtork, S. I., 1999,

Helical Vortices in Swirl Flow, J. Fluid Mech., 383, pp. 195243.

Fig. 10 Mean radial pressure

1382 / Vol. 128, NOVEMBER 2006 Transactions of the ASME

- Advanced Turbulence Modeling Methods Fluid FlowUploaded byPranav Rai
- Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Computations of Jet Flows Emanating From Turbofan Exhausts Turbofan Egzoz Cikisi Jet Akisinin Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Ile HesaplanmasiUploaded bytolga_enes9949
- Simulation of Whistle Noise Using Computational Fluid DynamicsUploaded byZdzisław Sztacheta
- Study of Heat Transfer for a Pair of Rectangular Jets Impinging on an Inclined SurfaceUploaded byEKKACHAI PRABNAKORN
- Convection Chap8Uploaded byKelvin Sudani
- Modeling TurbulenceUploaded byanon_555792631
- fluid flow.pdfUploaded byHarrrison
- Abobaker Mohammed AlakashiUploaded byAditia Riski
- 01-2d-berl-edm.pdfUploaded bydfiorillo
- Vertex SeddingUploaded byVenkata Raju Kalidindi
- Art 20172706Uploaded byDorry Prayoga
- 12_shippropulsion.pdfUploaded bydeepak16051988
- Reynold's Number Demonstration.docUploaded byKalaiArasan
- Chap 7 Reynolds ExpUploaded byClarissa Gomez
- Aspect Ratio of WingsUploaded byMa Robina Obias Candia
- NPDF4Uploaded bymfmechanics
- Steady Incompressible Flow in Pressure Conduits Chapter -8Uploaded byJahangir Ali
- D. Kivotides et al- Quantum Signature of Superfluid TurbulenceUploaded byJuaxmaw
- Bubbly FlowUploaded byAnkitPatel90
- LiUploaded byJin Lee
- Seminar ReportUploaded byAbdulmuttalib Lokhandwala
- Aerodynamics of the Hovering HummingbirdUploaded byPierre Pa
- Plate TutorialUploaded byKhaled Chaib
- Articol SciDir_ergunUploaded byAnaZaicaCanpeanu
- NazakatUploaded byNazakat Hussain
- 26_ParallelPlateUploaded byAnmol Kumar
- Flow Instability in Bafﬂed Channel FlowUploaded byRt Roberto
- Performance Evaluation of Oscillating Hydrofoils When Used to Extract Energy From Tidal CurrentsUploaded byBob
- durbin1995 (1)Uploaded byfatemedarlik
- Two Phase FlowUploaded bydfsfsdf

- Shaft DesignUploaded byKarthick Durai
- QtP vs SeleniumUploaded bybuntyavailable
- Set ExamUploaded byManoj Kumar
- rank_pg_2015Uploaded byGangatharan Narayanan
- Disc BrakeUploaded bysiddout2006
- artigo_referenciaUploaded byAnonymous zfC1zo9C
- Grammar BasicsUploaded byramya2212
- Anna University UG PG Project FormatUploaded byramya2212
- A Route Advisory RAS for Travelling Salesman ProblemUploaded byramya2212
- PEER_stage2_10.1080%2F03052150802506521Uploaded byramya2212
- PR265Uploaded byramya2212
- Fm.lautenschlager.confpro.dac 3961.1997Uploaded byramya2212
- Disk Measurements 07 05Uploaded byramya2212
- Step by Step Guide for Modeling Heat Generation in a Disc BrakeUploaded byramya2212
- M1030Uploaded byramya2212
- B7.17 HanUploaded byramya2212
- A983Uploaded byramya2212
- The Application of Vortex Tubes to Refrigeration CyclesUploaded byramya2212

- HPKM Column Shoes PeikkoGroup-8-2012Uploaded byGustavo Emilio Pàez Rosales
- Idamalayar Hydro Electric ProjectUploaded byRajesh TK
- coordinates aug13aUploaded byapi-243489696
- fortran_quick_guide.pdfUploaded byjhalendrafb
- En-IsO-14683 Transfer Termic Punte TermicaUploaded byAndrei David
- Answers and Explanations -- Imaginary Numbers: How to Show They ExistUploaded bylivingtool
- rx4mm5_usersmanualUploaded bycavcic
- 14-2111Uploaded byAcie Lastri
- LS_exercise3_102Uploaded byBoris Wong
- CryogenicUploaded byzohaib_farooq
- Refining of Palm Kernel OilUploaded byhagung
- C FaqsUploaded byAbhishekSharma
- ASTM D 1683Uploaded bymuthuganu
- conjunctionUploaded byErikaCrisologo
- An Evaluation of the Relationship Between ManagementUploaded bySandro Lordelo
- App 001 Gearbox DatabaseUploaded byram12bobby
- BT151Uploaded byitamar_jr
- Ns2 InformationUploaded byAmhmed Bhih
- ms word MCQUploaded byRAJAN GUPTA
- The Capabilities and Performance Advantages of MarketUploaded byLim Yen Ling
- bmw Stering Angle SensorUploaded byZakaria Tahori
- DGS 1140-001 Rev 1Uploaded byEfficiency2010
- civ200__Uploaded byjohney2
- T F NUploaded byroy_linao
- Final Year Projects List - DSP MatlabUploaded byEnsemble Technologies
- Seminar Vasicek 08 2008Uploaded byViviana Istrate
- WH Question WordsUploaded byBenjamin Mosso
- Catart Bach MaxUploaded by姚熙
- SS7Uploaded byJaved Akhtar Khan
- 6 week training reportUploaded byRavi Kumar