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DC Motor Drives

Example 1

A 220V, 200 A, 800 rpm dc separately excited motor has an armature resistance of 0.06.
The motor armature is fed from a variable voltage source with an internal resistance of
0.04. Calculate internal voltage of the variable voltage source (VVS) when the motor is
operating in:
(i) Motoring at 50% of the rated motor torque and 400 rpm
(ii) Regenerative braking at 80% of the rated motor torque and 600 rpm.

Solution

We know that the motor torque,T
m
is proportional to the armature current, I
a
. The motor
speed, N is proportional to the back emf, E.







(i) The motor armature current at 50% of the rated motor torque is
A I
a
100 200 5 . 0 = =
The back emf at the rated speed and the rated torque is
V R I V E
a a a
208 06 . 0 200 220 = = =
The back emf at 400 rpm is
V E
N
N
E 104 208
800
400
1
2
= = =
Internal voltage of VVS is
V R R I E V
a a
114 ) 04 . 0 06 . 0 ( 100 104 (
int) int
= + + = + + =

(ii) The motor armature current at 80% of the rated motor torque is
+
Ea
-
Ia
Vs
Rint
Ra
2
A I
a
160 200 8 . 0
2
= =

The back emf at the rated speed and the rated torque is
V R I V E
a a a
208 06 . 0 200 220
2 2
= = =

The back emf at 600 rpm is
V E
N
N
E 156 208
800
600
1
1
2
2
= = =
Internal voltage of VVS is
V R R I E V
a a
140 ) 04 . 0 06 . 0 ( 160 156 (
int) 2 2 int
= + = + + =

Example 2
A 200V, 875 rpm, 150A separately excited dc motor has an armature resistance of 0.06 . It
is fed from a single-phase fully controlled rectifier with an ac source voltage of 220V, 50 Hz.
Assuming continuous conduction, calculate
(i) Firing angle for rated motor torque and 750 rpm.
(ii) Firing angle for rated motor torque and 500 rpm
(iii) Motor speed for = 160 and rated torque.

Solution

At rated operation: V E 191 06 . 0 150 200
1
= =
rpm N
A I
875
150
1
1
=
=

(i) E at 750 rpm, V V E 7 . 163 191
875
750
2
= =
Because of the motor operated at the rated torque

A I I
a a
150
2 1
= =
and

V R I E V
a a a
7 . 172 06 . 0 150 7 . 163
2 2 2
= + = + =
Now
3
o
m
or
V
3 . 29 872 . 0 ) cos(
7 . 172 ) cos(
2 220 2
7 . 172 ) cos(
2
= =
=

=



(ii) E at -500 rpm, V V E 109 191
875
500
2
=

=
Because of the motor operated at the rated torque
A I I
a a
150
2 1
= =
and
V R I E V
a a a
100 06 . 0 150 109
2 2 2
= + = + =
Now
o
m
or
V
120 5 . 0 ) cos(
100 ) cos(
2 220 2
100 ) cos(
2
= =
=

=



(iii) At =160
V
V
V
m
a
186 ) 160 cos(
2 220 2
) cos(
2
=

= =



Since
06 . 0 150 186 + =
+ =
E
R I E V
a a a


Or V E 195 =

rpm 2 . 893 875
191
195
Speed =

=


4
Example 3
A 230V, 960 rpm and 200A separately excited dc motor has an armature resistance of 0.02 .
The motor is fed from a chopper, which provides both motoring and braking operations. The
source has a voltage of 230V. Assuming continuous conduction:
(i) Calculate duty ratio of chopper for motoring operation at rated torque and 350
rpm.
(ii) Calculate duty ratio of chopper for braking operation at rated torque and 350 rpm.
(iii) Calculate the speed of the motor for motoring operation if the duty ratio of 0.6 and
the armature current of 150 A.
(iv) If maximum duty ratio of chopper is limited to 0.95 and maximum permissible
motor current is twice the rated, calculate maximum permissible motor speed
obtainable without field weakening and power fed to the source.
(v) If motor field is also controlled in (iii), calculate field current as a fraction of its
rated value for a speed of 1200 rpm.

Solution
At rated operation
V R I V E
R I E V
a a a
a a a
226 ) 02 . 0 )( 200 ( 230
1
1 1
= = =
+ =

(i) Back emf at 350 rpm, V E 4 . 82 226
960
350
= =
Motor terminal voltage 4 . 86 ) 02 . 0 )( 200 ( 4 . 82 = + = + =
a a a
R I E V
Duty ratio 376 . 0
230
4 . 86
= = D
(ii) V R I E V
a a a
4 . 78 ) 02 . 0 )( 200 ( 4 . 82 = = =
Duty ratio 34 . 0
230
4 . 78
= = D

(iii) V DV V
s a
138 230 6 . 0 = = =

V R I V E
a a a
135 ) 02 . 0 )( 150 ( 138 = = =

rpm 45 . 573 960
226
135
Speed = =
5

(iv) Maximum available armature voltage, V V D V
s a
5 . 218 230 95 . 0
max
= = =

V R I V E
a a a
5 . 226 ) 02 . 0 )( 200 )( 2 ( 5 . 218 2 = + = + =
Maximum permissible motor speed rpm 962 960
226
5 . 226
= =
Assuming lossless chopper, power fed into the source
kW I V
a a
4 . 87 400 5 . 218 = =

Example 4
The speed of a separately excited dc motor is controlled by a single-phase full-wave
converter. The field circuit is also controlled by a full converter and the field is set the
maximum possible value. The ac supply voltage to the armature and field converter is one
phase, 440 V, 60 Hz. The armature resistance is R
a
= 0.25 , the field circuit resistance is R
f

= 175 , and the motor voltage constant is K
v
= 1.4 V/A rad/s. The armature current
corresponding to the load demand is I
a
= 45 A. The viscous friction and no-load losses are
negligible. The inductances of the armature and field circuits are sufficient to make the
armature and field currents continuous and ripple free. If the delay angle of the armature
converter is
a
= 60 and armature current is I
a
= 45 A, determine:
i) The electromagnetic torque, Te, developed by the motor.
ii) The speed,
iii) The input PF of the drive

Solution
Vs = 440V, Vm = 2440 = 622.25 V, R
a
= 0.25 , R
f
= 175 ,
a
= 60 and K
v
= 1.4 V/A
rad/s.
i) The maximum field voltage (and current) would be obtained for a delay angle of
f
=
0 and
V
V
V
f
m
f
14 . 396
5 . 622 2
) cos(
2
=

= =


The field current is
A
R
V
I
f
f
f
26 . 2
175
14 . 396
= = =
6
The developed torque is
N I I K T T
a f v L e
4 . 142 45 26 . 2 4 . 1 = = = =
The armature voltage is
V
V
V
a
m
a
07 . 198 60 cos
5 . 622 2
) cos(
2
o
=

= =


The back emf is
V R I V E
a a a a
82 . 186 25 . 0 45 07 . 198 = = =
ii) The speed is
rpm 564 or rad/s 59.05
26 . 2 4 . 1
82 . 186
=

= =
f v
a
I K
E


iii) Assuming lossless converter, the total input power from the supply is

The input current of the armature converter for a highly inductive load is shown below. It rms
value is I
sa
=I
a
= 45 A. The same goes to input current of field converter. The rms value of
input current of field converter is I
sf
= I
f
= 2.26 A. The effective rms supply current can be
found from
A I I I
sf sa s
06 . 45 26 . 2 45
2 2 2 2
= + = + =
and the input VA rating, VI = V
s
I
s
= 440x45.06 = 19 826.4. Neglecting the ripples, the input
power factor is approximately
lagging 495 . 0
4 . 19826
4 . 9808
= = =
VI
P
PF
i







I
sa

I
a

I
f

I
sf

M
R
a

L
a
R
f

L
f

I
s

I
sf

7









Example 5
If the polarity of the motor back emf in Example 4 is reversed by reversing the polarity of the
field current, determine:
i) The delay angle of the armature circuit converter,
a
, to maintain the armature
current constant at the same value of I
a
= 45 A.
ii) The power fed back to the supply due to regenerative braking of the motor.

Solution
i) From part ii) of Example 4, the back emf at the time of polarity reversal is E
g
=
186.82 V and after polarity reversal E
g
= -186.82 V.
V R I E V
a a g a
57 . 175 25 . 0 45 82 . 186 = + = + =
and
o
31 . 116
25 . 622 2
57 . 175
) cos(
57 . 175 ) cos(
2
=


=
=
a
a
a
m
V
V


ii) The power fed back to the supply is
W 7 . 7900 45 57 . 175 = = =
a a a
I V P



AC Motor Drives AC Motor Drives AC Motor Drives AC Motor Drives

I
a

I
a


t
t
-I
a

a
+
a

i
sa

i
a

8
Example 1
A Y-connected squirrel-cage induction motor has following ratings and parameters:

400V, 50 Hz, 4-pole, 1370 rpm, R
s
= 2, R
r
= 3 , X
s
=X
r
= 3.5.

Motor is controlled by a voltage source inverter at constant V/f ratio. Assuming motor speed
torque curves to be parallel straight lines in the region of interest, calculate:
(i) Speed for a frequency of 30 Hz and 80% of full-load torque.
(ii) Frequency for a speed of 1000 rpm and full-load torque.
(iii) Torque for a frequency of 40 Hz and speed of 1100 rpm.
Solution
(i) At 50 Hz, drop in speed from no load to full-load torque = 1500-1370
= 130 rpm
Drop in speed from no load to 80 % of full load = (130)(0.8)= 104 rpm
Synchronous speed at 30 Hz = rpm 900
4
30 120 120
=

=
p
f

Therefore motor speed at 30 Hz = 900-104= 796 rpm

(ii) Drop in speed from no load to full load torque = 130 rpm

Synchronous speed Ns =1000+130 = 1130 rpm

Hz 67 . 37
120
1130 4
120
=

=
s
N p
f
(iii) At 40 Hz synchronous speed Ns = rpm 1200
4
40 120 120
=

=
p
f

Drop in speed from no load to 1100 rpm = 1200-1100= 100 rpm

Torque =
FL FL
T T 769 . 0
130
100
=
where TF is the full load torque.
At full-load s = 08667 . 0
1500
1370 1500
=


9
Nm 06 . 38
) (
3
2 '
2
'
'
2
=
+ +

+
=
r s
r
s
r
s
X X
s
R
R
s
R
V
T


Hence torque = 0.769 T
FL
= (0.769)(38.06)=29.267 Nm


Example 2
For regenerative braking of inverter-fed induction motor drive of example 1, determine
approximate values of:
(i) Speed for the frequency of 30 Hz and 80 % of full load torque
(ii) Frequency for a speed of 1000 rpm and full load torque
(iii) Torque for a frequency of 40 Hz and speed of 1300 rpm

Solution
(i) Increase in speed from no-load to full load torque = 130 rpm
Increase in speed from no load to 0.8 of full load torque = (0.8)(30)=104 rpm
Synchronous speed at 30 Hz = rpm 900 1500
50
30
=
Machine speed at 30 Hz = 900 + 104 = 1004 rpm.

(ii) Synchronous speed = 1000-130 rpm = 870 rpm
Hz 29
120
870 4
120
=

=
s
N p
f
(iii) At 40 Hz synchronous speed
rpm 1200
4
40 120 120
=

= =
p
f
N
s


Increase in speed from no-load speed = 1300 1200 rpm = 100 rpm
Motor torque = Nm 277 . 29
130
100
=

FL
T

Example 3
A 4-pole, 3-phase, 50 Hz, 1420 rpm induction machine has a rated torque of 40 Nm. It is used
to drive a load with the speed-torque characteristics given by T
L
= K
2
, such that the speed
10
equals the rated value at the rated torque. If a constant V/f control method is used, find the
synchronous frequency of the motor at 0. 25 and 0.75 rated torque.

Solution

At rated torque and speed:

N
s
= 1500 rpm , N
r
= 1420 rpm, N
sl
= 80 rpm, T
L
= T
m
= 40 Nm, f = 50 Hz.

At 0.25 rated torque:

T
L
= T
m
= (0.25)(40) = 10 Nm
rpm 20 80
40
10
) (
= = =
rated sl
rated
sl
N
T
T
N
rpm 710 1420
40
10
) (
= = =
rated r
rated
r
N
T
T
N

rpm 730 20 710 = + = + =
sl r s
N N N

At 0.75 rated torque:

T
L
= T
m
= (0.75)(40) = 30 Nm
rpm 60 80
40
30
) (
= = =
rated sl
rated
sl
N
T
T
N
rpm 76 . 1229 1420
40
30
) (
= = =
rated r
rated
r
N
T
T
N

rpm 76 . 1289 60 76 . 1229 = + = + =
sl r s
N N N






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-NDM-13 Oktober 2005