You are on page 1of 12

Translation of the Quran.

introduction
Linguistically speaking, the translation per definition is the expression of a
sense of original material in another language.
Translation of a text from one language to another is never easy.
It is undeniable, a translation causes a slight loss of tone of the message
directed the original. This loss can be minimized, in the case of a particular
care of the translator.
Some say that the translation is of two types:
I-A literal translation, that is subsequently translated word for word,
attaching them together.
This type of translation does not produce a comprehensible text, because
many corresponding words in different languages express concepts slightly
different. In addition, the choice of synonymous to use depends on the
capacity of the translator.
But the main cause of the illegibility of the text is produced in the various
linguistic constructions of a language to another.
II-A translation syntagmatic, which expresses the overall meaning of all
the words in another language, without taking into account the semantic
aspect, namely the literary sense, of the word, but the meaning is
understood and his spiral lexical, ie the position in the sentence in the
original text.
This is the real meaning of true translation. Conveying the concept from
one language to another through the formulation of a new language that
complies with the rules and syntax of the target language.
Thus, the basic problem inherent in the translation of a text resides in the
style of the original, which is to preserve, to the extent possible, in the
translated product.
Muslims and translation of the Koran.
Muslims claim that no other language of the world is similar in vocabulary
and structure, the Arabic language. For this reason, it is impossible to
translate the Quran into other languages, because the Koran is distinct and
unique.
The so-called literal translation of the Koran is religiously prohibited, for
the following reasons:
A - the lack of letters and words exactly similar to the Arabic language.
B - the lack of the same or similar constructions between languages.
C - the asymmetry is of the order of the words in the sentence structure,
not to mention the attributes and complementary.
The syntagmatic translation of the Qur'an is permissible, just a way to
inform the non-Arab muslims, as long as certain conditions are met:
I) The translation should not be a substitute for the Quran in Arabic, which
must be written alongside the translation itself.
II) Any translations is not acceptable if not performed by fluent in Arabic,
Muslim interpreters, and connoisseurs of the meanings of the words of the
Kor'an and its exegesis.
Hence, Muslims refuse the translation of the Kor'an to non-Arab Muslims.
According to muslims concept, the translations are not sacred texts, to be
used for Islamic worship, but only serve as a vehicle to communicate its
meanings, its rules, rituals ... etc to non-Arab Muslim peoples in their own
languages.
In the end, the Prophet did not order to translate the Quran into another
language. So his companions have not translated the Koran.
Here is our answer.
AA) On the issue of the Arabic language.
The Islamic claim of superiority of the Arabic language is somewhat
absurd. Arabic is a quite recent language, originally very poor. If not for
the words acquired during the three centuries of its development of Islam,
provided by the Syriac and other Semitic languages before, not after, it
would not be a language suitable for communication between people.
Historically, since that time, the Arab remained static for 10 centuries, and
is now rigid and static.
It is worth mentioning that until the third century of the Hegira, many
verbs and key words were missing in the Arabic language, including the
use of foreign words in the Koran. The language of the Arabs was almost
devoid of the entries concerning science and civilization, and to this day,
the Arab can not assimilate these locutions.
Each language has its philology. Every nation is attached to their own
language, and consider it the most beautiful. The Indo-European
languages in particular, are very rich from the outset, and open to
innovations, differently from Arabic.
BB) Non existance of an order by the Prophet or his Companions to
translate the Koran into another language.
We must make it clear that Islam is the religion of the Arabs, for Arabs
only.
1-The Koran is addressed only to the Arabs.
As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an is a literary piece in Arabic, says the
Quran itself:
(Sura XII, v. 2) These are signs of the clear Book. An Arabic Koran have
we sent it down, that ye might understand it..
(Sura XLIII, v. 3) Indeed, We have made it an Arabic Qur'an that you
might understand..
That is, it is a book for you Arabs, in your Arabic language.
(Sura VI, v. 92) And this is a Book which We have sent down, blessed
and confirming what was before it, that you may warn the Mother of Cities
and those around it. .
To Muslims, the "Mother of Cities" means the Mecca; therefore, the Koran
clearly addressed to the Arabs of Mecca and the Hijaz, the area around.
The so-called "Muslim Scientists" seek to extend the meaning of the word
"around" the whole world! It is another lie, the verse would have to specify
that it is "for all people."
The involvement of the Arabic language emphasizes that the Qur'an is only
for Arabs. The reference to the Arabs is also evident in other verses.
(Sura XXXVI, v. 5-6) [This is] a revelation of the Exalted in Might, the
Merciful, That you may warn a people whose forefathers were not warned,
so they are unaware..
This indicates the Arabs, who had no prophets in the past.
There is also a higher accuracy:
(Surah XXVI, v. 213-214) So do not invoke with Allah another deity and
[thus] be among the punished. And warn, [O Muhammad], your closest
kindred..
We can say that the Koran was originally intended only for the inhabitants
of Mecca, the Quraysh. There is an entire Surah dedicated to them:
(Sura CVI, Quraysh) For the ILAF of the Quraysh. Their ILAF in
equipping caravans winter and summer. And let them worship the Lord of
this house, who hath provided them with food against hunger, And secured
them against fear..
N.B. For "this House" means the Ka'aba in Mecca.
There is no verse in the Koran that indicates the universality of the Kor'an
itself.
For the most part, the speeches of Muhammad's traditions were always
directed to the Arabs, and specifically to those who lived in a restricted
area, the Hijaz, the west of the Arabian Peninsula.
Muhammad declared that Islam was only for Arabs.
(Abdullah ibn Thabit and other narrators) Omar came to the Prophet and
said: Oh Messenger of Allah, passing by a jew brother of the Qurayza
tribe, he wrote to me some passages from the Torah, wantyou to hear
them? The face of the "Messenger of Allah" is altered, and I told him: Do
not you see the changing face of the "Messenger of Allah"? Then Omar
said: We have accepted Allah as our Lord, Islam as a religion and
Muhammad as Messenger of Allah. The Prophet stretched out, and said:
For Whom who holds my life in his hand, If Moses appeared here, and if
you followed him abandoning me, you'll be gone astray, you are the nation
that touches me, and I am the Prophet who touches you. (Many sources).
(Yahya Ibn-YA'AMUR, who was charged of the Qur'an dotting) The
Caliph OTHMAN said: In the Koran there is catachresis, but the Arabs
will correct when they recite its verses. (SAJESTANI, "Book of copies of
the Koran," p. 33).
The catachresis is what is not permissible in the language of the Arabs, as
well as any linguistic error. This was an implicit recognition by Othman,
the third Caliph who made the composition of the Koranic code.
So the Koran is only for Arabs.
2) The falsity of the presumption of spreading Islam outside Arabia.
In an attempt to dye the Islamic propaganda of universality, reporters
Muslims claim that Muhammad wrote proselytizing messages sent to the
heads of the Arab tribes and the rulers outside the Arabian peninsula
inviting them to Islam. These narratives are unlikely, somewhat false.
How could they believe the alleged prophecy of an unknown governor
from a small area of the Arabian Peninsula?
Do not forget also the theme of the writing of the Arabic language, which
had not yet been set in the time of Muhammad.
We take what has already been reported:
(Ibn al-Khatib) The people at the dawn of Islam was short of any art of
writing. Were illiterate and Bedouins, compiled the Quran evil. When they
started to learn writing, not recorded in art, so were born the differences in
the words. (Furqan, p. 57-59).
The Arabic writing was bad until the Abbassid Caliphate. This confute the
allegation.
3) The organic link with the environment of the Qur'an Arabic.
You can clearly see the organic link with the contents of the Koran simple
geographical area of Arabia, with the habits and with the legacy of the
inhabitants of the peninsula, which certainly can not be applied to the
other, but that they were also included in any block in 'Islam.
The historical content of the Koran are also linked to the events of the
Arabian Peninsula, among them, the local histories, cultures taken from
the nearest stories Persians and Byzantines, called in the Koran "the tales
of the ancients." Geographically, the precepts of the Koran can not be
applied except in the Arabian Peninsula and in the tropical.
We see two cases.
- Many issues are related to the desert, as tayammum, that is "pulverale"
lustration (washing with sand).
(Sura V, v. 9) "... But if do not find water, then seek clean earth and wipe
over your faces and hands with it..
- The Islamic rites.
The more we deviate from the equator geographic become more
significant changes in the length of day and night, even according to the
seasons of the year. Coming over the latitudes 67.5 degrees, the daylight is
long up to 6 months, while the night lasts 6 months. The prayers
prescribed for each day shall be carried out once a year?
Among other things, Islam provides the lunar year instead of the natural
solar calendar.
CC) Translatability of the Qur'an.
We must not fall into the trap of Muslims when they say that it is
impossible translation of the Qur'an.
There is not translatable text.
They have been translated various religious texts like the Bible and the
Talmud Jewish prayers and sacred texts of the pagan religions, as well as
the treasures of the cultural heritage greek-Roman, and other texts.
No exception to the Koran.
Problems of translation of the Koran.
I-language difficulties.
II- Inconsistency.
III- The references to mysterious events, which is why different
interpretations.
IV- The absence of the original source.
I-language difficulties
We begin to say that the Quran must be translated into the Arabic language
itself, given the ambiguity of the texts and obsolescence.
In linguistic terms, errors abound in the Qur'an:
From the literary point of view, there are many mistakes in the Arabic text
of the Koran, which is evident in the following fouls language:
1 - Inconsistency of language, such as the mix between speakers, Allah e
somebody else.
2 - Incomprehensible phrases.
3 - Points convoluted, played at random.
4 - Repeat the same word in the sentence.
5 - Improper use of the word, which changes its meaning.
6 - Misspellings of some words.
7 - Words and unnecessary items.
Even these early Muslims took notice of lexical errors.
(Zubair) I asked Aisha about the catachresis (i.e. lexical errors) of the
Qur'an ...
We have to re-quot.
(Yahya Ibn-YA'AMUR, who was charged of the Qur'an dotting) The
Caliph OTHMAN said: In the Koran there is catachresis, but the Arabs
will correct when they recite its verses. (SAJESTANI, "Book of copies of
the Koran," p. 33).
And non-Arabs, will they?
These errors, specially concerning the wording are due to setting of the
Kor'an before the final configration of the Arabic language as we know it
today.
For the same reason many grammatical mistakes Arabic remained in the
Koran.
In the book "Studio 23 years of Muhammad's prophetic career," the author
Ali Dashti, who is of Iranian origin, cites some examples of the more than
a thousand failures, in the Qur'an, the rules and structures related to Arabic
language. The author was imprisoned in Iran since the Khomeini regime,
and died mysteriously as a result of having written this book.
The problems specific language of the translation of the Koran.
- Fouls language of the Koran, summarized above.
- The Arabic Koranic text is devoid of punctuation (exclamation points,
question marks, quotation marks, brackets, ellipses, ...), and graphics
processing explanatory (indentation, underlining, italics, bolds, etc ...). In
particular, use punctuation in the translations for the need to divide tracks
long portions in an arbitrary matter is acceptable, is an improvement of the
Kor'anic text, but can be considered inaccurate by Muslims.
- Many words have changed meaning over the course of history. The
archaic language of the Koran is not comprehensible to the Arabs.
Referred to the need to translate the Koran in modern Arabic.
- The Quran contains many non Arabic words .
The words of the Koran, lent from other languages, they are difficult to
count.
For a preliminary study:
(The Foreign Vocabulary of The Qur'an, Arthur Jeffery, Ph. D. Professor
Of Semitic Languages).
SUYOUTI devoted an entire chapter in his book Itqan, ie the Perfection,
the science of the Qur'an, vol. 1, p. 486 and following to deal with the
foreign words, which were not present in the language of the Arabs, but of
Persian origin, Nabataean, Ethiopian, Hebrew, and Greek ... etc..
The use of foreign locations annihilates a Koranic text.
(Sura XXXIX, v. 28) "[We gave them] a Qur'an in Arabic, free from
crookedness, that they think [Allah].".
Note that the original verse in Arabic is grammatically flawed. In fact, the
translator added, "[We gave them]" to correct the Koranic phrase. In
practice, the verse discredits himself!
The early Muslim commentators of the Qur'an showed inability to provide
the meanings of some foreign words, because of their ignorance of other
languages. But later, when they had some knowledge, gave new
interpretations adapted for this purpose.
- The existence of words without meaning.
(Ibn-Abbas, the interpreter par excellence of the Qur'an, according to
Muslim Ibn-Abbas) I know all but four of the Koran: "The two
GHUSL" (Sura LXIX, v. 36) and "HANAN" (Sura XIX, v . 13) and
"AWAH" (Sura IX, v, 114) and "AL-RAQIM" (Sura XVIII, v. 9). (Itqan,,
The Strange in the Koran).
The more, the titles of many Sure they do not have a meaning, as Ta.Ha
(Sura XX), Ya.Sin (Sura XXXVI) and Sad (Sura XXXVIII), and Qaf (Sura
L).
Such words should be left as they are, with the addition of an explanatory
note.
- The Koran also contains phrases with no meaning:
Let's take an example:
(Sura II, v. 124) "And Abraham when his Lord tried him with some of His
words (orders ??) and he [or Allah] executed them."
What are these "some words"? and who would be the executor?
Let's also absurd things:
(Sura LV, v. 17) "The Lord of the two Easts and Lord of the two Wests."
We all know that there is only one east and one west. Here the translation
is literal seed, and it is right.
- There are also words in the Koran that have a reverse.
(Sura XX, v. 15) "Indeed, the Hour is coming - I almost conceal it.
Always. a tendentious translation in european language of the second
piece, try to "adjust" the words of Allah, giving But I will to keep it
hidden.
The Day of Resurrection is initially unknown. In this verse, the Qur'an was
intended perhaps talk about showing instead of hiding!
- The Arabic language also provides for the dualism, which is often
confused with the plural.
- The style of the various Suras of the Koran is so different as to suggest
that it was written by different authors.
(Suyouti) It is not correct to say that the Koran is messages, sermons,
poetry or prose, but it is true to say that it is "speaking". (Itqan, vol. 2, p.
333).
So a translator will have to change his style in the final product.
II- Inconsistency
The Koran is therefore a literary piece in Arabic, articulated in a big
confusing mess. A mixture of religious orders and important legislative
issues, along with childish arguments concerning issues housewives of the
Prophet of Islam, or trivial events that occurred at the time of Muhammad,
as the incident of alleged betrayal of Aisha, the child bride of Muhammad.
The order of the Kor'an of today is purely coincidental, not chronological
nor thematic. We find the same subject in different Sure, and sometimes
contradictions in the content on the same subject.
Sometimes, you notice the disorder within the same track:
The history of each of the prophets of Israel is told in a scattered here and
there in different Sure, and sometimes in different versions. Moses is
treated in Suras II, IV, VII, X, XX, XXVI and XXVII. We find the story of
Abraham in Suras: III, VI, XI, XIV, XV, XIX, XXI, XXXVII and LI. The
same applies to the stories of Noah, Lot, Solomon, Jonah and Jesus, .. etc..
III- The references to mysterious events, which is why different
interpretation.
In the Qur'an, we find strange stories his prophets - the war against the ants
- The Jews transformed into apes and pigs - the story of the camel of
Thamud - the Bicorne - the JINN.
We offer an example. The man and the donkey.
(Sura II, v. 259) "Or (bethink thee of) the like of him who, passing by a
township which had fallen into utter ruin, exclaimed: How shall Allah give
this township life after its death? And Allah made him die a hundred years,
then brought him back to life. He said: How long hast thou tarried? (The
man) said: I have tarried a day or part of a day. (He) said: Nay, but thou
hast tarried for a hundred years. Just look at thy food and drink which have
not rotted! Look at thine ass! And, that We may make thee a token unto
mankind, look at the bones, how We adjust them and then cover them with
flesh! And when (the matter) became clear unto him, he said: I know now
that Allah is Able to do all things.".
It is a story without meaning. Allah caused a man to die with his donkey,
then rose again after a 3 hundred years. In all this time, the food he had
was cool!
The mysterious story, no one would know who that man, even where and
when it occurred. The so-called "wise Muslims" are reluctant exegesis of
the verse in question. It is a story worthy of "Arabian Nights".
And above all, do not know the moral of this story.
So in that language means?
IV The absence of the original source.
Note that the early Muslims were not in possession of complete copies of
the Koran, but only a few verses.
Even in the twenty-first century there is not an original manuscript of the
Qur'an to read.
Do not forget the various existing versions currently the Koran, with
variation of the texts, even if limited.
The existing translations.
Existing translations do not accurately reflect the original text.
The translators have tried to make scrolling text for the non Arabic reader .
In our opinion, they committed a great error in the use of the concepts of
Mohammedan traditions and Islamic exegesis in their translations, in order
to make understandable the Koran. This involves the translation of
Koranic texts. Many of the translators were non-Muslims in good faith.
You often notice the effect of their religious faith in the use of terminology
sacred, such as the Christian one, not attributable to the Koran (God
instead of "Allah" Apostle instead of "Messenger" ... etc..). And here I
borrow a sentence I read in a book: "there is a danger of giving the
impression that we are talking of the same things."
Take the example of the Koranic word RAHMAN.
All Muslims always repeat, many times the "basmalah", ie, "In the name
of Allah, Al-RAHMAN, the merciful."
If you ask them the meaning of the word RAHMAN, we get nonsense
answers. No wonder, SUHAIL Son of AMRO, one of the few who was
able to write in Arabic (in Syriac letters) at the time of Muhammad, he
said: I swear I do not know what is al-RAHMAN. (Bukhari, vol. 3, n.
861), also (Tabari, Annals, 1/1546).
The word "RAHMAN" comes from the Hebrew "RAHMANAH," which
was the preferred name of the Lord among the Jews of Yemen, is found
written in a bas-relief of 458 aD on the rocks in Yemen, more than a
hundred years before the birth of Muhammad.
The Kor'an explicitly states that the word is not Arabic:
(Surah XXV, v. 60) "And when it is said to them: Prostrate to the-
RAHMAN say: And what is the-RAHMAN?".
The word has been translated instead "merciful", "mild", "rich in mercy"
and "compassion" according to a suggestion of the Islamic exegetes!
The Orientalist Lammens said: Do not we have a good translation of the
Qur'an, due to a lack of understanding of the translators of the Kor'anic
text, so much so that it was looking for the meaning of the individual
words. The translators did not know fully the Arabic language, vocabulary
and syntax, not to mention the rhetorical formulas.
The alleged difficulty of the translation of words in order to represent the
connotations, meanings, spirit and eloquence of the Kor'an, is a false
pretense of Islam. In fact, the translation of the Kor'an in any language,
and even translate it into a pure Arabic language understandable to
eliminate the ambiguity, it would lose the mysterious aura that surrounds
him.
Even for a native speaker of Arabic, the Koran in its original language, is
unintelligible because of its archaic language. To understand the content,
you need a separate work of exegesis. These additional work, despite the
bias, deception and attempts to cover up the faults literals, they can not
even clarify many Koranic verses.
Use a dictionary Arabic is not needed, because dictionaries have been
processed according to the Koran, not vice versa, and derive meanings
from the work of exegesis, largely based on Judeo-Christian cultural
references.
In fact, the Quran has been done only for the Arabs, and they need only
recite it, do not understand it.
The translation of the Koran only accentuates the complexity.
No wonder, all translations of the Qur'an, and also a possible translation
into Arabic modern classic, does not leave a good effect on the player due
to the loss of ambiguity, the true element of attraction, so does not affect
the heart of Muslim or non-Muslim.
A Moroccan, brother RACHID, has translated a very short Sura in the
Moroccan dialect, and has run immediately noticed the superficiality of the
Koran.
After an illustration of the difficulties, we explain the best way to translate
the texts of the Qur'an.
The translations made by Muslims mistakenly call "interpretive
translation", while we mark them as "tendentious", would not be correct,
because they draw on the works of exegesis mentioned above. If an
"interpretive translation" incorporates information from parallel texts,
which deceive the reader.
If the reader finds the Arabic Quran incomprehensible, the same as the
reader will have to find a different language. An important contributory
factor to reject the translation of the Muslims is the tendency to mask the
absurd things contained in the Kor'an, fully accepted by the Arab mind and
to a large extent by the Muslims, but rejected by the logic!
Therefore, you can not trust the translations of Arab Muslims, they want to
hide the facts.
We say that it is desirable to the honest translation of the Qur'an, because
the world has become a global village.
As said. it serves well as a "translation" of the entire Quran in Arabic
modern, in spite of the Islamists.
In our opinion, in order to correctly translate the Koran, you will have to
entrust the translation to native Arabic orientalists, non-Muslims. The non-
Arabic words should be transliterated, adding a footer, or in italics in
parentheses, a note about the meaning of each word according to the
interpretation of Islam, with the appropriate criticism and correction.
The mysterious phrases and ambiguous ones need to be translated as they
are, in a semi literal, always adding a note about the interpretation of
Islam, also here with the necessary critical, leaving the reader the freedom
to believe or not to content.
For this, you need to understand the environment of the Qur'an, the reason
and the context of the "revelation" of each verse.
A colossal work of an Orientalist finished. Requires a sponsorship!
The translator can rigorously from the best previous translations, to make
the language skills of others. We need to find the weak points, and to
identify the songs "manipulated" and falsehoods introduced, intentionally
or not, to make the changes necessary to develop a correct translation and
reliable.
A certain bias can be detected by the Muslims, but will be taken into
consideration, if it is objective, or disproved in a subsequent edition.