shear lab test

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shear lab test

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Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion

(in terms of total stresses)

f

is the maximum shear stress the soil can take without

failure, under normal stress of .

tan + = c

f

c

f

a

i

l

u

r

e

e

n

v

e

l

o

e

Cohesio

n

Friction

angle

(in terms of effective stresses)

f

is the maximum shear stress the soil can take without

failure, under normal effective stress of !.

f

c!

f

a

i

l

u

r

e

e

n

v

e

l

o

e

Effectiv

e

cohesio

n

Effective

friction

angle

u =

'

u = pore water

pressure

Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion

' tan ' '

f f

c + =

"hear stren#th consists of two comonents$

cohesive and frictional.

'

c! c

c

o

h

e

s

i

v

e

c

o

m

p

o

n

e

n

t

f

tan

frictional

compone

nt

Normal stresses and shear stresses on any plane can be obtained

with the following equations

Principal stresses

or

Mohr Circle of stress

Soil element

2

2 2

2

2

'

3

'

1

'

3

'

1

'

'

3

'

1

Cos

Sin

+

+

=

=

%esolvin# forces in and directions,

2

'

3

'

1

2

'

3

'

1

' 2

2 2

+

+

Mohr Circle of stress

2

'

3

'

1

2

'

3

'

1

' 2

2 2

+

+

Soil element

2

'

3

'

1

+

2

'

3

'

1

'

3

'

1

2

'

3

'

1

2

'

3

'

1

' 2

2 2

+

+

Soil element

2

'

3

'

1

+

2

'

3

'

1

'

3

'

1

P

D

= Pole w.r.t. plane

(, )

Soil elements at different locations

Failure surface

Mohr Circles & Failure Envelope

X

X

X ~ failure

Y

Y

Y ~ stable

f

EED !D SC"#E

$n man% engineering problems such as

&

'esign of foun'ation(

&

retaining )alls(

&

slab bri'ges(

&

pipes(

&

sheet piling(

The value of the angle of internal friction an'

cohesion of the soil involve' are re*uire' for the

'esign+

Direct shear test is use' to pre'ict these parameters

*uic,l%+

Direct shear test

-+ This test is performe' to 'etermine the

consoli'ate' - 'raine' shear strength of a

san'% to silt% soil+

.+ The shear strength is one of the most

important engineering properties of a soil(

because it is re*uire' )henever a structure

is 'epen'ent on the soil/s shearing

resistance+

0+ The shear strength is nee'e' for engineering

situations such as 'etermining the stabilit% of

slopes or cuts( fin'ing the bearing capacit%

for foun'ations( an' calculating the pressure

e1erte' b% a soil on a retaining )all+

Direct shear test

Apparatus

1. &irect shear box aaratus

'. Loadin# frame (motor attached).

*. &ial #au#e.

+. Provin# rin#.

,. -amer.

.. "trai#ht ed#e.

7. /alance to wei#h uto '00 m#.

0. 1luminum container.

2. "atula.

PR!"#$R"

3

Check the inner dimension of the soil container.

3

Put the arts of the soil container to#ether.

3

Calculate the volume of the container. 4ei#h the

container.

3

Place the soil in smooth la5ers (aroximatel5 10 mm

thick). 6f a dense samle is desired tam the soil.

3

4ei#h the soil container, the difference of these two is

the wei#ht of the soil. Calculate the densit5 of the soil.

3

7ake the surface of the soil lane.

3

Put the uer #ratin# on stone and loadin# block on to

of soil.

Direct shear test

#reparation of a san' specimen

!omponents of the shear bo% Preparation of a sand specimen

Porous

plates

Direct shear test is most suitable for consoli'ate' 'raine' tests speciall%

on granular soils (e+g+2 san') or stiff cla%s

Direct shear test

&e'eling the top surface

of specimen

#reparation of a san' specimen

Specimen preparation

completed

Pressure plate

Direct shear test

Test proce'ure

Porous

plates

Pressure plate

Steel ball

Step () Apply a 'ertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation

P

Pro'ing ring

to measure

shear force

S

Direct shear test

Step *) &ower bo% is sub+ected to a hori,ontal displacement at a constant rate

Step () Apply a 'ertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation

P

Test proce'ure

Pressure plate

Steel ball

Pro'ing ring

to measure

shear force

S

Porous

plates

PR!"#$R"

0. 7easure the thickness of soil secimen.

2. 1l5 the desired normal load.

10. %emove the shear in.

11. 1ttach the dial #au#e which measures the chan#e of volume.

1'. %ecord the initial readin# of the dial #au#e and calibration values.

1*. /efore roceedin# to test check all ad8ustments to see that there is

no connection between two arts excet sand9soil.

1+. "tart the motor. -ake the readin# of the shear force and record the

readin#.

1,. -ake volume chan#e readin#s till failure.

1.. 1dd , k# normal stress 0., k#9cm' and continue the exeriment till

failure

17. %ecord carefull5 all the readin#s. "et the dial #au#es :ero, before

startin# the exeriment

Direct shear test

Shear bo%

&oading frame to

apply 'ertical load

#ial gauge to

measure 'ertical

displacement

#ial gauge to

measure hori,ontal

displacement

Pro'ing ring

to measure

shear force

Direct shear test

!nal%sis of test results

sample the of section cross of Area

(P) force ormal

stress ormal = =

sample the of section cross of Area

(!) surface sli"in# at the "e$elope" resistance !hear

stress !hear = =

Note) !ross-sectional area of the sample changes with the hori,ontal

displacement

#irect shear tests on sands

S

h

e

a

r

s

t

r

e

s

s

.

Shear displacement

#ense sand/

! clay

f

&oose sand/

N! clay

f

#ense sand/! !lay

&oose sand/N! !lay

!

h

a

n

g

e

i

n

h

e

i

g

h

t

o

f

t

h

e

s

a

m

p

l

e

"

%

p

a

n

s

i

o

n

!

o

m

p

r

e

s

s

i

o

n Shear displacement

Stress-strain relationship

f(

Normal stress 0

(

#irect shear tests on sands

1ow to determine strength parameters c and

S

h

e

a

r

s

t

r

e

s

s

.

Shear displacement

f*

Normal stress 0

*

f2

Normal stress 0

2

S

h

e

a

r

s

t

r

e

s

s

a

t

f

a

i

l

u

r

e

.

f

Normal stress.

#irect shear tests on sands

Some important facts on strength parameters c and of sand

Sand is cohesionless

hence c 0 5

#irect shear tests are

drained and pore

water pressures are

dissipated. hence u 0

5

6herefore.

0 and c 0 c 0 5

#irect shear tests on clays

Failure en'elopes for clay from drained direct shear tests

S

h

e

a

r

s

t

r

e

s

s

a

t

f

a

i

l

u

r

e

.

f

Normal force.

9n case of clay. hori,ontal displacement should be applied at a 'ery

slow rate to allow dissipation of pore water pressure 7therefore. one

test would ta:e se'eral days to finish8

'erconsolidated clay 7c ; 58

9nterface tests on direct shear apparatus

9n many foundation design problems and retaining wall problems. it

is required to determine the angle of internal friction between soil

and the structural material 7concrete. steel or wood8

tan ' + =

a f

c

<here.

c

a

0 adhesion.

0 angle of internal friction

Foundation material

Soil

P

S

Foundation material

Soil

P

S

Ad'antages of direct shear apparatus

be achie'ed

an identified failure plane

#isad'antages of direct shear apparatus

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