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Direct Shear Test

CEP 701 PG Lab


Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion
(in terms of total stresses)

f
is the maximum shear stress the soil can take without
failure, under normal stress of .

tan + = c
f
c

f
a
i
l
u
r
e

e
n
v
e
l
o

e
Cohesio
n
Friction
angle

Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion


(in terms of effective stresses)

f
is the maximum shear stress the soil can take without
failure, under normal effective stress of !.

' tan ' ' + = c


f
c!

f
a
i
l
u
r
e

e
n
v
e
l
o

e
Effectiv
e
cohesio
n
Effective
friction
angle

u =
'
u = pore water
pressure
Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion
' tan ' '
f f
c + =
"hear stren#th consists of two comonents$
cohesive and frictional.

'
c! c
c
o
h
e
s
i
v
e

c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t

f
tan
frictional
compone
nt
Normal stresses and shear stresses on any plane can be obtained
with the following equations
Principal stresses
or
Mohr Circle of stress
Soil element

2
2 2
2
2
'
3
'
1
'
3
'
1
'
'
3
'
1
Cos
Sin

+
+
=

=
%esolvin# forces in and directions,
2
'
3
'
1
2
'
3
'
1
' 2
2 2

+
+



Mohr Circle of stress
2
'
3
'
1
2
'
3
'
1
' 2
2 2

+
+



Soil element

Soil element Soil element

2
'
3
'
1
+
2
'
3
'
1

'
3

'
1

Mohr Circle of stress


2
'
3
'
1
2
'
3
'
1
' 2
2 2

+
+



Soil element

Soil element Soil element

2
'
3
'
1
+
2
'
3
'
1

'
3

'
1

P
D
= Pole w.r.t. plane

(, )
Soil elements at different locations
Failure surface
Mohr Circles & Failure Envelope
X
X
X ~ failure
Y
Y
Y ~ stable

' tan ' ' + = c


f
EED !D SC"#E
$n man% engineering problems such as
&
'esign of foun'ation(
&
retaining )alls(
&
slab bri'ges(
&
pipes(
&
sheet piling(
The value of the angle of internal friction an'
cohesion of the soil involve' are re*uire' for the
'esign+
Direct shear test is use' to pre'ict these parameters
*uic,l%+
Direct shear test
-+ This test is performe' to 'etermine the
consoli'ate' - 'raine' shear strength of a
san'% to silt% soil+
.+ The shear strength is one of the most
important engineering properties of a soil(
because it is re*uire' )henever a structure
is 'epen'ent on the soil/s shearing
resistance+
0+ The shear strength is nee'e' for engineering
situations such as 'etermining the stabilit% of
slopes or cuts( fin'ing the bearing capacit%
for foun'ations( an' calculating the pressure
e1erte' b% a soil on a retaining )all+
Direct shear test
Apparatus
1. &irect shear box aaratus
'. Loadin# frame (motor attached).
*. &ial #au#e.
+. Provin# rin#.
,. -amer.
.. "trai#ht ed#e.
7. /alance to wei#h uto '00 m#.
0. 1luminum container.
2. "atula.
PR!"#$R"
3
Check the inner dimension of the soil container.
3
Put the arts of the soil container to#ether.
3
Calculate the volume of the container. 4ei#h the
container.
3
Place the soil in smooth la5ers (aroximatel5 10 mm
thick). 6f a dense samle is desired tam the soil.
3
4ei#h the soil container, the difference of these two is
the wei#ht of the soil. Calculate the densit5 of the soil.
3
7ake the surface of the soil lane.
3
Put the uer #ratin# on stone and loadin# block on to
of soil.
Direct shear test
#reparation of a san' specimen
!omponents of the shear bo% Preparation of a sand specimen
Porous
plates
Direct shear test is most suitable for consoli'ate' 'raine' tests speciall%
on granular soils (e+g+2 san') or stiff cla%s
Direct shear test
&e'eling the top surface
of specimen
#reparation of a san' specimen
Specimen preparation
completed
Pressure plate
Direct shear test
Test proce'ure
Porous
plates
Pressure plate
Steel ball
Step () Apply a 'ertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation
P
Pro'ing ring
to measure
shear force
S
Direct shear test
Step *) &ower bo% is sub+ected to a hori,ontal displacement at a constant rate
Step () Apply a 'ertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation
P
Test proce'ure
Pressure plate
Steel ball
Pro'ing ring
to measure
shear force
S
Porous
plates
PR!"#$R"
0. 7easure the thickness of soil secimen.
2. 1l5 the desired normal load.
10. %emove the shear in.
11. 1ttach the dial #au#e which measures the chan#e of volume.
1'. %ecord the initial readin# of the dial #au#e and calibration values.
1*. /efore roceedin# to test check all ad8ustments to see that there is
no connection between two arts excet sand9soil.
1+. "tart the motor. -ake the readin# of the shear force and record the
readin#.
1,. -ake volume chan#e readin#s till failure.
1.. 1dd , k# normal stress 0., k#9cm' and continue the exeriment till
failure
17. %ecord carefull5 all the readin#s. "et the dial #au#es :ero, before
startin# the exeriment
Direct shear test
Shear bo%
&oading frame to
apply 'ertical load
#ial gauge to
measure 'ertical
displacement
#ial gauge to
measure hori,ontal
displacement
Pro'ing ring
to measure
shear force
Direct shear test
!nal%sis of test results
sample the of section cross of Area
(P) force ormal
stress ormal = =
sample the of section cross of Area
(!) surface sli"in# at the "e$elope" resistance !hear
stress !hear = =
Note) !ross-sectional area of the sample changes with the hori,ontal
displacement
#irect shear tests on sands
S
h
e
a
r

s
t
r
e
s
s
.

Shear displacement
#ense sand/
! clay

f
&oose sand/
N! clay
f
#ense sand/! !lay
&oose sand/N! !lay
!
h
a
n
g
e

i
n

h
e
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
e

s
a
m
p
l
e
"
%
p
a
n
s
i
o
n
!
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n Shear displacement
Stress-strain relationship

f(
Normal stress 0
(
#irect shear tests on sands
1ow to determine strength parameters c and
S
h
e
a
r

s
t
r
e
s
s
.

Shear displacement

f*
Normal stress 0
*

f2
Normal stress 0
2
S
h
e
a
r

s
t
r
e
s
s

a
t

f
a
i
l
u
r
e
.

f
Normal stress.

3ohr 4 !oulomb failure en'elope


#irect shear tests on sands
Some important facts on strength parameters c and of sand
Sand is cohesionless
hence c 0 5
#irect shear tests are
drained and pore
water pressures are
dissipated. hence u 0
5
6herefore.
0 and c 0 c 0 5
#irect shear tests on clays
Failure en'elopes for clay from drained direct shear tests
S
h
e
a
r

s
t
r
e
s
s

a
t

f
a
i
l
u
r
e
.

f
Normal force.

Normally consolidated clay 7c 0 58


9n case of clay. hori,ontal displacement should be applied at a 'ery
slow rate to allow dissipation of pore water pressure 7therefore. one
test would ta:e se'eral days to finish8
'erconsolidated clay 7c ; 58
9nterface tests on direct shear apparatus
9n many foundation design problems and retaining wall problems. it
is required to determine the angle of internal friction between soil
and the structural material 7concrete. steel or wood8
tan ' + =
a f
c
<here.
c
a
0 adhesion.
0 angle of internal friction
Foundation material
Soil
P
S
Foundation material
Soil
P
S
Ad'antages of direct shear apparatus

#ue to the smaller thic:ness of the sample. rapid drainage can


be achie'ed

!an be used to determine interface strength parameters

!lay samples can be oriented along the plane of wea:ness or


an identified failure plane
#isad'antages of direct shear apparatus

Failure occurs along a predetermined failure plane

Area of the sliding surface changes as the test progresses

Non-uniform distribution of shear stress along the failure surface