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REACHING INTO THE WHITE POWDER

A Policy Brief on 3D Printing and Pacific Security


Briar Thompson
Pacific Security Scholars
Policy Brief Series
Federation of American Scientists

REACHING INTO THE WHITE POWDER
A Policy Brief on 3D Printing and Pacific Security
Introduction
A number of recent events involving 3D printing, otherwise known as additive manufacturing,
have drawn attention to the incredible potential of this technology. Defense Distributeds
printed gun parts, the Aston Martin stunt model cars 3D printed for Skyfall, and many medical
uses are just some of the applications that have received extensive media coverage. The
purpose of this short and nontechnical policy brief is to reach into the white powder of 3D
printing and bring out some key points relevant to security, and suggest possible government
policy responses. Here security is taken in a broad sense to include human security (UNDP,
1994). Where possible, the brief will be related to the Pacic region, though many issues will
be applicable to governments worldwide. Although it is extremely di"cult to predict future
outcomes, it is important to consider the possibilities in order to be better prepared for
possible impacts.
Following a brief background on 3D printing, this paper will present security implications and
policy considerations, give some examples of policies already in place, and then present
three broad policy approaches that Pacic governments could adopt. Finally it will
recommend that Pacic governments adopt, at a minimum, a monitoring and preparedness
approach, if not also a collaborative approach of investing in research and development.

Brief Background
There are various di$erent types of 3D printing technology, but in general, 3D printing involves
printing layer upon layer of material to create an object, based on a digital blueprint.
This technology has been used predominantly for creating models, rapid prototyping, and
creating some parts for airplanes, automobiles, medical use and some other industries.
The technology is capable of printing:
! Plastics, metals (including titanium a metal with a very high melting point), and
mixed materials
! Biomaterial, including living human tissue examples include skin, simple organs,
bone, and some complex organs (Anthony Atala and his team at Wake Forest Institute
for Regenerative Medicine have produced a kidney, though more research is needed
before it is applied in clinical use (Atala, 2011))
! Food successful examples include chocolate and cupcakes

3D Printing is already used by many companies, including Apple, BMW, Boeing, Fisher-Price,
Ford, General Electric, Harley Davidson, Reebok and more (McNulty, Arnas, & Campbell,
2012) The technology is becoming more widely available, both in industry and for personal
use with desktop 3D printers, and the costs are coming down.

3D printing o$ers many advantages. It is an additive form of manufacturing, building up an
object from scratch, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing, removing material to leave
behind a nished product (often requiring moulds, many tools, and assembly with other
parts). Therefore, 3D printing is appealing as it takes fewer parts to make one product, is
more e"cient, wastes less materials, reduces manufacturing time, and may also save energy.
Given that a computer aided design (CAD) le is easy to edit, it is faster and cheaper to make
changes to a product when using additive manufacturing than when using subtractive
manufacturing. CAD les can be either a design or a 3D scan, and can even include medical
data (National Intelligence Council, 2012). Software is available at many price points, and
there are a number of free tools for designing 3D objects including Google Sketchup.
Furthermore, 3D printing allows for the creation of more complex objects without an increase
in cost (McNulty, Arnas, & Campbell, 2012). This makes 3D printing very good for
customization, rapid prototyping, short production runs (e.g., on demand replacement parts
for repairs), and reverse engineering or making parts that are no longer available.

Material quality and cost are two key limiting factors on the spread of this technology
(National Intelligence Council, 2012). Because of these limiting factors, it is unclear how soon
this technology could be used for mass production of objects.
Media coverage and discussions about 3D printing reveal a divide between technology
evangelists who see the enormous potential in this technology and alarmists who are
concerned about possible negative uses or impacts. Uncertainty around what might be
possible through 3D printing appears to be fueling some of the alarmism.

Potential security implications and related policy considerations
Although 3D printing is only one potential driver of changes, the number of changes it could
spark is substantial. This table presents some key security-relevant impacts 3D printing could
have.


Change due to 3D
printing
Effect Security implication Policy
considerations
Supply chains are
shortened, as
objects can be
printed at the point
of need with little
or no assembly.

Desktop printers
and online 3D print
shops allow for
customization and
democratized[d]
manufacturing (Na
tional Intelligence
Council, 2012, p.
90), with
consumers able to
print objects when
and where needed.
A manufacturing
revolution in the long
term, with reduced
need for assembly and
other traditional
aspects of
manufacturing,
transport,
warehousing, and
retail.

Customized goods
may displace or
reduce the need for
some mass-produced
goods.

Some mass
production may be
replaced by production
by the
masses (Hornick,
2013).
This has the potential to
disrupt many sectors
including manufacturing,
shipping, warehousing,
and retailing, and in turn
impact on trade and
political relations
internationally. These
impacts will be explored
individually below.
See below.
Less warehousing,
less stocking
products for retail
A digital library of les
for printing could
replace keeping large
inventories, allowing
what NZ Minister for
Customs Maurice
Williamson describes
as a print what you
need, when you need
it, where you need it
approach (Williamson,
2013).
McNulty et al.2012)
suggests this would be
particularly useful for the
military, given the volume
of replacement parts
necessary for different
types of equipment, some
of which are no longer
produced.
For businesses, this could
change the threat of theft
les would need
protection rather than
physical items.
Protection of les
will become
increasingly
important, as will
keeping the right
kind of data for
anything we may
need to replace in
small quantities
later (McNulty,
Arnas, &
Campbell, 2012, p.
8).

Change due to 3D
printing
Effect Security implication Policy
considerations
Less need for
shipping, with
products printed on
site of need
Over time, volumes
shipped internationally
may drop. However,
this wont apply to all
goods, and it may still
work out better for
some countries to
focus on producing the
goods where they
have comparative
advantage.
A number of territorial
disputes (e.g., in the South
China Sea) are strongly
linked to shipping routes,
and changes in shipping
frequency could play into
these disputes.
Research into the
interplay between
shipping and
territorial disputes
will be increasingly
salient. The effects
of changes in
shipping should be
monitored closely.
Reduced reliance
on imports of some
goods because
printers allow low-
cost fast printing at
point of need.

Economies of scale
undermined
because it is as
cheap to produce
one item as
many (McNulty,
Arnas, & Campbell,
2012, p. 5).
Could result in less
reliance on low-cost
and low-wage
countries for
manufacturing
(McNulty, Arnas, &
Campbell, 2012;
National Intelligence
Council, 2012; The
Economist, 2012).
A number of countries
may look into
reshoring
manufacturing of some
products with 3D
printing.

This could have ow on
effects for international
relations, particularly in
changing relationships
with low-cost low-wage
countries currently
manufacturing many
goods for export.

Careful thought
needs to be put into
foreign policy with
low-cost low-wage
countries going
forward, considering
possible impacts of
changes in trade.
The political appeal
to reshore
manufacturing and
create jobs
domestically will
need to be matched
by investment in
research and
development (R&D)
of 3D technologies
to make this
possible.

Change due to 3D
printing
Effect Security implication Policy considerations
3D printing could
replace the need for
some manufacturing
workers, but also
demand some
workers skilled in
using this
technology
This could address but
also change labour
constraints the mix of
skilled and non-skilled
workers required for
manufacturing could
change over time,
resulting in layoffs of
manufacturing workers,
and openings for
specialists in 3D printing.
Impacts on employment
rates and inequalities
which hugely impact
human security and
domestic stability.
A focus on training up
skilled workers for this shift
is important, from exposure
to the technology in
education through to
investing in development of
specialists.
Governments need to be
well-prepared for any mass
layoffs of unskilled
manufacturing laborers,
and work closely with
industry and labour unions
to minimize negative
impacts.
Changes customs
and border
protection
increases the
challenge of
protecting a digital
border.
As the range of objects
that can be printed
increases (e.g., consider
the possibility in future to
print drugs or cash in
addition to weapons),
smuggling and
counterfeiting becomes a
considerable concern,
especially as it is less
detectable carried out
over a digital rather than
physical border.
Because these activities
are carried out largely
beyond the reach of
control, they are
extremely difcult to
regulate. One crucial
impact of this is missed
tax capture. As with the
digitalization of music
and lm, digitalization of
other goods will remove
the governments ability
to collect tax that would
normally be applied.
Without the ability to
protect a revenue border,
governments could face
further declines in tax
revenues.
Customs and border
security forces will face
new challenges. It will
be almost impossible to
protect a digital border.
As NZ Minister for
Customs Maurice
Williamson lamented,
Twenty-three million
bits pass by your eyes
in zeros and ones it
could have been
anything, we just dont
have the
ability (Williamson,
2013).
Government tax
revenue base may drop
while costs do not,
leaving a need for new
ways to collect tax to
make up the shortfall.
Changes to tax systems
could impact heavily
upon individual citizens.
Governments will need to
be aware of and prepare
for changes in tax
revenues as goods are
transferred digitally rather
than physically (both
across borders and within
them).
Governments should
realize they will always be
in catch-up mode and will
need to make tough
choices about which taxes
are now too difcult to
capture, and which taxes
they should ght to
maintain.

Change due to 3D
printing
Effect Security implication Policy
considerations
It is easy to
counterfeit goods
and print them
outside the range of
enforcement or
detection
Copyrights, patents, and
intellectual property (IP)
can easily be violated.

John Hornick, an IP
litigator with Finegan in
Washington DC, expects
that IP law will become
narrower not broader, as
it will be harder to
enforce and nd an
infringement, so we
shouldnt expect major IP
regimes in future
(Hornick, 2013).
For a discussion of the
many legal issues around
3D printing, see
(Weinberg, 2010).
Legal enforcement of IP
becomes increasingly
difcult. IP infringement is
not yet a big problem,
though large rms
threatened by 3D printing
may apply pressure to
governments in future to
do something about it.
Though businesses
may pressure the
government to do
something about
protecting IP, so far
there are very few
effective methods to do
this. Furthermore, there
is a need to balance the
present demands for IP
protection with possible
negative future
implications of
regulation on the
development of the
industry as a whole.
Can be used for
criminal purposes,
just like other
technologies
New technologies may be
used to commit crimes.
Some examples so far
include the scanning,
sharing and printing of
police handcuff keys, and
the printing of a device to
install on an ATM and steal
bank users information.
Policing and law
enforcement face new
challenges.
Police and other law
enforcement agencies
need to keep abreast of
developments in the
technology, and of
stories emerging
worldwide of criminal
applications.

Change due to 3D
printing
Effect Security implication Policy considerations
Labeling and liability
changes
Because printed goods
are the result of many
processes and products
a CAD le, the 3D
printer, the materials
provided, etc., it will
be increasingly difcult
to determine liability for
faulty products. The lack
of labeling on printed
products further
compounds this
problem. John Hornick
warns this may be a
bigger issue than IP
concerns (Hornick,
2013). For example, if
you buy a CAD le for a
helmet, print it at home,
and are later injured
because it is faulty, you
could sue the seller of
the le, the 3D printer
company, and the
materials company, and
it is not currently clear
who would be liable.
Liability and litigation will
affect the legal and
insurance sectors, and
overlap with government
rules around labeling and
product safety.

It will be difcult to
determine if a product is
authentic, home-made, or
made by an unauthorized
fabricator.
Governments will need
to consider how 3D
printing may subvert
policies on food and
product safety and
labeling.
Governments should
keep track of
developments in DNA
marking. The Defense
Logistics Agency (DLA),
part of the US
Department of Defense,
now requires defense
contractors to mark
items they produce with
a form of botanically
generated DNA
(Applied DNA Sciences
Inc, 2014). This could
be considered by
governments as a
possible solution for
determining the origin of
3D printed items.

Change due to 3D
printing
Effect Security implication Policy considerations
Ability to print
biomaterial including
living human tissue
3D Printing of biomaterial
has many possible
applications, from
domestic healthcare
provision to treating
injuries and wounds in
battle. In theory a
bioprinting machine
could be used in remote
areas reducing the need
for a fully equipped clinic.

Organ transplant patients
will have a dramatically
reduced risk of failure
due to rejection, because
the organ carries their
own DNA.
Changes battleeld injury
treatment (McNulty,
Arnas, & Campbell,
2012). However, this
could mean soldiers are
treated like machines
that are xed quickly
and returned to battle,
with less time to recover
mentally.
McNulty et al. (2012) also
point out a possible risk
of moral hazard for the
military when this
technology becomes
widely available.

Could also revolutionize
organ transplants and
address long waiting
lists, particularly for
kidneys.

In future this capability
may be used for human
enhancement, which will
have many moral and
security implications.
The benets of this
technology will have to be
balanced by their cost.
Governments will need to
determine whether they
are willing to pay for such
technologies to be
available to their military
forces, general public, etc.

Governments will also
need to continue
regulating research
requirements necessary
before clinical use of 3D
printed complex organs.
It is possible to print
high quality metals
capable of
withstanding
extremely high
temperatures
This may help make
commercial nuclear
fusion possible
(Morgan, 2013).
Commercial nuclear fusion
could change electricity
generation in many
countries, and once again
put a number of Pacic
countries under pressure to
change their stance on the
use of nuclear technologies.
Pacic governments need
to be prepared for
international pressure that
may come from further
developments in nuclear
technologies.

Examples of existing policies
! 3D Printers have been introduced to schools in some countries including the U.S.
(National Intelligence Council, 2012), the UK (Department for Education, 2013; Paton,
2013), New Zealand (Park, 2012; Radio NZ, 2011) and Australia (Burrows, 2013).
! A U.S. report (McNulty, Arnas, & Campbell, 2012) recommended cooperation between
the law enforcement, legal and diplomatic communities in order to protect entrepreneurs
intellectual property, especially to protect U.S. inventions internationally.
! The U.S. has created a National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute, now called
America Makes, to focus on increasing and accelerating U.S. domestic additive
manufacturing, supporting R&D in a number of ways (Advanced Manufacturing Portal,
2013). Part of this investment includes focusing on the potential for integrating 3D
printing into ongoing defense projects.
! A number of Pacific Rim countries (including Japan, China and Singapore) are also
investing in 3D printing research and development programs, often in partnership with
educational or research institutions.
! The New Zealand Defense Force is investigating the possible future outcomes of 3D
printing (Radio NZ, 2013).

Possible policy options
This section presents three broad policy approaches as alternatives to inaction. The three
approaches are monitoring and preparation, collaboration, or control.
Monitoring and preparation
This approach recognizes the need to take a big picture/long range view and carry out research
even if only secondary research to assess the impacts of 3D printing and prepare as
much as possible for those impacts.
Specific steps could include:
! Assigning a tech-savvy person to research ongoing 3D printing developments and
become the governments resident expert who can advise on policy. That person could
attend industry conferences and trade shows, join discussion groups on the internet, and
keep track of legal developments that may set precedents or highlight new concerns.
They should also follow industry reviews and reports that are available, including a
range of newsletters, 3D printing news websites, and reports such as the Wohlers
Associates State of the industry report (Wohlers Associates, 2013).





! Establishing an interdepartmental or even part-government part-industry task-force to
meet regularly and discuss the latest developments in 3D printing and their impacts on
security.
! Including 3D printing in relevant government departments media monitoring, or at least
regularly checking industry websites and reports, Wired and The Economist to keep
abreast of major developments.
! Scheduling regular interdepartmental future mapping and preparedness exercises to
draw out priorities for forward-looking policy.
! Improving government ability to respond flexibly and quickly to changes this may be
easier with an interdepartmental task-force with broad networks to draw on across the
government.

The major benefit of this approach is that it will allow governments in the Pacific to keep up to
date, if not keep pace with developments. If they are also flexible and able to respond quickly
to major changes, Pacific countries could gain from the benefits of 3D printing and minimize
downsides.
It is important to note that a restricted form of this approach may be the only option available to
some Pacific countries given their limited resources. However, information sharing may be
possible between some countries with close relationships, perhaps assigning a delegate to be
included in a task-force/working group run by another country e.g. some Pacific Island
countries with close relationships with New Zealand could request to have a delegate on a
New Zealand task-force or working group.

Collaboration
Building on monitoring and preparedness, taking a collaborative approach focuses on
increasing cooperation across sectors including the government, legal services, diplomatic
service, border control, law enforcement, business, research and development, academia ,
etc.
Specific steps could include:
! Ensuring investment in training up people with skills in computer aided design and
additive manufacturing techniques. Placing 3D printers in schools, as some countries
have already done, is a great start along that path.
! Funding R&D projects in universities and businesses where there is possible
commercial application or some other benefit to the country.

PACIFIC ISLANDS SOCIETY INC.
P.O.Box 632 Ebensburg, PA 15931 Phone: 412.567.7147
staff@pacificislandssociety.org - www.pacificislandssociety.com

! Assigning a tech-savvy person to research ongoing 3D printing
developments and become the governments resident expert who
can advise on policy. That person could attend industry
conferences and trade shows, join discussion groups on the
internet, and keep track of legal developments that may set
precedents or highlight new concerns. They should also follow
industry reviews and reports that are available, including a range of
newsletters, 3D printing news websites, and reports such as the
Wohlers Associates State of the industry report (Wohlers
Associates, 2013).
! Establishing an interdepartmental or even part-government part-
industry task-force to meet regularly and discuss the latest
developments in 3D printing and their impacts on security.
! Including 3D printing in relevant government departments media
monitoring, or at least regularly checking industry websites and
reports, Wired and The Economist to keep abreast of major
developments.
! Scheduling regular interdepartmental future mapping and
preparedness exercises to draw out priorities for forward-looking
policy.
! Improving government ability to respond exibly and quickly to
changes this may be easier with an interdepartmental task-force
with broad networks to draw on across the government.


! Establishing partnerships between government departments and academic institutions,
perhaps in the form of new centers or institutes, to research specific applications in
which the government sees a need or potential gain.
! Encouraging information sharing between academia, business and government
departments on 3D printing developments.
! Facilitating regional cooperation and collaboration to share information and resources
relating to 3D printing developments.
Pacific governments have a unique opportunity to draw benefits from developments in 3D
printing if they act fast. As McNulty et al. (2012) points task-force out, By funding this
technology before it fully enters the consumer market and collaborating with those developing
the systems... government agencies will have an advantage in its future gains (p. 7).
Control
A control approach would focus heavily on regulation. This could include:
! Regulating IP owners to control CAD files in order to control printing e.g. somehow
programming files to only print at certain specifications, or on a specific printer with
certain materials. However, CAD files are easily changed. The field of digital rights
management has been largely unsuccessful as of yet. Furthermore, a 3D scanner
reduces the need for a CAD file so it would still be easy to bypass such regulation.
! Focusing on building up IP regulation, though this would likely stifle developments in
the industry without preventing the undesirable outcomes, ultimately doing more harm
than good.
! Controlling gunpowder, aiming to make it traceable, to address the weapons concern.
Aiming for government control would be detrimental to the development of 3D technology and
the possible benefits it can bring, even if such an approach may satisfy pressures from some
groups of businesses or citizens demanding action in the face of uncertainty.


Recommendations
It is imperative that 3D printing is recognized as a quickly developing technology with
enormous possibilities, both for security benefits and for substantial changes that will present
security challenges to unprepared governments. Out of the three broad approaches outlined
above, governments of the Pacific should, to some extent, adopt the first approach of
monitoring developments and preparing for changes. This will help governments keep up to
date with 3D printing developments impacting on security and avoid being left behind.
Governments who are able to should also pursue the second approach of collaboration,
investing in research and development projects and training skilled workers. Regional
cooperation between Pacific Island governments would compliment cross-sector collaboration
within countries, better preparing governments to react to changes and security challenges that
are coming whether you like it or not and at a speed you dont see coming (Williamson,
2013).

Bibliography

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Advanced Manufacturing Portal. (2013). America Makes: National Additive Manufacturing
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Portal: http://www.manufacturing.gov/nnmi_pilot_institute.html

Applied DNA Sciences Inc. (2014). Electronics. Retrieved January 17, 2014, from Applied DNA
Sciences: http://www.adnas.com/applications/electronics

Atala, A. (2011, March). Anthony Atala: Printing a human kidney [video file]. Retrieved
November 15, 2013, from TED: http://www.ted.com/talks/
anthony_atala_printing_a_human_kidney.html

Brooke, R. (2013, March 11). 3D printing in the emerging markets: China. Retrieved November
15, 2013, from TCT Mag: http://www.tctmagazine.com/additive-manufacturing/3d-printing-in-
the-emerging-markets%3A-china/

Burrows, I. (2013, November 8). 3D printing aims to revolutionize Australian schools,
manufacturing. Retrieved November 15, 2013, from Australia Network News: 3D printing aims
to revolutionize Australian schools, manufacturing Department for Education. (2013, October).
3D printers in school: Uses in the curriculum. Retrieved November 15, 2013, from GOV.UK:
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/
251439/3D_printers_in_schools.pdf

Hornick, J. (2013, October 23). Interview about 3D printing. (B. Thompson, Interviewer)

Markillie, P. (2012, April 21). A third industrial revolution. Retrieved November 15, 2013, from
The Economist: http://www.economist.com/node/21552901

Bibliography

McNulty, C. M., Arnas, N., & Campbell, T. A. (2012). Toward the printed world: Additive
manufacturing and implications for national security. Defense Horizons (73), 1-16.

Morgan, J. (2013, October 15). Amaze project aims to take 3D printing 'into metal age'.
Retrieved November 15, 2013, from BBC News: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-
environment-24528306

National Intelligence Council. (2012). Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds. Washington,
DC: Office of the Director of National Intelligence, National Intelligence Council.

Park, R. (2012, December 21). New Zealand Incorporates 3D Printing into Curriculum.
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2012/12/21/new-zealand-incorporates-3d-printing-into-curriculum/

Paton, G. (2013, October 18). 3D printers to be introduced into the classroom. Retrieved
November 15, 2013, from The Telegraph: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/
educationnews/10389489/3D-printers-to-be-introduced-into-the-classroom.html

Radio NZ. (2013, May 19). Defense to investigate 3D printing of guns. Retrieved November
15, 2013, from Radio NZ: http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/national/135502/defence-to-
investigate-3d-printing-of-guns

Radio NZ. (2011, March 3). Nine to Noon Thursday 3 March 2011, with Kathryn Ryan.
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Bibliography

Weinberg, M. (2010, November). It will be awesome if they don't screw it up: 3D printing,
intellectual property, and the fight over the next great disruptive technology. Retrieved November
15, 2013, from Public Knowledge: http://www.publicknowledge.org/files/docs/
3DPrintingPaperPublicKnowledge.pdf

Williamson, M. (2013, October 30). Interview about 3D printing. (B. Thompson, Interviewer)
Wohlers Associates. (2013). Wohlers Report 2013. Retrieved November 15, 2013, from Wohlers
Associates: http://wohlersassociates.com/2013report.htm

This policy brief was also informed by informal discussions with industry professionals and
academics who did not wish to be referenced.


About the Author

Briar Thompson is a Rhodes
Scholar from New Zealand
pursuing graduate study at
Somerville College, University of
Oxford. She has completed an
MSc in Refugee and Forced
Migration Studies, in which her
thesis focused on how the
protection needs of those
vulnerable to displacement linked
to environmental stress might be
provided, with particular reference
to Pacic small island states.
Starting this fall, Briar will be
reading for the Master of Public
Policy at Oxfords Blavatnik
School of Government, where she
intends to continue relating her
studies to the Pacic region.


About the 2013/14 Pacific Security Scholars Program:
The 2013/14 Pacific Security Scholars Program is an extension of the ESTPC Security
Scholars program. Designed specifically for scholars from the Pacific Islands region, this
program is being run in partnership with the Pacific Islands Society and the Center for
Australian, New Zealand, and Pacific Studies. Keiko Ono, Director of Development at
PacSoc,can be reached at the following address for any further enquiries into the
program: staff@pacificislandssociety.org.

About the Pacific Islands Society Inc (PacSoc).
The Pacific Islands Society is an independent, non-partisan, non-governmental
organization dedicated to promoting stronger people-people relations between the
Pacific Island Countries and beyond. www.pacificislandssociety.com

About the Emerging Science and Technology Policy Centre
The Emerging Science and Technology Policy Centre was established to promote
international peace by strengthening the impact and credibility of scientists and
technologists in national security policy debates involving emerging science and
technologies. www.estpc.org

About the Pacic Islands Society at SOAS
The Pacic Islands Society at SOAS is a registered society of the SOAS Student Union
that aims to increase student and faculty awareness of the importance of Pacic
a$airs within the SOAS community and the broader UK higher-level education system.

About the Center for Australian, New Zealand, and Pacific Studies:
The Center for Australian, New Zealand and Pacific Studies is part of the School of
Foreign Service at Georgetown University. The Center was established in August 1995
with funding from the Governments of Australia and New Zealand and offers a wide
program of courses, conferences and meetings taught by outstanding academics each
semester. http://canzps.georgetown.edu

About the Federation of American Scientists
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Proposed citation:
Briar Thompson, Pacific Security Scholars (2014) Reaching into the White Powder: A Policy Brief
on 3D printing and Pacific Security Pacific Islands Society Inc.
PACIFIC ISLANDS SOCIETY INC.
P.O.Box 632 Ebensburg, PA 15931 Phone: 412.567.7147
staff@pacificislandssociety.org - www.pacificislandssociety.com