shape the laser beam by using lenses and other optical elements. In
general, laserbeam propagation can be approximated by assum
ing that the laser beam has an ideal Gaussian intensity profile,
corresponding to the theoretical TEM
00
mode. Coherent Gaussian
beams have peculiar transformation properties that require special
consideration. In order to select the best optics for a particular laser
application, it is important to understand the basic properties of
Gaussian beams. Unfortunately, the output from reallife lasers is
not truly Gaussian (although helium neon lasers and argonion
lasers are a very close approximation). To accommodate this variance,
a quality factor, M
2
(called the “Msquare” factor), has been defined
to describe the deviation of the laser beam from a theoretical
Gaussian. For a theoretical Gaussian, M
2
=1; for a real laser beam,
M
2
>1. Helium neon lasers typically have an M
2
factor that is less
than 1.1. For ion lasers, the M
2
factor is typically between 1.1 and
1.3. Collimated TEM
00
diode laser beams usually have an M
2
factor
ranging from 1.1 to 1.7. For highenergy multimode lasers, the M
2
factor can be as high as 3 or 4. In all cases, the M
2
factor, which
varies significantly, affects the characteristics of a laser beam and
cannot be neglected in optical designs.
In the following discussion, we will first treat the characteristics
of a theoretical Gaussian beam (M
2
= 1) and then show how these
characteristics change as the beam deviates from the theoretical. In
all cases, a circularly symmetric wavefront is assumed, as would be
the case for a helium neon laser or an argonion laser. Diode laser
beams are asymmetric and often astigmatic, which causes their
transformation to be more complex.
Although in some respects component design and tolerancing
for lasers are more critical than they are for conventional optical
components, the designs often tend to be simpler since many of
the constants associated with imaging systems are not present. For
instance, laser beams are nearly always used on axis, which eliminates
the need to correct asymmetric aberration. Chromatic aberrations
are of no concern in singlewavelength lasers, although they are
critical for some tunable and multiline laser applications. In fact, the
only significant aberration in most singlewavelength applications
is primary (thirdorder) spherical aberration.
Scatter from surface defects, inclusions, dust, or damaged coat
ings is of greater concern in laserbased systems than in incoherent
systems. Speckle content arising from surface texture and beam
coherence can limit system performance.
Because laser light is generated coherently, it is not subject to
some of the limitations normally associated with incoherent sources.
All parts of the wavefront act as if they originate from the same
point, and consequently the emergent wavefront can be precisely
defined. Starting out with a welldefined wavefront permits more
precise focusing and control of the beam than would otherwise be
possible.
In order to gain an appreciation of the principles and limitations
of Gaussian beam optics, it is necessary to understand the nature of
the laser output beam. In TEM
00
mode, the beam emitted from a laser
is a perfect plane wave with a Gaussian transverse irradiance profile
as shown in figure 2.1. The Gaussian shape is truncated at some
diameter either by the internal dimensions of the laser or by some
limiting aperture in the optical train. To specify and discuss propa
gation characteristics of a laser beam, we must define its diameter
in some way. The commonly adopted definition is the diameter at
which the beam irradiance (intensity) has fallen to 1/e
2
(13.5%) of its
peak, or axial, value.
BEAM WAIST AND DIVERGENCE
Diffraction causes light waves to spread transversely as they
propagate, and it is therefore impossible to have a perfectly collimated
beam. The spreading of a laser beam is in precise accord with the
predictions of pure diffraction theory; aberration is totally insignif
icant in the present context. Under quite ordinary circumstances,
the beam spreading can be so small it can go unnoticed. The fol
lowing formulas accurately describe beam spreading, making it
easy to see the capabilities and limitations of laser beams. The
notation is consistent with much of the laser literature, particularly
with Siegman’s excellent Introduction to Lasers and Masers
(McGrawHill).
Introduction to Gaussian Beam Optics
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2.2 1 Visit Us OnLine! www.mellesgriot.com
Figure 2.1 Irradiance profile of a Gaussian TEM
00
mode
13.5
CONTOUR RADIUS
41.5w 1.5w
20
40
60
80
100
4w 0 w
P
E
R
C
E
N
T
I
R
R
A
D
I
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C
E
Chpt. 2 Final 7/30/99 4:59 PM Page 2.2
Visit Us Online! www.mellesgriot.com 12.3
where z is the distance propagated from the plane where the wavefront
is flat, l is the wavelength of light, w
0
is the radius of
the 1/e
2
irradiance contour at the plane where the wavefront is flat, w(z)
is the radius of the 1/e
2
contour after the wave has propagated a
distance z, and R(z) is the wavefront radius of curvature after
propagating a distance z. R(z) is infinite at z = 0, passes through
a minimum at some finite z, and rises again toward infinity as
z is further increased, asymptotically approaching the value of z itself.
The plane z = 0 marks the location of a Gaussian waist, or a place
where the wavefront is flat, and w
0
is called the beam waist radius.
A waist occurs naturally at the midplane of a symmetric confocal
cavity. Another waist occurs at the surface of the planar mirror
of the quasihemispherical cavity used in many Melles Griot lasers.
The irradiance distribution of the Gaussian TEM
00
beam,
namely,
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R(z) = z 1 +
w
z
and
w(z) = w
z
w
0
2
0
0
2
p
l
l
p

(
'
·
J
J
]
]
]
]
]
+

(
'
·
J
J
]
]
]
]
2
2
1 2
1
/
Even if a Gaussian TEM
00
laserbeam wavefront were made
perfectly flat at some plane, with all elements moving in precisely
parallel directions, it would quickly acquire curvature and begin
spreading in accordance with
where w = w(z) and P is the total power in the beam, is the same
at all cross sections of the beam. The invariance of the form of the
distribution is a special consequence of the presumed Gaussian
distribution at z = 0. If a uniform irradiance distribution had been
presumed at z = 0, the pattern at z = ∞would have been the familiar
Airy disc pattern given by a Bessel function, while the pattern at
intermediate z values would have been enormously complicated. (See
Born and Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2d ed, Pergamon/ Macmillan).
Simultaneously, as R(z) asymptotically approaches z for large
z, w(z) asymptotically approaches the value
where z is presumed to be much larger than pw
0
/l so that the 1/e
2
irradiance contours asymptotically approach a cone of angular
radius
This value is the farfield angular radius of the Gaussian TEM
00
beam. The vertex of the cone lies at the center of the waist (see
figure 2.2).
It is important to note that, for a given value of l, variations of
beam diameter and divergence with distance z are functions of a
single parameter. This is often chosen to be w
0
, or the beam waist
radius.
The direct relationship between beam waist and divergence
(v ∝1/w
0
) must always be considered when focusing a TEM
00
laser
beam. Because of this relationship, the spectrally selective coating
of the spherical output mirror of a Melles Griot laser is actually sup
ported on the concave inner surface of a weak meniscus lens. In
this paraxial, high fnumber configuration, the lens introduces no
significant aberration. A new beam waist, larger than the intra
cavity beam waist, is formed by this lens near its output pupil. The
transformed beam has greatly reduced divergence, which is
advantageous for most applications. Note that it is the 1/e
2
beam
diameter of this extracavity waist that is published in this catalog.
As an example to illustrate the relationship between beam waist
and divergence, let us consider the real case of a Melles Griot red
5mW HeNe laser, 05 LHR 151, with a specified beam diameter of
0.8 mm (i.e., w
0
= 0.4 mm). In the farfield region,
I (r) = I e =
2P
w
e
0
2r w
2
2r w
2 2 2 2
4 4 / /
,
p
w(z)
z
w
0
≅
l
p
v
l
p
=
w(z)
z
=
w
0
.
w
w0
w0
z
w
0
1
e
2
irradiance surface
v
a
sy
m
p
to
tic co
n
e
Figure 2.2 Growth in 1/e
2
contour radius with distance
propagated away from Gaussian waist
(2.2)
(2.1)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.5)
Using the asymptotic approximation, at a distance of z = 100 m,
v
p p
=
w
=
632.8
( (0.4)
= 5.04 10 rad.
0
6
4
l ×
×
10
5
5
)
w(z) = z
= (10 5.04 10
= 50.4 mm
5 4
v
)( ) ×
4
which is approximately 126 times larger than w
0
.
Chpt. 2 Final 9/2/99 4:07 PM Page 2.3
2.4 1 Visit Us OnLine! www.mellesgriot.com
For the expanded beam, the ratio w(z)/w
0
is only a factor of 12.6
for a distance of 100 m, but it is a factor of 126 for the same distance
when the laser is used alone.
graphically in figure 2.4. If we put this value for w
0
(optimum) back
into the expression for w(z), w(z) = √}} 2 w
0
. Thus, for this example,
w(100) = √}} 2 (4.48) = 6.3 mm.
By turning this previous equation around, we can define a
distance, called the Rayleigh range (z
R
), over which the beam radius
spreads by a factor of √}} 2 as
If we use beamexpanding optics (such as the 09 LBC, 09 LBX,
09 LBZ, or 09 LCM series), which allow us to adjust the position
of the beam waist, we can actually double the distance over which
beam divergence is minimized. Figure 2.5 illustrates this situation,
in which the beam starts off at a value of w(z
R
) = (2lz /p)
1/2
, goes
through a minimum value of w
0
= w(z
R
)/√}} 2 , and then returns to
w(z
R
). By focusing the beamexpanding optics to place the beam
waist at the midpoint, we can restrict beam spread to a factor of √}} 2
over a distance of 2z
R
, as opposed to just z
R
.
This result can now be used in the problem of finding the starting
beam radius that yields the minimum beam diameter and beam
spread over 100 m. Using 2z
R
= 100, or z
R
= 50, and l= 632.8 nm,
we get a value of w(z
R
) = (2lz /p)
1/2
= 4.5 mm, and w
0
= 3.2 mm.
Thus, the optimum starting beam radius is the same as previously
calculated. However, by focusing the expander we achieve a final
beam radius that is no larger than our starting beam radius, while
still maintaining the √}} 2 factor in overall variation.
Alternately, if we started off with a beam radius of 6.3 mm
(√}} 2 w
0
), we could focus the expander to provide a beam waist of
w
0
= 4.5 mm at 100 m, and a final beam radius of 6.3 mm at 200 m.
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OPTIMUMCOLLIMATION
Typically, one has a fixed value for w
0
and uses the previously given
expression to calculate w(z) for an input value of z. However, one can
also utilize this equation to see how final beam radius varies with start
ing beam radius at a fixed distance, z. Figure 2.4 shows the Gaussian
beam propagation equation plotted as a function of w
0
, with the
particular values of l = 632.8 nm and z = 100 m.
The beam radius at 100 m reaches a minimum value for a starting
beam radius of about 4.5 mm. Therefore, if we wanted to achieve
the best combination of minimum beam diameter and minimum
beam spread (or best collimation) over a distance of 100 m, our
optimum starting beam radius would be 4.5 mm. Any other starting
value would result in a larger beam at z = 100 m.
We can find the general expression for the optimum starting
beam radius for a given distance, z. Doing so yields
Using this optimum value of w
0
will provide the best combina
tion of minimum starting beam diameter and minimum beam
spread (ratio of w(z)/w
0
) over the distance z. The previous example
of z = 100 and l=632.8 nm gives w
0
(optimum) = 4.48 mm, shown
STARTING BEAM RADIUS w0 (mm)
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D
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S
(
m
m
)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0
20
40
60
80
100
Figure 2.4 Beam radius at 100 m as a function of starting
beam radius for a HeNe laser at 632.8 nm
w (optimum) =
z
0
1/2
l
p
.
(2.6)
Figure 2.3 Laser beam expander 09 LBM 013 (reversed
telescope)
w(z) =
(10
= 5.04 mm.
5 4
)( . ) 5 04 10
10
×
5
Suppose instead that we decide to reduce the divergence
by directing the laser into a beam expander (reversed telescope)
of angular magnification m = 10, such as Melles Griot model
09 LBM013 (figure 2.3). Consider the case in which the expander
is focused to form a waist of radius w
0
= 4.0 mm at the expander
output lens. Since v ∝ 1/w
0
, by definition, v is reduced by a factor
of 10; therefore, for z = 100 m,
z =
w
with
w(z w
R
0
2
R 0
p
l
) . = 2
(2.7)
Chpt. 2 Final 7/30/99 4:59 PM Page 2.4
Visit Us Online! www.mellesgriot.com 12.5
INCORPORATING M
2
INTO THE BASIC EQUATIONS
The following discussion is taken from the analysis by Sun [Haiyin
Sun, “Thin Lens Equation for a Real Laser Beam with Weak Lens
Aperture Truncation,” Opt. Eng. 37, no. 11 (November 1998)]. From
equation 2.5 we see that, for a theoretical Gaussian beam, the small
est possible value of the radiusdivergence product is
w
0
v = l/p.
For a real laser beam, we have
w
0M
v
M
= M
2
l/p >l/p
where w
0M
and v
M
are the 1/e
2
intensity waist radius and the far
field halfdivergent angle of the real laser beam, respectively, and
M
2
factors into equations 2.1 and 2.2 as follows:
w
M
(z) = w
0M
[1+(zlM
2
/pw
0M
2
)
2
]
1/2
R
M
(z) = z[1+(pw
0M
2
/zlM
2
)
2
]
where w
M
and R
M
are the 1/e
2
intensity radius of the beam and the
beam wavefront radius at z, respectively.
The definition for the Rayleigh range (equation 2.7) remains
the same for a real laser beam and becomes
z
R
= pw
0R
2
/l.
Together, equations 2.9, 2.10, and 2.11 form a complete set to
denote the input of a real laser beam into a thin lens.
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beam expander
w
0
zR zR
w(–zR) = √2w0
w(zR) = √2w0
Figure 2.5 Focusing a beam expander to minimize beam
radius and spread over a specified distance
(2.8)
(2.9)
(2.10)
(2.11)
Melles Griot manufactures many types of lasers and
laser systems for laboratory and OEM applications.
These, along with a wide variety of laser accessories, are
found in Chapter 41 through 47. Laser types include
helium neon (HeNe) and helium cadmium (HeCd) lasers;
argon, krypton, and mixed gas (argon/krypton) ion
lasers; diode lasers, and diodepumped solidstate
(DPSS) lasers.
LASERS AND LASER SYSTEMS
Chpt. 2 Final 9/2/99 4:05 PM Page 2.5