CACHE Level 3 Diploma in Child Care and Education (DCE) Thursday 18th May 2006 MARKING GUIDELINES – STRICTLY

CONFIDENTIAL

GENERAL ADVICE It is essential that external examiners realise that the suggestions for answers included in these marking guidelines are only exemplars. Questions have been designed to be open-ended allowing candidates to include a range of responses. Candidates’ knowledge and understanding should be recognised wherever possible. External examiners should raise any issues relating to candidates’ responses at the Standardisation Meeting. Candidates’ answers may be in a variety of formats such as bullet points. It is important that external examiners mark only for content and not for grammar, spelling or punctuation. The following criteria should be used in conjunction with the marking criteria to assist external examiners with the grade level of responses. It is thought that: Refer • Candidate shows very limited understanding of the subject and/or fails to answer the question.

E level responses • makes simple or unsubstantiated statements. • displays a basic understanding of the subject matter • responds in a descriptive way rather than in an analytical way • lacks evidence of in-depth knowledge D and C level responses • shows some development of ideas • shows a clear understanding of the subject matter • gives explanations • gives clear and relevant examples to support their answers • refers to theorists or other relevant research where appropriate to the subject A and B level responses • has developed ideas fully • gives detailed answers and shows an in-depth understanding of the subject matter • gives detailed examples and provides relevant evidence to support response • refers in detail throughout their work to one or more theorists or other relevant research and links to practice where appropriate to the subject

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DCE Test Paper 18 May 2006 Marking Guidelines

Question 1.1 (8 Marks) Describe what is meant by cognitive development. Number of marks 7-8 Level of response • has developed ideas fully • gives a detailed answer showing an in-depth understanding of the subject matter • provides relevant examples throughout to support responses • refers in detail to theorists/theories or other relevant research and links to practice, where appropriate • shows development of ideas • shows understanding of the subject matter • provides some relevant examples to support responses • may refer to theorists or other relevant research where appropriate • gives explanations • responds in a descriptive way • makes simple or unsubstantiated statements • shows limited understanding of the subject matter • fails to answer the question Answers may include Development of: • memory • concentration • imagination • concepts • problem solving • creativity • perception/ intuition • thinking • knowledge • conservation • ability to de-centre • independent learning • critical thinking Theorists: Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner, Athey, Donaldson • role of play in promoting cognitive development • importance of exploration/ investigation/ learning by trial and error • links to emotional development- motivation, selfesteem • links to language development • Maslow’s Hierarchy of need

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DCE Test Paper 18 May 2006 Marking Guidelines

Question 1.2 (12 Marks) Discuss the role of the Early Years practitioner in promoting the cognitive development of babies in their first year. Number of marks 9-12 Level of response • has developed ideas fully • gives a detailed answer showing an indepth understanding of the subject matter • provides relevant examples throughout to support responses • refers in detail to theorists/theories or other relevant research and links to practice, where appropriate • shows development of ideas • shows understanding of the subject matter • provides some relevant examples to support responses • may refer to theorists or other relevant research where appropriate • gives explanations • responds in a descriptive way • makes simple or unsubstantiated statements • shows limited understanding of the subject matter • fails to answer the question Answers may include • importance of relationship/ key person • information from parents about familiar routines/ enjoyable experiences • observations • be sensitive/ responsive • babies learn through senses and movement • follow babies lead/pace • encourage exploration • encourage choices • understand importance of repetition • provide opportunities to make patterns, compare • appropriate opportunities/ everyday experiences- feeding, nappy changing, getting dressed, going out • resources- treasure basket/ books • stimulating language • Birth to Three Matters Framework • safety

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DCE Test Paper 18 May 2006 Marking Guidelines

Question 2.1 (6 Marks) Describe what is meant by physical play.

Number of marks 5-6

Level of response • has developed ideas fully • gives a detailed answer showing an indepth understanding of the subject matter • provides relevant examples throughout to support responses • refers in detail to theorists/theories or other relevant research and links to practice, where appropriate • shows development of ideas • shows understanding of the subject matter • provides some relevant examples to support responses • may refer to theorists or other relevant research where appropriate • gives explanations • responds in a descriptive way • makes simple or unsubstantiated statements • shows limited understanding of the subject matter • fails to answer the question

Answers may include • play involving large muscles and movements/ - gross motor • play involving fine motor skills- hand eye coordination/ manipulation • opportunity to practice skills • active play • opportunity for challenge and risk • opportunity for creativity • kinaesthetic learning • enjoyable • outlet for energy • may be indoor and outdoor • individual difference

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DCE Test Paper 18 May 2006 Marking Guidelines

Question 2.2 (12 Marks) Explain how physical play supports children’s learning and development.

Number of marks 9-12

Level of response • has developed ideas fully • gives a detailed answer showing an indepth understanding of the subject matter • provides relevant examples throughout to support responses • refers in detail to theorists/theories or other relevant research and links to practice, where appropriate • shows development of ideas • shows understanding of the subject matter • provides some relevant examples to support responses • may refer to theorists or other relevant research where appropriate • gives explanations • responds in a descriptive way • makes simple or unsubstantiated statements • shows limited understanding of the subject matter • fails to answer the question

Answers may include

Learning: • concepts- force/gravity/velocity • develop spatial awareness • active learning/trial and error/ allows repetition/allows practice • different learning styles/ physical learners • Theorists- Piaget, Froebel, Issacs, Macmillan • risk taking/ learn about safety • rules • turn- taking • sharing/ co-operation • curriculum requirements Development: • Physical- improved fine and gross motor skills/ stamina/ strength of bones and muscles • Emotional- confidence/ selfesteem/ well being • Cognitive- concentration/ brain development

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DCE Test Paper 18 May 2006 Marking Guidelines

Question 2.3 (12 Marks) Children have a right to an environment which promotes risk and challenge. Discuss the role of the adult in meeting this right.

Number of marks 9-12

Level of response • has developed ideas fully • gives a detailed answer showing an indepth understanding of the subject matter • provides relevant examples throughout to support responses • refers in detail to theorists/theories or other relevant research and links to practice, where appropriate • shows development of ideas • shows understanding of the subject matter • provides some relevant examples to support responses • may refer to theorists or other relevant research where appropriate • gives explanations • responds in a descriptive way • makes simple or unsubstantiated statements • shows limited understanding of the subject matter • fails to answer the question

Answers may include • recognise and meet individual needs • role of observation • awareness of age/stage of children • liaison with parents • risk assessment • involve children in risk assessment/boundary setting • supervision • follow policies/procedures of setting • build confidence • appropriate challenging experiences • indoor and outdoor experiences • resources • curriculum links

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DCE Test Paper 18 May 2006 Marking Guidelines

Question 3.1 (5 Marks) Why are young children particularly vulnerable to infection?

Number of marks 4-5

Level of response • has developed ideas fully • gives a detailed answer showing an indepth understanding of the subject matter • provides relevant examples throughout to support responses • refers in detail to theorists/theories or other relevant research and links to practice, where appropriate • shows development of ideas • shows understanding of the subject matter • provides some relevant examples to support responses • may refer to theorists or other relevant research where appropriate • gives explanations • responds in a descriptive way • makes simple or unsubstantiated statements • shows limited understanding of the subject matter • fails to answer the question

Answers may include • have immature immune system • have not built up immunity • learn through senses – touch, taste/ put every thing in mouth • infection easily passed on by touch, inhalation, through cuts in skin, through food and drink, poor food preparation/sterilisation of bottles etc • children lack understanding of hygiene/ need for hygiene • examples of infections which are passed on easily – conjunctivitis, thread worms • pre-term babies • children who have inadequate diet • effect of poor housing • children with chronic illness

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DCE Test Paper 18 May 2006 Marking Guidelines

Question 3.2 (8 Marks) Describe how children develop immunity to infection?

Number of marks 7-8

Level of response • has developed ideas fully • gives a detailed answer showing an indepth understanding of the subject matter • provides relevant examples throughout to support responses • refers in detail to theorists/theories or other relevant research and links to practice, where appropriate • shows development of ideas • shows understanding of the subject matter • provides some relevant examples to support responses • may refer to theorists or other relevant research where appropriate • gives explanations • responds in a descriptive way • makes simple or unsubstantiated statements • shows limited understanding of the subject matter • fails to answer the question

Answers may include

Passive immunity; • through placenta in pregnancy • from breast milk

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Active immunity; • having had a disease and recovering • by immunisation for diphtheria, polio, pertussis (whooping cough), measles, mumps, rubella, Hib, meningitis C, pneumococcal meningitis Good general health; • good diet • sufficient rest and sleep

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DCE Test Paper 18 May 2006 Marking Guidelines

Question 3.3 (12 Marks) Describe how a Health and Safety policy of an early years setting promotes health and well being.

Number of marks 9-12

Level of response • has developed ideas fully • gives a detailed answer showing an indepth understanding of the subject matter • provides relevant examples throughout to support responses • refers in detail to theorists/theories or other relevant research and links to practice, where appropriate • shows development of ideas • shows understanding of the subject matter • provides some relevant examples to support responses • may refer to theorists or other relevant research where appropriate • gives explanations • responds in a descriptive way • makes simple or unsubstantiated statements • shows limited understanding of the subject matter • fails to answer the question

Answers may include

Health and Safety Policy ensures safety and health of children and all who use setting with regard to: • • • • • • • • • • • • • cleaning food preparation fire evacuation first aid risk assessment safety checks on equipment staff ratios/supervision home time routines outings from the setting recording accidents administration of medicines illness of children and staff manual handling

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• reduces accidents • reduces infections • staff are clear about procedures to follow in routine procedures and emergencies • calm environment • parents have confidence children will be safe • legal requirements

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DCE Test Paper 18 May 2006 Marking Guidelines

Question 4.1 (4 Marks) Identify TWO laws that support a child with a disability or a special educational need.

Number of marks 4 3

Level of response • Two appropriate laws correctly identified

Answers may include • Children Act 1989 • Children Act 2004 • Education Act 1988 • Education Act 1993 • Disability Discrimination Act 1995 • Human Rights Act1998 • Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 1981

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fails to answer the question

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DCE Test Paper 18 May 2006 Marking Guidelines

Question 4.2 (11 Marks) Explain how the Early Years practitioner may contribute to the care and education of a child with a disability or special educational need in a setting.

Number of marks 9-11

Level of response • has developed ideas fully • gives a detailed answer showing an indepth understanding of the subject matter • provides relevant examples throughout to support responses • refers in detail to theorists/theories or other relevant research and links to practice, where appropriate • shows development of ideas • shows understanding of the subject matter • provides some relevant examples to support responses • may refer to theorists or other relevant research where appropriate • gives explanations • responds in a descriptive way • makes simple or unsubstantiated statements

Answers may include • value the child/ develop relationship with child • promote confidence/self esteem independence of child • understand needs of child • meet physical care needs • follow IEP • plan/provide appropriate resources/materials • positive, respectful relationship with parents • communicate with parents • maintain confidentiality

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5

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• shows limited understanding of the subject matter • fails to answer the question

• observe, record and report for assessment/ planning • awareness of role of SENCO • contribute to the work of the multi-disciplinary team • follow policy and procedures of the setting • promote inclusive environment • seek further training

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DCE Test Paper 18 May 2006 Marking Guidelines

Question 4.3 (10 Marks) Describe the personal qualities and skills required by an Early Years practitioner when working with a child with special educational needs.

Number of marks 8-10

Level of response • has developed ideas fully • gives a detailed answer showing an indepth understanding of the subject matter • provides relevant examples throughout to support responses • refers in detail to theorists/theories or other relevant research and links to practice, where appropriate • shows development of ideas • shows understanding of the subject matter • provides some relevant examples to support responses • may refer to theorists or other relevant research where appropriate • gives explanations • responds in a descriptive way • makes simple or unsubstantiated statements • shows limited understanding of the subject matter • fails to answer the question

Answers may include

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Qualities • patience • sensitivity • positive attitude • friendly warm approach • open-minded, non-judgemental • empathy • respect • reliable ,trustworthy Skills • effective communicator • good listener • reflective practitioner • effective team worker/ able to work in a multi-disciplinary team • knowledge about individual needs of children/how children learn • positive role model • observation and planning skills • able to empower children • able to encourage independence • confidential • able to develop positive relationships with child and parents • understanding and practice inclusivity • knowledge of legislation, policy and procedures of setting, support agencies

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DCE Test Paper 18 May 2006 Marking Guidelines