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Governance Models

Prepared by Eileen Hogan, Ph.D. for

The Executive Vice President, cade!ic
"ctober #$$%
&. 'ntroduction
Shared governance in post secondary education is often misunderstood. Richard Alfred
(1994; 1998 remar!s that it can either "e vie#ed as (a a system of self$government in
#hich "oard mem"ers% administrators% faculty and students share responsi"ility in the
governance% and cooperate in the operation of the institution or (" all personnel have a
share in the governance. &his paper provides definitions% e'amples and an overvie# of
the four models of shared governance.
#. (hared Governance
(overnance is defined as )the process for distri"uting authority% po#er and influence for
academic decisions among campus constituencies* (Alfred% 1998. &hese constituencies
include% "ut are not limited to% the "oard of trustees% faculty% students% staff%
administrators% the academic or education council+senate% and unions (Alfred% 1998.
,ommittees and su"$committees that include these representatives may also play a role.
-n the 1990s% the face of shared governance changed as (a students "ecame more critical
a"out the services provided to them% (" ne# colleges replaced traditional post$secondary
institutions% and (c accounta"ility and performance documentation #as intensified #ith
the concern for improved student outcomes and controlled costs.
Schuet. (1999 defines /shared governance0 as a )social system of self government
#herein decision$ma!ing responsi"ility is shared among those affected "y the decision.*
&o "e successful% shared governance re1uires commitment% time and focused effort from
all participants including "oard of trustees% administrators% faculty% staff and students
(2au% 1993.
). The *our Models of +niversity Governance
,a- Definitions of Each Model
i- +nica!eral Governance .governed "y a single governing "ody responsi"le
for "oth administrative and academic matters (4ount Royal ,ollege% 5006.
ii /ica!eral Governance 0 governed "y t#o legislative "odies7
i a governing "oard and
ii a senate or a university+educational council

iii- Tri0ca!eral Governance. governed "y three legislative "odies
i a governing "oard
ii a senate
iii a(n university+educational council
iii- Hybrid Governance
Shale (5005 defines hy"rid governance as a "lend of governance% usually
unicameral ("oard or a faculty+academic council or a faculty council
esta"lished "y academic council. 8ach is responsi"le for academic
governance. &he institutions #ho use this model typically are institutes of
technology% institutions that offer on$line or distance education as a
priority and+or institutes #here a"out 609 of the courses are on the :e".
4any do not have tenure and are privately or independently funded.
1. "vervie2 of Each Model 2ith Exa!ples
,a- +nica!eral Governance
;ne "ody governs the institution0s administrative and academic duties. ;ften "icameral
governance operates #ithin the internal% unicameral governance structure.
thabasca +niversity ,+- . Governed by + Governing 4ouncil.
A<% a pu"licly funded institution in Al"erta% reports to the (overnment of
Al"erta through the 4inister of Advanced 8ducation and ,areer =evelopment.
&hrough the <niversities Act% the government A< (overning ,ouncil
to grant degrees and govern its o#n affairs. &he (overning ,ouncil e'ercises the
po#ers and performs the duties of "oth a "oard and a general faculties council.
4em"ers of the A< (overning ,ouncil are appointed under order in council of
the 2ieutenant >(overnor of Al"erta. A< is uni1ue "ecause it is e'empt from any
or all of the provisions of a num"er of sections of the ?ost$Secondary 2earning
Act. As per Section @4 of the ?ost Secondary 2earning Act% A< has esta"lished
an Academic ,ouncil ((overnment of Al"erta% ?ost$Secondary 2earning Act%
,b- /ica!eral Governance0 Most +niversities have this for! of governance
'n bica!eral governance, the ,orporate ,harter delegates authority over institutional
decision ma!ing to t#o legislative "odies7 (a a governing "oard #hich usually appoints
the president and is responsi"le for the administrative and financial elements of the
university (areas of property% revenue% e'penditure% "usiness% and other matters #ithin the
conte't of process and duties accorded it% and (" an academic senate or a
university+education council #ith responsi"ility (in some cases on a purely advisory
nature "ut often #ith specific duties assigned under the charter for academic matters of
an educational+academic nature that affects the university or college as a #hole.
Malaspina +niversity 4ollege ,M+4-, 5anai!o, /4.
Governed by a /oard and an Education 4ouncil
&he Board is empo#ered "y the ,ollege to manage% administer% and direct the affairs of
the institution in areas of property% revenue% e'penditure% "usiness and other matters
#ithin the conte't of process and duties accorded it.
&he details on ho# the education council fulfills its roles and responsi"ilities are spelled
out in the Terms of Reference of each of its Standing ,ommittees. &heses committees
ma!e recommendations only to the ,ouncil #hich% in turn% may "e for#arded to the
4<, Board or 8'ecutive for ratification or implementation.
&he ,ouncil has an advisory role to the Board% Coint po#ers #ith the Board and statutory
po#ers. All communication #ith the 4inistry of Advanced 8ducation is reported to the
?resident "y #ay of copy or covering memo or other means. -n matters of a serious or
significant nature% the ?resident #ill "e consulted "efore communication is made #ith the
,c- Tri0ca!eral Governance3 &he ,orporate ,harter delegates authority over
institutional decision ma!ing to three legislative "odies7 (a a governing "oard Dof
trusteesE #hich usually appoints the president and is responsi"le for the administrative
and financial elements of the university% (" an academic senate #ith responsi"ility (in
some cases on a purely advisory nature "ut often #ith specific duties assigned under the
charter for academic matters% and (c a university or educational council.
6ueen7s +niversity ,
Governed by three legislative bodies as follo2s3
/oard of Trustees
;versees the management of the university financial matters7
operating "udget% fees% investments% campus planning% adit etc.
Appoints the Fice ?rincipals% senior officers of the university and% in
association #ith the Senate% the ?rincipal
=etermines all matters of an academic character #hich affect the
<niversity as a #hole
?articipates in planning the development of the <niversity
Gas final responsi"ility for the discipline of students
+niversity 4ouncil
=iscusses any matter related to the #ell$"eing of the <niversity
;versees the election of the ,hancellor and the Rectors
Arames "yla#s for the election of the ,hancellor% <niversity
,ouncillors and &rustees.
,d- Hybrid Governance is a ne# structure in governance #here the president and faculty
(#ith some student representation ta!e on leading roles in university governance (Shale%
5005. -t consists of a Board or Academic ,ouncil or Aaculty ,ouncil esta"lished "y
Academic ,ouncil. -t e'ists today in higher education "ecause of trends in universities
and colleges to reflect a gro#ing convergence "et#een conventional and distance
learning modes or technology modes.
The acade!ic council7s role is to consult #ith the president. &he po#ers of this council
depend on #hat po#ers the president decides to give it. &he academic council is
comprised of the registrar #ho consults #ith professors and students and other university
employees (appointed under su"section 4% at least half of the mem"ers (not appointed
under su"section 4 must "e professors% and the president may appoint 1 > 5 additional
8'ample3+niversity of "ntario 'nstitute of Technology (unicameral #ith faculty
councils (
&he university is a corporation #ithout share capital and consists of the mem"ers of its
/oard of governors
&he Board of (overnors of the university% consists of not more than 56 mem"ers% as
1. &he president of the university% "y virtue of office.
5. &he chancellor of the university% "y virtue of office.
@. &hree mem"ers appointed "y the 2ieutenant (overnor in ,ouncil.
4. At least 15 and not more than 13 mem"ers% as may "e set out in the "y$la#s of the
university% appointed "y the "oard% at least si' of #hom shall "e mem"ers of the
"oard of governors of the college "ut #ho are not employees or students of the
6. Aour mem"ers #ho are students or employees of the university and #ho are
elected "y the relevant constituencies of the university.
&en mem"ers of the convocation constitute a 1uorum of the transaction of the
8ach faculty has a *aculty 4ouncil that is responsi"le for (a the academic governance
and approval of ne# programs and courses and (" policies of the Aaculty including
admissions% academic standards% curriculum re1uirements% degree re1uirements and long$
rang academic planning. Aaculty ,ouncils are esta"lished "y Academic ,ouncil and
operate under the delegated authority of Academic ,ouncil. &he rules% procedures and
mem"ership of Aaculty ,ouncils% and proposed changes to them% are revie#ed "y the
e'ecutive committee of Academic ,ouncil.
8ach *aculty 4ouncil consists of7
(a &he =ean% Associate =ean and Assistant =eans of the Aaculty;
(" All core faculty mem"ers of the Aaculty #ith a primary appointment in the
Aaculty including those on sa""atical or leave;
(c All core faculty mem"ers #hose primary appointment is in another Aaculty% "ut
#ho hold a 569 or more secondary appointment in the faculty;
(d All full time la"oratory instructors holding complementary faculty appointments;
(e Representatives of the &eaching Assistants and ?art$&ime Aaculty #ho have
taught in the Aaculty for at least t#o consecutive academic years and #ho do not
num"er more than 109 of the categories a% "% c% and d% com"ined (#here this
num"er is at least 10;
(f Students not to num"er more than 109 of the categories a% "% c and d com"ined
(#here this num"er is at least 10;
(g &he =ean of the Aaculty acts as ,hair of the Aaculty ,ouncil;
(h 8ach Aaculty shall elect a Fice$,hair annually from among the core faculty
mem"ers of the Aaculty7 &he ?resident% Fice ?resident and Associate ?rovosts of
the <niversity% the =eans of the Aaculties of the <niversity% the Secretary of
Academic ,ouncil.
;pen <niversity ,onsortium of B,% &echnical <niversity of B, (609 of courses
availa"le on :e" and #ith no tenure status% Royal Roads <niversity (unicameral
and no tenure and the <niversity of ;ntario -nstitute of &echnology (proposed to
have most advanced e$learning technologies in ,anada.
8oyal 8oads +niversity (unicameral$ is continued as a corporation and is composed of
a board and a convocation. &he Business ,orporation Act does not apply to the
university% "ut on the recommendation% the 4inister of Ainance% "y regulation% may
declare that all or part of that Act applies to the university
&he /oard of Governors has the duties and may e'ercise the po#ers of the "oard of
governors and+or senate of a university under the <niversity Act e'cept those po#ers
given "y the president "y this act.
&he /oard is composed of the7
(a president #ho has the po#er to set academic and 1ualifications for admission% set
conditions of e'amination% set curriculum content for courses% a#ard
scholarships+"ursaries% set recognition for academic e'cellence% esta"lish committees
he deems necessary. &he president is assisted "y an academic council composed
largely of professors ("out$rru+governance+"oard$or$
(" a professor elected "y the professors
(c up to 3 persons appointed "y the 2ieutenant (overnor in ,ouncil
(d a student elected "y the students
(e an employee #ho is not a professor elected "y employees of the university #ho
are not professors
(f up to t#o persons #ho are not employees of the university% appointed "y the
&he 4onvocation of the university is continued and is composed of7
(a the chancellor% #ho is chair of the convocation
(" the president
(c the mem"ers of the program and research council
(d the professors
(e graduates of the university
(f persons #hose names are added to the roll of the convocation "y the "oard
(g the registrar #ho as secretary of the convocation% must esta"lish and !eep up to
date the roll of the convocation
&he convocation may esta"lish a fee to "e paid "y its mem"er to defray the necessary
e'penses of the convocation.
%. (u!!ary
Shared governance is a system of governance #here"y the decision$ma!ing capacity of
the institution is shared "y those affected "y the decisions; these include the "oards%
administrators% faculty% staff and students (Schuet.% 1999. &here are fours models of
governance7 uni$cameral% "i$cameral% tri$cameral and hy"rid. -n other$#ords% decision$
ma!ing in performed "y one (unicameral% t#o ("icameral% three (tri$cameral or a "lend
of governing "odies (hy"rid. ;f the four models of university governance% "icameral
governance is the most common and is comprised of t#o legislative "odies7 (a a
governing "oard that usually appoints the president and is responsi"le for the
administrative and financial elements of the university% and (" an academic senate or a
university+education council #ith responsi"ility for academic matters of an
educational+academic nature that affects the university or college as a #hole.
&he challenge of shared governance is for different parties to identify specific areas of
responsi"ility "efore decisions are made and actions ta!en (Alfred% 1998. &o effectively
govern% administrators much #or! colla"oratively #ith faculty% staff% senates% and unions
in an environment #herein the authority of each constituent group is clearly understood.
I. 8eferences
Alfred% R. (1994 )Research and Practice on Shared Governance and Participatory
Decision-making9. -n Handbook of the Community College in merica% 8d. (. Ba!er.
(reen#ood ?ress.
Alfred% R. (1998 )Shared Governance in Community Colleges!" 8ducation ,ommission
of the States% p.1$8.
(overnment of Al"erta ?ost$Secondary 2earning Act. Kueens ?rinter% ,hapter ?$19.6.
D;n$lineE% Availa"le% ;cto"er 4% 5003 at7".ca+documents+Acts+?19?6.cfm
2au% R. (1993 *Shared Governance and Compton Community College District!" 8=-4
I10 ;rgani.ational 4anagement L (overnance% ?epperdine <niversity ?la.a. 8= @93
4alaspina <niversity$,ollege. (eneral -nformation7 (overnance of 4alaspina
<niversity ,ollege. D;n$lineEon 4ay 6% 5006 at
4ount Royal ,ollege% (5006 Board of (overnors7 Report on the Board &as! Aorce on
-nstitutional (overnance% Septem"er @0% 5006% p. 3.
Kueens <niversity (5004. &he (overnance at Kueen0s <niversity. D;n$lineE% Availa"le%
4ay 6% 5003 at7
Royal Roads <niversity Board of (overnors. D;n$lineE% Availa"le ;cto"er 3% 5003 at
Schuet.% ?. (1999. Shared governance in community colleges. 8ric =igests% 4.
Shale%=. (5005. &he Gy"ridi.ation of Gigher 8ducation in ,anada. #nternational Revie$
of Research in %pen and Distant &earning" 'ol ()(* http"$$$"icaap"org+iuicode,
<niversity of ;ntario -nstitute of &echnology (<;-&. Aaculty of 8ngineering and
Applied Science (overnance.DonlineE% availa"le7
Mor! <niversity. (5003. Mor! Secretariat $ <niversity Secretariat% (overnance Structure
at Mor! <niversity. D;n$lineE% Availa"le% 4ay 6% 50067