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Ocean
Rivers
Lakes
Reservoirs
Ground water
Public water supplies normally servicetherequirements of:
Domestic household
Firefighting
Industrial
Commercial
On aglobal scale, total quantity of water availableis about 1600 million cubic
km.
Thehydrological cyclemoves enormous quantities of water about theglobe.
97.5% of all water on earth is salinewater haveno/littlehuman use.
Out of remaining 2.5% fresh water, most of which lies deep and frozen in
Antarcticaand Greenland, only about 0.26% flows in rivers, lakes and in thesoils
and shallow aquifers which can bereadily used.
Indiahas about 16% of theworld population as compared to only 4% of average
annual runoff in therivers.
With thepresent population of around 10 billion, theper capitawater availability
comes to about 1170 m
3
/person/year. Here, theaveragedoes not reflect thelarge
disparities fromregion to region in different parts of thecountry.
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Two sets of standard exist:
Onefor quality of raw water
Thesecond for quality of treated potablewater
Gr. Group description Parameter
A Organoleptic parameters Colour, Turbidity, Odour, Taste
B Physiochemical
parameters
Temperature, pH, conductivity, Cl, SO
4
,
Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al, Total dry residue
C Parameters concerning substances
undesirable in excessive amount
NO, NO
3
-
, NH
4
, Kjeldhal N, Oxidizibility,
H2S, Hydrocarbons, Phenol, Boron,
surfactants, Organochlorines, Fe, Mn, Cu,
Zn, P, F, suspended solid, Ba
D Parameters concerning toxic substance As, Cd, CN, Cr, Hg, Ni, Se, pesticides,
PAHs
E Microbiological parameters Total coliforms, Faecal coliforms, Faecal
streptococci, Sulphite reducing clostridia
F Minimum requirement for softened
water
Total hardness, alkalinity
Physical Impurities:
Particulates size>10
-1
mm, dust
Suspended 10
-3
<size<10
-1
mm, turbidity
Colloidal 10
-6
<size<10
-3
mm, clay minerals
Dissolved size<10
-6
mm, humic/tannic acid, colours
Impurities Impact Example/Source Unit
Suspended
solids (SS)
Dissolved
solid (DS)
Inorganic:
1. Aesthetically displeasing
2. Provides adsorption sites for chemical and
biological agents
Clay, silt
natural contaminants resulting
from erosion
Human activity
Not present in ground water
mg/lit
Organic:
1. May degrade biologically resulting in
objectionable by products
2. Biologically active SS may include disease
casing organism, toxin-producing strains of
algae.
Plant fibre, algal cell, bacteria mg/lit
Turbidity 1. Aesthetically displeasing
2. . Provides adsorption sites for chemical
and biological agents
Erosion of colloidal material clay,
silt, rock fragments, metal oxides.
Vegetable fibre, micro organism
JTU/N
TU
Colour 1. Aesthetically displeasing
2. Highly coloured water is unsuitable for
laundry, dyeing paper making, beverage,
dairy and other food processing , textile and
plastic production
3. Colour produced by organic compounds
exert Cl demand. Phenolic compound
common constituent of vegetable decay
result in objectionable test and odor with
chlorine.
TCU
Impurities Impact Example/Source Unit
Teste and
odour
1. Aesthetically displeasing
2. Odour and test produced by organic
substances may pose more problem as some
of them may be carcinogenic
Mineral, metals, salts from soils,
end products of biological
reactions. Inorganic substances
are more likely test producing
without odour.
Organic material produced both
test and odour.
TON
Temperature 1. Temperature of surface water governs to a
large extent the biological species present
and their rate of activity. Cooler water
slower biological activity.
2. Temperature has an effect on most
chemical reactions .
3. Dissolution of solid is accelerated by
increased temperature.
4. Solubility of gas decreases at increased
temp.
5. Viscosity of water increases with
decreasing temp.
6. Maximum density of water occurs at 4 C
and decreases either side of that
temperature.
Atmospheric temp. more affective
for shallow water bodies.
Discharge of heated water from
industries result in localized
temperature change in receiving
stream .
C
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Water sample
TS=SS+DS
(I & O)
Evaporate to
dryness
Filter (GFF)
Dry filter and residue at 104 C
to constant weight
Total
solid
Suspended
solid
Dissolved
Solid
Firing at 600 C
Firing at 600 C
Inorganic
content
Org.=CO
2
+
Water
vapor+Gases
Org.=CO
2
+
Water
vapor+Gases
Measured photometrically be determining % of light of a given
intensity that is either absorbed or scattered.
Jackson turbidimeter: Tube graduated with Jackson turbidity unit
1 JTU= mg SiO
2
in 1 lit of distilled water
New turbidity meter equipped with standardized bulb
Sample is kept in a small sample vial
Light is passed through vial
Absorption is measured opposite to the vial
Scattering is measured at 90 angle from the light source
Formazine a chemical compound is used in place of SiO2
Colour
Comparison with standard coloured material
True colour unit: 1 unit=colour produced by 1 mg/L of platinum in the form of
chlorplatinate ions
For colours other than yellowish brown hues, especially for coloured effluents
originating from industries special spectrophotometer are employed for colour
measurement.
Not done for waste water
Commonly only true colour produced by organic acid resulting from decaying
vegetation in water
Resulting valued can be taken as indirect measurement of humic substance.
Odour
Varying amount of odourous water is poured into containers and diluted with
enough odour free water to make a 200 ml mixture.
A panel of 5-10 people is used to determine the mixture in which the odour is just
barely detectable to the sense of smell.
TON=A+B/A
A= volume of odorous water (ml), B=volume of odour free water required to
produce 200 ml mixture
Total dissolved solid
Alkalinity
Hardness
Fluorides
Metals
Organics
Nutrients
Mole: unit amount of substance of molecular weight.
One molar solution: One mole of substance dissolved in sufficient
water to make one lit of solution is called one molar solution.
Equivalence: equivalence of an element or radical is defined as the
number of hydrogen atoms that element or radical can hold in
combination or can replace in reaction. In most case equivalence
of an ion is the same as the absolute value of its valence.
Equivalent: Equivalent of an element or radical is its gram molecular
mass divided by its equivalence.
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The alkalinity of water may be defined as its capacity to neutralize acid.
Alkali substances in water include hydroxides or bases. They can be
detected by their acrid taste and by the fact that they cause red litmus
paper to turn blue.
Alkalinity of water may be due to the presence of one or more of a
number of ions including hydroxides, carbonates and bicarbonates.
Moderate concentrations of alkalinity are desirable in most water
supplies to balance the corrosive effects of acidity.
Highly mineralized alkaline waters produces an objectionable "soda"
taste. It also causes excessive drying of the skin due to the fact that they
tend to remove normal skin oils.
Alkalinity can be removed by reverse osmosis, along with other total
dissolved solids. Other methods of water treatment such as distillation
and deionization (demineralization) are less suitable for household use
water than reverse osmosis.