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Safety - freedom from hazards or accident.

- Defines as relative matter of freedom or protection from risk

or dangers.
- It is a degree of freedom from risks or hazards in any
environment- home, office, factory, mine, schools,
construction sites, supermarket, malls, or their environs.
American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) prefers to use for a
safety definition is the more practical connotation of relative safety.
Occupational Safety and Health Standards(OSH) defines safe or
safety as condition or state on which compliance to the provisions of
the said standards is being maintained. The OSH is promulgated by
the Department of Labour and Employment (DOLE) through its
Bureau of Working Conditions (BWC).
Safety engineering means improving or redesigning of machinery,
equipment, and processes, so that hazards are not merely covered up
by eliminated and at the same time efficiency and production are
- It is the discipline that attempts to reduce the risks by
eliminating hazards.
Occupational Safety Engineering trains student and technical people
for professional engineering services in the field of safety at work, to
develop accident- preventive measures, to calculate safety levels, and
to direct accident prevention programs at or eliminate work.
Productivity is the industrys term in quantifying the contribution of
safety profession in the overall performance of any enterprise.
Safety Engineer is a professional committed to making the work
environment as safe as possible by focusing on any or all of the
following jobs safety man
accident prevention
human factors
the interface between the workplace and the environments
design of layout and equipment
management and supervision of safety trainings
being safety consultant to the foreman, supervisors and

Chapter 1
The OSHS of the Philippines:
RULE 1000- General Provisions
RULE 1010- Other Safety Rules

OSHS Standards are mandatory rules on occupational safety and
health promulgated pursuant to article 162, book IV of the Labour
Code of the Philippines, P.D. 442.
Hazardous works
a. Dangerous environmental elements
b. Construction work
c. Manufacture or handling of explosives
d. Biological agents

RULE 1020- Registration
Purpose - is to provide the department with information as guide in its
enforcement activities.
a. Registration should include a layout plan of the workplace in
the scale of 1:100 metres showing all the physical features
of the workplace including storage, exits, aisles, machinery,
clinic, emergency devices and location.
b. Registration shall be made in form DOLE/BWC/IP-3 in three
(3) copies and submitted to the Regional Labour Office or
authorized representatives.

RULE 1030- Training of Personnel in Occupational Safety and Health
Required to undergo training on OSH
Hazardous workplace:
Number of workers
200 and below - one (1) part time
safety man
Over 200- 1000 - one (1) full time
safety man
For every 1000 - one (1) full time
safety man

Non- hazardous workplace:
Less than 1000 - one (1) part time
safety man
For every 1000 - one (1) full time
safety man

RULE 1040- Health and Safety Committee
Health and Safety Committee is a group of employees and
management that plans and makes policies in all matters pertaining to
safety and health in the workplace.
a. Type A: (More than 400 workers)
b. Type B: (Over 200- 400 workers)
c. Type C: (100- 200 workers)
d. Type D: (less than 100 workers)
e. Type E: (Joint Committee)- Two or more establishments
housed under one building

RULE 1050 - Notification and Keeping of Records of Accidents and/ or
Occupational Illnesses
The employer shall accomplish an Annual Work Accident/ Illness
Exposure Data Report in duplicate (form DOLE/BWC/OSHD-IP-6b) to
be submitted to the Bureau of Working Conditions and the Regional
Labour Office on or before the 30
day of the month following the end
of each calendar year.

RULE 1960- Occupational Health Services
Health Personnel
a. First Aider
b. Nurse
c. Physician

Chapter 2
Basic Elements of Safety Program
1. Management leadership and principle
2. Assignment responsibility and roles

1. Safety Rules, Regulation and Penalties.
2. Pre- Deployment Orientation.
a. anticipated nature of work
b. Works associated potential hazards and their essential
precautionary measures.
c. PPEs Personal Protective Equipment, its use and
d. Plant existing policy concerning safety and health

3. First Aid Facilities and Services.
4. Fire Prevention and Protection.

5. Clean- up and Sanitation (the 5s culture).
6. Safety Publicity.
7. Safety Committee.

Chapter 3
1. Danger states the degree of exposure to a hazard. By appropriate
precaution, the danger or degree of exposure to a given hazard is

2. Hazard is a physical situation or condition with a potential cause
of human injury, damage to property, to the environment or a
combination thereof.
3. Hazard assessment is a systematic approach to identify hazards
in order to analyse and evaluate their overall effect on people,
property and the environment.

4. Incident is any deviation from an established, acceptable standard
or specification.
5. Risk is a probability, chance or potential problem that exists when
persons or properties are exposed to hazards.

6. Chance or Circumstance is a factor that determines whether or
not an existing incident results to damage and to what degree or
7. Probability refers to the likelihood of occurrence of particular

8. Accident is an incident which resulted in harm to person or
damage to property.

9. Near- miss is an event or situation which almost resulted in an
accident (no injury or property damage), perhaps a difference of a
few seconds or a few inches only.

10. Damage is a result or outcome arising from an accident that
resulted to economic losses.

11. Injury is the result of hazardous material or accident toward the
human body cause harm and inability to function normally..

12. Severity the extent or the seriousness of harm to a person
brought by the accident.

13. Frequency and Severity Rate is a mathematical instrument use to
measure the safety performance of certain establishment
comparing it to other establishment of the other industry.

14. Accidents are defines as unplanned occurrences which results in
injuries, fatalities, loss of production or damage to property and

Theory of accident causes
1. The domino theory - Since the cause of accident itself must
have its own cause, they are usually classified as direct or
proximatecauses or contributorycauses.
H. W. Heinrich - According to him, accidents happen by chain
reactions of phenomena or events. There is a belief in accident prevention that all accidents have causes and that majority of it not all is preventable.
2. Multiple causation theory is an outgrowth of the domino
theory, but it postulates that for every single accident, there
may be many contributory factors, causes and sub- causes
and that certain combination of these give rise to accidents.
3. Pure chance theory, every one of the given set of workers
has an equal chance of being involved in an accident.
4. Biased liability theory is based on the view that once a
worker is involved in an accident, the chance of same worker
becoming involved in future accidents are either decreased
or increased as compared to the rest of the workers, this
theory contributes very little, if anything at all, towards
developing preventive actions for avoiding accidents.
5. Accident proneness theory maintains that within a given set
of workers, there exists a subset of workers who are more
liable to be involved in accidents.
6. Energy transfer theory put forward the claim that a worker
incurs injury or equipment suffers damage through a chance
of energy, and that for every change of energy, there is a
source, a path and a receiver.
7. The symptoms versus causes theory is not so much a
theory as an admonition to be heeded if accident causation
is to be understood.
1. Class A- a condition or practice likely to cause permanent
disability, loss of life or body part, and/ or extensive loss of
structure, equipment or material.
2. Class B- a condition or practice likely to cause serious illness/
injury resulting in temporary disability or property damage that is
disruptive but less severe than Class A.
3. Class C- a condition or practice likely to cause minor (non-
disabling) injury/ illness and/ or non- disruptive property damage.

1. Bio- physical hazards
a. Poor housekeeping
b. Noise
c. Poor lighting
d. Special hazards (radiation and extreme radiation)
2. Mechanical Hazards
a. Points of operation
b. Power transmission points
c. In- running nip point
d. Shear points
e. Other moving parts
3. Electrical Hazards
a. Wiring
b. Grounding
c. Power panel
d. Outlets and switches
4. Chemical hazards
a. Human contact (injury, illness)
b. Property damage (fire, explosion)
c. Environmental contamination (air, ground or water)

1. Fundamental Approach- it consist of the study of all possible
hazards that could exist. It is both qualitatively and
2. Technical or Loss Control Approach- it involves the thorough
recording and study of as many accidents as possible to
identify and eliminate the hazards that caused them.
Hazard analysis is an organized and orderly process used to acquire
specific information pertinent to a given work system.

1. Inductive Method - The inductive analytical method uses
observable data to predict what can happen. It postulates how the
component parts of a system will contribute to the success or
failure of the system as a whole. The inductive method forms the basis for such analysis as failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and operations hazard analysis (OHA)
2. Deductive Method -- If inductive analysis tells us what can happen,
deductive analysis tells us how.
Some management attributes it to mental attitude manifested by:
a. Insubordination
b. tempera mentality
c. excitability

Ergonomics Workplace Description
The work setting is characterized by an interaction between the
following parameters:
1. A worker with attribute of size, strength, range of motion, intellect,
education, expectations, and other physical/ mental capacities.
2. A worker setting comprised of parts, tools, furniture, control/ display
panels and other physical objectives.
3. A work environment created by climate, lighting, noise, vibration
and other atmospheric qualities.

Task Physical Characteristics
(Primarily interaction between the worker and the work setting)
Velocity/ acceleration
Recovery time
Heavy dynamic exertion
Segmental vibration

Environmental Characteristics
(Primarily interaction between the worker and the work environment)
Heat stress
Cold stress
Whole body vibration

Contact Trauma
Two types of contact trauma are:
1. Local mechanical stress generated from sustained contact
between the body and an external object such as the forearm
against the edge of a counter.
2. Local mechanical stress generated from shock impact such as
using the hand to strike an object.

Types of Accidents
1. Being struck by an object or substance, or other persons
2. Being struck against
3. Being caught in, on or in between
4. Falling to a lower level
5. Falling on the same level (tripping)
6. Over- exertion
7. Exposure to temperature extremes
8. Inhalation, absorption or swallowing of harmful or toxic substances
9. Contact with electric current
10. Exposure to electric welding flash or other harmful rays
11. Entry of other foreign bodies in eyes, other loose or embedded
12. Radiation

Agency of Accidents
1. Hand tools
2. Electrical equipment
3. Machines
4. Prime mover
5. Hoisting equipment
6. Boiler and pressure vessels
7. Vehicles
8. Animals and insects
9. Transmission equipment
10. Chemicals
11. Hot substances
12. Dust, mist and fumes
13. Radiating substances
14. Working surfaces

1. Fatality
2. Permanent Total Disability
3. Temporary Total Disability
4. Permanent Partial Disability
5. Medical Treatment Injury

1. Incisions
2. Burns or scalds
3. Abrasions
4. Puncture
5. Occupational disease
6. Contusion
7. Asphyxia
8. Strain or sprains
9. Lacerations
10. Fractures
11. Dislocations
12. Foreign body in eye
13. Infection
14. Poisoning
15. Amputation
16. Hernia

Chapter 4
Fundamental Concept of Accident Prevention
1. Education and Training
2. Engineering Design Controls
3. Enforcement and Compliance

Pro-active approach
1. Identification and detection
Identify specific and general hazards
Hazard identification must be a collective effort
2. Assessments and Measurements
Assess impact of unwanted events
Consider experiences in similar operations/ techniques
Use accident imaging techniques
Use consistent exposure references
Determine possible consequences
3. Intervention and controls
Engineering controls
Work practices and administrative controls
4. Maintenance and substance

There are four (4) performance factors that must be considered
when evaluating the work process. These are:
1. Workplace.
2. Individuals.
3. Systems.
4. Human Relations.

A TEA involves:
Identifying the basic steps of a job and a work process
Determining any existing or potential hazards associated with each of
the steps; and
Developing recommendations for eliminating or controlling each of
those hazards

1. The Supervisor or Foreman

2. The Safety Professional

3. Special Investigative Committee

4. The General Safety Committee

1. Nature of injury. The type of physical injury incurred should be
designated. If two or more injuries were incurred and one injury
obviously was more severe than any of the others, that injury should
be selected.
2. Part of the Body. If the injured was localized in one part of the body,
that part should be named. If the injury extended to several sections
of a major body part, that major body part should be named.
3. Source of Injury. Sometimes, an injury results from forcible contacts
with two or more objects, occurring either simultaneously or in rapid
sequence, and it is impossible to determine which object directly
produced the injury. In such cases, the source of injury should be
determined as follows:

a. When the choice is between a moving object and a
stationary object, the moving object should be selected.

b. When the choice is between two moving or two stationary
objects, the one contracted last should be selected.

4. Accident Type. The accident type is directly related to the
source of injury classification and explains how that source
produced the injury.
5. Hazardous Condition. The hazardous physical condition or
circumstance which directly caused or permitted the
occurrence of the accident should be named.
6. Agency of Accident. The agency of accident may or may not
be identical with the source of injury. These two
classifications are entirely unrelated to each other. The
distinguishing characteristic of the source of injury is that it
directly inflicted the injury. The distinguishing characteristic
of the agency of accident on the other hand is that it was
significantly hazardous and for that reason contributed to the
occurrence of the accidents. Its selection is based strictly
upon the fact without consideration of whether or not it
inflicted the injury.
7. Agency of Accident Part. If the agency of accident had a
specific hazardous part that contributed to the occurrence of
the accident, the part should be named.

8. Unsafe Act. The unsafe action which directly caused or
permitted the occurrence of the accident should be designated. The
selected unsafe act may be something a person did which should not
have been done, something he should have done differently, or his
failure to do something which he should have done.

1. Secure the accident site
2. Collect facts
a. Collect physical evidences
b. Take photographs
c. Make sketches and drawings
3. Identify the witnesses (the manner of interview)
a. Put the person at ease and interview on the spot
b. Interview should be private
c. Get the individuals version
d. Ask necessary questions at the right time
e. Repeat this story once you heard them
f. End each interview on a positive note
g. Keep the pipeline open

Types of Reports
1. First-aid report
2. Supervisors accident report
3. Monthly accident statistics report

Chapter 5
Employment is defined as:
1. all work or activity performed in carrying out an assignment or
request of the employer, including incidental and related
activities not specifically covered by the assignment or
2. any voluntary work or activity undertaken while on duty with the
intent of benefiting the employer; or 3) any other activities
undertaken while on duty with employers consent or

For statistical purposes, an employee is considered to be in the course
of employment while he is:
1. Riding in special company furnished transportation form a
designated meeting place to a work place that is inaccessible to
ordinary transportation.

2. A member of a crew that does not have a regular place of
employment, such as a public utility line crew, from the time he
reaches a designated meeting place for the crew until he is
dismissed from the duty at point where the crew disbands.

3. Travelling in connection with his work, from the time his travel
starts (either at his place of work or his home) except:

4. Being entertained by or as a customer or client for the purpose of
transacting, discussing or promoting business.

5. Going from the entrance of the employers premises to his place
of work or from his place of work to the exit of the employers
premises before or after working hours or going from one part of
the employers premises to another for any purpose associated
with his employment.

6. Absence from company premises if such absence is authorized
by the employer or his agent and is in the interest of the employer
or his agent.

7. Taking a coffee or other rest break.

8. Going to or from washroom, toilet or shower facilities before,
during or after working hours; using toilet facilities at any time;
taking a shower or otherwise using washroom facilities on
company premises before, during or after working hours, if use of
facilities is occasioned by the employers work.
9. Engaged in company- sponsored athletic events for which he is
paid directly or indirectly.

10. Participating in or a victim of horseplay during working hours.

11. Engaged in a fight, if the dispute involves performance of duties
or is otherwise connected with employment or the protection of
company property.

12. Performing voluntary work with the intention of benefiting the
employer, whether in emergencies such as fire or flood or in
routine duties.

An employee is not considered to be in the course of employment
while he is:
1. Going to or from his regular place of employment during normal
routine travel. Normal routine travel includes travel at irregular
hours due to late shifts, overtime, special or emergency work.

2. Outside company property during working hours for personal
reasons, not in the interest of his employer or the agent of the

3. Going to or from his home to designated place where his crew
meets or where he will be met by special company transportation,
if his workplace is inaccessible to ordinary transportation.

4. On a company parking lot provided for his convenience to park
his car and not performing duties of employment.

5. Engaged in company- sponsored athletics events for which he
receives no pay directly or indirectly.

6. Engaged in activities not connected with his employment while
living on company property.

7. Engaged in a fight or other dispute over matters not pertaining to
his or his antagonists duties of employment.

8. Eating his lunch during a specifically defined lunch period or off-
duty period.

1. Fatalities.

2. Lost Workday Cases.
3. Nonfatal Cases without Lost Workdays.

4. Occupational Injury

5. Occupational Illness of an Employee

a. Occupational skin diseases or disorders

b. Dust diseases of the lungs (pneumoconiosis)
c. Respiratory conditions due to toxic agents
d. Poisoning (system effects of toxic materials),
e. Disorders due to physical agents (other than toxic materials)
f. Disorders due to repeated trauma
g. All other occupational illnesses like anthrax, brucellosis,
infectious hepatitis, malignant and benign tumors, food
poisoning, etc.

Frequency Rate
FR= no. of disabling injuries x 1,000,000
Employee- hours of Exposure
Severity Rate
SR= total days lost/ charge x 1,000,000
Employee- hours of Exposure

Chapter 6

Inspection can be viewed negatively or positively:
1) Fault- finding with emphasis on criticisms; and
2) Fact- finding with emphasis on locating hazards that can
adversely affect safety and health.

1. Periodic Inspection includes those inspections scheduled at
regular intervals.
2. Intermittent Inspections are those made at irregular intervals and
they are performed unannounced.
3. General Inspections are planned and covers places not inspected
periodically. It includes those areas no one ever visits and were
people rarely gets hint such as parking lots, sidewalks, fencing
and similar outlying areas.

1. Timing and Preparation. Inspection should be scheduled when
there is a maximum opportunity to view operations and work practices
with a minimum of interruptions.
2. What to Inspect. Particular attention should be paid to parts
likely to become a serious hazard to health and safety. Many different
types of inspection checklists are available for use. Lists vary in length
from hundreds of items to only a few. There are some of the items that
need to be inspected:
a. Floors
b. Stairways
c. Housekeeping
d. Fire Protection
e. Electrical Installations
f. Chains, Ropes and Slings.
g. Critical Paths
1. The loss severity potential of the problem
2. The potential for injury to employees

3. The rapidly can an item or part becomes hazardous
4. The past records of failures
5. The required regularity of inspections
An incident is any observable human activity sufficiently complete in
itself to permit references and predictions to be made about the person
performing the act.

Chapter 7

Safety helmets are needed on jobs where a persons head is menaced
by falling objects or by bumps. Impact resistance is essential. Where
contact with energized circuit is possible, only helmets that meet the
requirements of Class B, ANSI Z89.1 (US Standard) should be worn.
These helmets should have no conductor fittings passing through the
shell. Class B hard helmets are tested at 20,000 volts.
bump hats or bump caps- These are used only in confined spaces
where the hazard is limited to bumping the head on some obstruction.
These head gear do not meet the requirements of ANSI Z89.1.
1. Types and Material Requirements. Plastic moulded under high
pressure is most frequently used for safety helmets. It resists impact,
water, oil and electricity. Fiberglass impregnated with resin is preferred
because of its high strength- to- weight ratio, high dielectric strength
and resistance to moisture.
The distance between the cradle and the outer shell of the helmet
should not be less than 1- of an inch.
2. Auxiliary Features and Functions. Liners for safety head gear
are available for cold weather use..

1. Helmets. Welding helmets protect the eyes and face against
the splashes of molten metal and radiation produced by arc welding.
Helmets should have the proper filter glass to keep ultraviolet and
visible rays from harming the eyes.
2. Shields and Goggles. Welding goggles are available with filter
glass shades up to No. 8.

3. Hoods. Acid proof hoods that cover the head, face and neck
are used by persons exposed to the risk of severe splashes from
corrosive chemicals.

1. Contact Lenses. Where there are appreciable amount of dust,
smoke, irritating fumes or liquid irritation that could splash into the
eyes, contact lenses are not recommended. CFR 1910.134 (5)(ii)
under OSHA (US) prohibits the wearing of contact lenses in
contaminated areas.

2. Goggles. Goggles and other kinds of eye protection are
available in many styles along with the protective medium or heat-
treated or chemically treated gas, plastic, wire screen or light filtering

Under OSHA, where the sound level exceed and 8 hour time weighted
average of 85 dB measured on a scale, a continuing and effective
hearing conservation program shall be administered. The level may be
increased slightly as the duration of exposure decreases.
1. Insert Ear Protectors (Earplugs). Insert (earplugs) protectors
are of course inserted into the ear canals and vary considerably in
design and material.
2. Muff Devices (Ear Muffs). Cup or muff devices cover the
external ear and provide an acoustic barrier.
Types of Equipment. Respiratory equipment includes air purifying
devices (mechanical filter respirators, chemical cartridge respirators,
combination mechanical filters and chemical cartridges respirators and
masks with canisters, air supplied devices (airline respirators) and self-
contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

1. Arms, Hands, Fingers. Fingers and hands are exposed to cuts,
scratches, brushes and burns.

a. Heat- resistant gloves are used to protect against burns and
discomfort when the hands are exposed to sustained conductive

b. Metal mesh gloves are used by those who work constantly with
knives to protect against cuts and blow from sharp or rough

c. Rubber gloves are worn by electricians. They must be tested
regularly for dielectric strength.

d. Rubber, neoprene and vinyl gloves are used when handling
chemicals and corrosive. Neoprene and vinyl are particularly
useful when petroleum products are handled.

e. Leather gloves are able to resist sparks, moderate heat, chips
and rough objects. They provide some cushioning against blows.
They are generally used for heavy- duty work. Chrome- tanned
leather or horsehide are used by welders.

f. Chrome- tanned cowhide leather gloves with steel stapled leather
patches or steel staples on palms and fingers are often used in
foundries and steel mills.

g. Cotton fabric gloves are suitable for protection against dirt, slivers,
chafing or abrasion. They are not heavy enough to use in
handling rough, sharp or heavy materials.

h. Heated gloves are designed for use in cold environments, such as
deep freezers and can be part of a heated clothing system.
2. Feet, Legs. About a quarter of a million disabling occupational
foot injuries take place each year.

Minimum Requirements for
Safety Toe Shoes for Men







Impact Foot






Table 7.1

Safety shoes are selected in the basis of hazards involved and
are properly fitted. These safety shoes classified according to hazards
1. Metal- free shoes, boots and other footwear
2. Congress or gaiter- type shoes
3. Reinforced or inner soles of flexible metal
4. For wet work conditions
5. Safety shoes with metatarsal guards
6. Leg protection

a. PPE does not reduce or eliminate hazards.
b. If the protective equipment is defective, or becomes
ineffective when being worn, the wearer may become
exposed to hazards without being necessarily aware of it.
c. PPE provides protection for the wearer only, the potential
exposure of unprotected people in the area must be
d. The use of PPE may introduce additional hazards to the
wearer. The equipment may interfere with one or more of the
e. PPE may transfer the hazard to another location. Toxic
chemicals may be absorbed on shoes and clothing and
transferred to offices, eating areas or at home.
f. PPE particularly respiratory protection may not be suitable
for continuous use.
g. PPE may not always be worn properly.

Chapter 9
We can group these environmental conditions or stresses into four
general classifications as follows:
1) Chemical;
2) Physical;
3) Ergonomic and improper work exposure and
4) Biological stresses

Chemical compounds in the form of dusts, fumes, smoke,
aerosols, mists, gases, vapors, and liquids may cause health problem
by 1) inhalation (breathing); 2) by absorption (through direct contact
with the skin) or 3) by ingestion (eating or drinking).

1. Inhalation. Contaminants inhaled into the lungs can be classified
as gases vapors and particulate matter. Particulate matter can be
further classified as dust, fumes, smoke, aerosols or mists.
2. Absorption. Absorption through the skin can occur quite rapidly if
the skin is cut or abraded.
3. Ingestion. Toxic compounds capable of being absorbed from the
gastrointestinal tract into the blood are lead oxide, which can
create serious exposure problem if people working with these
substances are allowed to eat or smoke in their work areas.

1. Dust. These are solid particles generated by handling, crushing,
grinding, rapid impact, detonation and decrepitation (breaking
apart by heating) of organic or inorganic materials, such as rock,
ore, metal, coal, wood and grain. Dust is a term used in industry
to describe airborne solid particles that range in size from 0.1 20
25 um (um = 1/10,000 cm 1/25,000 in.; um is the abbreviation
for micrometer. A person with normal eyesight can detect
individual dust particles as small as 50um (micrometer or
microns) in diameter.
These smaller particles called respirable dusts can penetrate
into the inner recesses of the lungs. Nearly all the particles larger
than 10um in diameter are trapped in the nose, throat, trachea, or
bronchi from which they are either expectorated or swallowed.

2. Fumes. Fumes are formed when volatilized solids such as metals
are condensed in cool air. The solid particles that make up fumes
are extremely fine, usually less than 1.0 um.
3. Smoke. This hazard is created when carbon or soot particles less
than 0.1 um in size as a result of an incomplete combustion of
such carbonaceous materials as coal or oil. The size of the
particles contained in tobacco smoke is about 0.25 um.
4. Aerosol. Liquid droplets or solid particles fine enough to be
dispersed and to remain airborne for some time, are called
5. Mists. Mists are suspended liquid droplets generated by
chemicals condensing from the gaseous to the liquid state or by
liquid breaking into a dispersed state by splashing, foaming or
6. Gases. Normally, gases are formless fluids that occupy the space
or enclosure in which they are confined and that can be changed
to the liquid or solid stage only by combined effect of increased
pressure and decreased temperature.
7. Vapors. The gaseous forms of substances that appear normally
in the solid or liquid state at room temperature and pressure are
called vapors. Evaporation is the process by which a liquid is
changed into the vapor state and mixed with the surrounding


1. Solvents. Liquid chemicals are typically used as feed stock, fuel
or fuel additives, pesticides, lubricants, detergents and cleaning
agents or degreasing or processing solvents. Solvents are
perhaps the most widespread class of chemicals in
manufacturing. Aqueous solvents are those that readily dissolve
in water. Many acids, alkalis, or detergents, when mixed with
water form aqueous solvent. The term solvent is commonly used
to mean organic solvents.
Organic solvents generally have some effect on the central
nervous system.

2. Selection and Handling.

3. Hazard Communication.

Many of this regulation require:

a. An inventory and assessment of chemical hazards in the

b. Development and use of labels that describe the hazards of
chemicals and the protective measures to use. Example is
the STANDARD Hazard Signal (Figure 9.1)
c. Materials Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) that detail chemical
hazard and precaution information (Figure 9.2).


d. Training on identifying hazard, including specific chemicals
or groups of chemicals with which employees work.

e. Written programs that describe how the company intends to
accomplish these tasks and provide documentation that
workers have been trained.

4. Degree of hazard Severity. The severity of hazard in the use of
organic solvents depends on the following facts:

a. How the solvent is used
b. Type of job operation (determines how the workers are
c. Work pattern
d. Duration of exposure
e. Operating temperature
f. Exposed liquid surface
g. Ventilation
h. Evaporation rate of solvent
i. Pattern of air flow
j. Concentration of vapor in workroom air
k. Housekeeping

The solvent hazard thereof is determined not only by the toxicity
of the solvent itself, but also by the conditions of its use: who, what,
where, and how long. Precautionary labeling and/ or MSDS should
indicate the major hazards and safeguards.

For convenience, job operations employing solvents may be
divided into three categories:

a. Direct contact.
b. Intermittent or infrequent contact.
c. Minimal contact.


1. Noise. Noise is defined as unwanted sound, a form of vibration
that can be conducted through solids, liquid or gases.
a. Psychological effects
b. In interference with verbal communication and as
consequence, interference with job performance and safety.
c. Physiological effects
2. Noise Measurement. A source that emits sound waves produces
changes in air pressure. The human ear can hear sound over
wide ranges of pressure with the ratio of highest to lowest
pressure about 10,000,000 to 1.

To deal with the problem of this huge pressure range,
scientists have developed decibel (dB) scale which is logarithmic.
Decibels are not linear units like miles and pounds. The rustle of
leaves is rated at 20 dB; a typical office has the background noise
level of about 50 dB. A vacuum cleaner runs at about 70 dB, while
a typical milling machine from 4 feet away is rated at 85. The
sound of a newspaper press is about 95 dB, textile loom is 105
dB, a rock band is about 110 dB, a large chipping hammer is 120
dB and a jet engine register about 160 dB.

3. Factors in hearing Loss. If the ear subjected to the high level of
noise for a sufficient time, some hearing loss may occur.

Criteria have been developed to protect workers against hearing loss.
The OSH Standard has established a regulation for Occupational
Noise Exposure, which sets allowable noise levels based on the
number of hours of exposure unprotected. (Figure 9.3)

The OSH Standard requires employers to reduce noise
exposures with administrative and engineering controls where feasible.
The standard also initial monitoring and re-monitoring and whenever
changes in the production, processes or controls increase noise

a. Provide annual audiometric test to all employees exposed to
noise over 85 dBA
b. Offer optional hearing to workers exposed above 85 dBA and to
make protection mandatory where noise expose exceeds 90 dBA
c. Ensure that the workers with existing hearing loss wear protection
when exposed to noise levels above 85 dBA
d. Provide annual training in:
Effects of noise in hearing
Proper selection, fitting, use and care of hearing protection
Explanation of the purpose and method of the hearing test

The regulation is very specific concerning the ways a hearing
test is conducted. To be successful, the test requires the close
cooperation of the supervisor.

4. Audiograms. Employees must be notified if a significant shift inn
hearing is discovered. Supervisors should ensure that employees
wear their hearing protection.
5. Hearing Protection. The most commonly used hearing
equipments are earplugs, canal caps and earmuffs.

HOUSEKEEPING - includes day-to-day cleanliness, tidiness, and
good order in all parts of the undertakings. Good housekeeping is
almost impossible without good maintenance of machinery and
MAINTENANCE covers the work done to keep building, plant,
equipment and machinery in safe efficient working condition and in
good repair, the upkeep of all sanitary and welfare facilities and the
regular painting and cleaning of walls, ceiling and fixtures.

1. Inspect your area for unnecessary tools, equipment, parts,
materials and supplies; items that are not needed should be sent
to the storage room or used for salvage.
2. Reorganize the storage area in your workplace.
3. Create daily clean-up policy and program.

5-s Program

The 5-S program is frequently combined with precepts of the
Lean Manufacturing Initiative.
1. Sort (Seiri, translated as organization): The first key element
requires organizing the workplace by removing all items from the
site that are not needed for current production operations.
Safety-related improvements include separating old equipment
that is commonly not maintained before employees are required
to use it.

2. Systemize, or Set in Order (Seiton, translated as tidiness): The
second key element includes arranging only the needed items so
that they are easy to use and labeling them so that they are easily
found and put away.
3. Shine (Seiso, translated as purity): Shine relates to cleanliness
and includes sweeping floors, cleaning equipment, and shoveling
out unused material or debris on a daily basis.
4. Standardize (Seiketsu, translated as cleanliness): This element,
comprising less activity than the previous components, is
intended to generate a maintenance system for the first three.
At this point, the safety director has a golden opportunity to
conduct a Job-Safety Analysis (JSA) followed by the
development of a Safe Operating Procedure (SOP) for each job
in the plant.
5. Sustain (Shitsuke, translated as discipline): This is the discipline
needed to make a habit of maintaining procedures.


Lean Manufacturing strives to minimize waste of all kinds. Among
the benefits a well implemented 5-S program can provide are:
Reduced setup time
Reduced manufacturing time
Reduced inventory
Reduced machine downtime
Reduced maintenance cost
Improved employee morale
Increased order fill-rates
Increased on-time delivery
Improved quality

Chapter 10

OSHS 1150.01 General Provisions:

(1) Use of Mechanical Equipment.
(2) Secure Storage.
(3) Housekeeping.
(4) Clearance Limits.
(5) Rolling Railroad Cars.
(6) Guarding.

1. Size up the load.

Duration per Day Sound Level
Hours dB (A) *
8 90
6 92
4 95
3 97
2 100
1-1/2 102
1 105

Sound levels in decibels as measured on a standard level meter
operating on the weighting network with slow meter response.
Fig. 9.3
2. Lifted it right.
3. Keep the load close to the body.
4. Lift without twisting the body.
5. Get a firm grip on the object.
6. Keep fingers away from pinch points, especially when putting
materials down.
7. When handling lumber, pipe or other long objects, keep hands
away from the ends to prevent them from being pinched.
8. Wipe off greasy, wet slippery or dirty objects before trying to
handle them.
9. Keep hands free of oil and grease.


1. Solids
a. Bulk created large machineries and parts, created
materials, lumbers, etc.
b. Power Flour, phosphates, sugar, cement.
c. Granule and Gravel size Copra meal pellets, silicates,
d. Odd sizes copra.

2. Liquids
a. Light solvents, oils, fuels
b. Viscous molasses, asphalts, heavy oil, tar, paints
c. Paste Detergent paste, adhesives

3. Gases are classified according to hazardous characteristics:
a. Flammable
b. Explosives
c. Toxic
d. Emits hazardous fumes or gases
e. Corrosive
f. Fragile


Powered Industrial Trucks

Chapter 11
Electrical injuries consist of four main types:
(1) Electrocution (fatal)
(2) Electric shock
(3) Burns, and
(4) Falls caused as a result of contact with electrical energy

OSHS Rule 1211: Philippine Electrical Code:
OSHS Rule 1212.02: General Provisions:
(1) No electrical installation shall be undertaken without the plans
having been approved by the Secretary of his authorized

(2) No service or power supply shall be connected to any electrical
installation by any utility company supplying electricity or by any
person until the necessary final inspection is conducted and a safety
certificate/permit issued by the Regional Labor Office or authorized
representative having jurisdiction over the case.

(3) The following are excluded in the coverage of this Rule;
a. Electric generating plants with franchises which are under
the jurisdiction of the Board of Power and Waterworks.
b. Electric generating plants and electrical installations in radio
and television station which are under the jurisdiction of the
Department of Public Works, Transportation and
Communications, and
c. Electrical installation for conveyances used in connection
with water transportation which are under the jurisdiction of the
Bureau of Customs.

(4) The exemptions under 3 (a) and (b) are only for the design and
construction, the electrical installation may be inspected by the
Regional Labor Office or authorized representative, of such poses
danger to the safety and health of the workers therein.

(5) The practice of electrical engineering as required under this Rule
shall be subjected to the provisions of the Philippine Electrical
Engineering Law, R.A. 184.


Voltage a measure of electrical force.
Circuit a complete path for the flow of circuit.

When performing lock-out/tag-out on circuits and equipment, you
can use the checklist below;

1. Identify all sources of electrical energy for the equipment or
circuits in question.
2. Disable backup energy sources such as generators and batteries.
3. Identify all shut-offs for each energy source.
4. Notify all personnel that equipment and circuitry must be shut off,
locked out, and tagged out. (Simply turning a switch off is NOT
5. Shut off energy sources and lock switchgear in the OFF position.
Each worker should apply his or her individual lock. Do not give
your key to anyone.
6. Test equipment and circuitry to make sure they are de-energized.
7. Deplete stored energy by bleeding, blocking, grounding, etc.
8. Apply a tag to alert other workers that an energy source or piece
of equipment has been locked out.
9. Make sure everyone is safe and accounted for before equipment
and circuits are unlocked and turned back on. Note that only a
qualified person may determine when it is safe to reenergize

Chapter 12
OSHS RULE 1412. General Provisions

1412.01: Health and Safety Committee:
At every construction site there shall be organized and maintained a
Health and Safety Committee conforming to Rule 1040 and a medical
and dental service conforming to Rule 1960.

1412.02: Alternative Methods and Materials:
In the application of this Rule, the construction, composition, size, and
arrangement of materials used may vary provided that the strength of
the structure is at least equal to that herein prescribed.

1412.03: Electrical:
Before any construction is commenced, and during the construction,
steps shall be taken to prevent danger to the workers or operating
equipment from any live electric cable or equipment either by rendering
the cable or apparatus electrically dead or by providing barriers to
prevent contact.

1412.04: Machine Guarding:

All moving parts of machinery used shall be guarded in accordance
with the requirements of Rule 1200.
(For other part of the OSHS rules on construction safety refers to the
complete text of the standard)


Chemical hazardsare often airborne and can appear as dusts, fumes,
mists, vapors or gases; thus, exposure usually occurs by inhalation,
although some airborne hazards may settle on and be absorbed
through the intact skin.
Physical hazardsare present in every construction project. These
hazards include noise, heat and cold, radiation and barometric
Biological hazardsare presented by exposure to infectious micro-
organisms, to toxic substances of biological origin or animal attacks.
Social hazardsstem from the social organization of the industry.
Employment is intermitted and constantly changing, and control over
many aspects of employment is limited because construction activity is
dependent on many factors over which construction workers have no
control, such as the state of an economy or the weather.


Department of labor and Employment Classification of
construction works/activities for purposes of determination of
mandatory minimum Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
General Construction work Basic PPE for all construction workers
1. Safety Helmet
2. Safety Gloves
3. Safety Shoes

Construction Work/Activity Specialized PPE
1. Work near unprotected areas
such as but not limited to the
a. Working on scaffolds
b. Working on Roofs
1. Safety Belt
2. Work involving pouring of
concrete. Such as but not
limited to the following:
a. Laying concrete slab
b. Pouring of concrete for
beams and/or columns
1. Safety chemical
resistant boots
2. Chemical resistant
3. Work involving laying of
1. Heat resistant gloves
2. Heat resistant safety
4. Working with derricks and
1. Color-coded vest
with reflectorized
2. Heavy leather gloves
3. High visibility gloves
5. Working with earth moving
1. Heavy duty safety
2. Ear muff or ear plugs
Fall protection is required whenever work is performed in an area six
feet above its surroundings or six feet above a lower level.
Fall Protection Systems
A variety of systems may be chosen from when providing fall
protection. These systems include:

Guardrails: standards guardrails consist of a top rail located 42
inches above the floor and a mid rail. Screens and mesh may be
used to replace the mid rail as long as they extend from the top
rail to the floor.
Personal Fall Arresting Systems: Components of a personal fall
arresting system include a body harness, lanyard, lifeline,
connector, and an anchorage point capable of supporting at least
5000 pounds.
Positioning Device Systems: This type of system consists of a
body harness rigged to allow work on a vertical surface, such as a
wall, with both hands free.
Safety Monitoring by a Competent Person: This system allows
a trained person to monitor others as they work on elevated
surfaces and warn them of any fall hazards.
Safety Net Systems: these systems consist of nets installed as
close as possible under the work area.
Warning Line Systems: These systems are made up of lines or
ropes installed around a work area on a roof. These act as a
barrier to prevent those working on the roof from approaching the
Covers: covers are fastened over holes in working surfaces to
prevent falls.

OSHS Rule 1415: Construction Equipment

1415.01: Lifting Appliances:
(1) Every lifting appliance including working gear and all other plant
equipment used for anchoring or fixing shall:
a. Be of good mechanical contruction, of sound material and adequate
strength for the load it will carry;
b. Be properly maintained and inspected at least once a week and the
result of such inspection shall be recorded in a log book maintained by
the employer or user of the equipment, open to enforcing authority.
(2) Any anchoring or fixing arangement provided in connection with a
lifting appliance shall be adequate and secure to hold the imposed

1415.02: Brake Controls and Safety Devices:
(1) Every crane, crab and winch shall be provided with a brake to
prevent the fall of the load and to control operation when the load is
(2) Every handle or lever of a lifting appliance provided for controlling
its operation shall be provided with suitable locking arrangement to
prevent its accidental movement.
(3) Every lever or handle provided for controlling the operation of a
lifting appliance shall have upon it clear marking to indicate purpose
and mode of operation.

1415.03: Protection of Crane Driver:
(1) Platform for crane drivers and signalers shall be:
(a) of sufficient area
(b) closely planked, plated and
(c) provided with safe means of access and egress.
(2) Every side of a platform more than 2.16 meters (6.5 feet) high shall
be provided with guard railsand toeboards
(3) The driver of every power driven lifting appliance shall be provided
with a cabin which shall:
(a) afford protection from the weather and falling objects, and
(b) be constructed to afford ready access to operating parts of the
lifting appliance within the cabin and shall be periodically inspected
and maintained.

1415.04: Anchorage and Load Test of Cranes:
(1) When lifting appliances are used on soft or uneven ground or on a
slope, adequate measures shall be taken to ensure their stability or
undue movement.
(2) No crane shall be used for raising or lowering loads unless:
(a) it is securely anchored;
(b) adequately balanced by a weight property placed and secured;
(3) Every crane after erection altered or any kind of change shall be
tested by the contractors/supervisor with the imposition either:
(a) of a load of twenty-five percent (25%) above the maximum load to
be lifted by the crane as erected at the position when the maximum
pull is applied on each anchorage, or
(b) of lesser load arranged to provide and equivalent test of the
anchorages or balancing arrangements.
(4) A repost of the test shall be recorded in a log book to be maintained
by the employer.
(5) The maximum load allowed shall be affixed in a place where it can
be readily seen by the crane operator.
(6) no crane shall be used or erected under conditions likely to
endanger stability.

Chapter 13

OSHS RULE 1071: General Provisions:

(1) This rule establishes threshold limit values for toxic and
carcinogenic substances and physical agents, which may be present in
the atmosphere of the work environment. Threshold Limit Values refer
to airborne concentration of substances and represent conditions
under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly
exposed daily without adverse effect.

(2) The Regional Office, on the advice of the Director, may issue a
special rule establishing threshold limit value for toxic substances not
found in the table and such rule shall remain in effect until a permanent
standard is issued by the Secretary.

(3) The Secretary shall periodically review or update the Standards on
threshold limit values, permissible noise exposure levels, illumination
levels, human carcinogens, temperature and humidity and other
technical standards upon recommendation of a technical committee in
the Bureau of Working Conditions. The member of the technical
committee shall either be a physician, engineer, chemist or nurse who
has completed at least an occupational health/occupational safety and
health- training course required by this Standards, and who has been
an occupational health/occupational safety and health practitioner for
not less than three (3) years. Other members of the technical
committee shall be drawn from the labor and employers sectors. The
technical committee shall be convened by the Director of the Bureau of
Working Conditions as the need for review of the abovementioned
technical standards arises.

The Standards formulated by the technical committee shall
become effective upon announcement by the Secretary of Labor and


OSHS RULE 1077.01: General Provisions:
(1) The employer shall exert efforts to maintain and control the
working environment in comfortable and healthy conditions for the
purpose of promoting and maintaining the health of his workers.

1077.02: Definitions:
Working environment measurement shall mean sampling and analysis
carried out in respect of the atmospheric working environment and
other fundamental elements of working environment for the purpose of
determining actual conditions therein.

1077.03: Requirements:
(1) Working environment measurement shall include temperature,
humidity, pressure, illumination, ventilation, and concentration of
substances and noise.
(2) The employer shall carry out the working environment
measurement in indoor or other workplaces where hazardous work is
performed and shall keep a record of such measurement, which shall
be made available to the enforcing authority.
(3) The working environment measurement shall be performed
periodically as may be necessary but not longer than annually.
(4) The working environment measurement shall be performed by the
safety and medical personnel who have taken adequate training and
experience in working environment measurement.
(5) In the event of inability to perform the working environment
measurement, the employer shall commission the Bureau/Center of
Occupational Safety and Health/ Regional Labor Office concerned and
other institutions accredited or recognized by the Bureau, to perform
the measurement.


The clarity with which the human sees something is usually referred to
as visibility. The three critical factors of visibility are:

Visual Angle the angle subtended at the eye by the target
Contrast the difference in luminance (amount of light reflected
off a surface) between a visual target and its background.
Illuminance amount of light striking a surface


To determine minimum levels of illumination:

First, identify the general type of activity to be performed and
classify it into one of the nine categories shown in Table 6-2.
For each category, there is a range of illuminance (low, middle,
high). The appropriate value is selected by calculating a weighting
factor (-1, 0 1) based on the three task and worker characteristics,
shown in Table 6-3.
The weights are then summed to obtain the total weighting factor.
If the total sum of the two or three weighting factors is -2 or -3, the
low value of the three illuminance is used; if -1, 0, or 1, the middle
value is used; and if 2 or 3, the high value is used.

Light Sources
Two important parameters related to artificial lighting are:

Efficiency light output per unit energy

Color Rendering relates to the closeness with which the
perceived colors of the object being observed match the
perceived colors of the same object when illuminated by standard
light sources.

Light Distribution

Luminaires for general lighting are classified in accordance with
the percentage of total light output emitted above and below the

Indirect Lighting illuminates the ceiling, which in turn reflects
light downward. Thus the ceiling should be the brightest surface in the
room, with reflectances above 80 percent. The other areas of the room
should reflect less and less as one move downward.

Direct Lighting de-emphasizes the ceiling surface and places
more of the light on the work surfaces and the floor.

Direct-Indirect lighting is a combination.


Glare is the excessive brightness in the field of vision.
Decreases visibility which means additional time is needed to
adapt from light to darker conditions.
Phototropism the eyes tend to be drawn to the brightest light

Direct Glare can be reduced by using more luminaries with lower
intensities, using baffles, or placing the work surface perpendicular to
the light source.

Reflected Glare can be reduced by using non-glossy or matte
surfaces and reorienting the work surface or task, in addition to the
modifications recommended for direct glare.


Both color and texture have psychological effects on people.
Perhaps the most important use of color is to improve the
environmental conditions of the workers by providing more visual
comfort. Analysts use colors to reduce sharp contrasts, increase
reflectance, highlight hazards, and call attention to features of the work


Noise is any unwanted sound which measurement is the unit of sound
intensity is the decibel.

Hearing Loss

The chances of damage to the ear, resulting in nerve deafness,
increase as the frequency approaches the 2400 to 4800 Hz range.
Also, as exposure time increases, there will eventually be impairment
in hearing.

Noise Dose

Occupational Standards uses the concept of noise dose, with the
exposure to any sound level above 80 dBA.

Performance Effects

Performance decrements are most often observed in difficult
tasks that place high demands on perceptual, information processing,
and short-term memory capacities. Surprisingly, noise may have no
effect, or may even improve performance, on simple routine tasks.

Noise Control

Management can control the noise level in three ways. The best,
and usually the most difficult, is to reduce the noise level at its source.
However, it would be very difficult to redesign some equipment then
analysts should investigate the opportunity to isolate the equipment
responsible for the noise.

If the above are not possible, acoustic absorption can provide
beneficial results. By installing acoustical materials on the walls,
ceilings, and floors, reverberation can be reduced. The majority of
production and indirect workers (maintenance, shipping, receiving,
etc.) enjoy listening to music while they work.

Hearing Protection

In most cases, OSHA accepts this as only a temporary solution.
In general, insert-type (e.g., expandable foam) devised provide better
protection than muff-type devices. A combination of the two can yield
even better protection.


Core temperatures exhibit a narrow range around a normal value
of 98.6 degrees. At values between:
100-102 degrees: physiological performance drops sharply
Above105 degrees: sweating mechanism may fail, resulting in a
rapid rise in core temperature and eventual death.

Control Methods

Heat stress can be reduced by implementing either:
Engineering controls modifying the environment
Reduce workload
Work slower
Controlling heat at the source
Insulating hot equipment
Increasing air movement, etc.

Administrative controls
Rotating workers into and out of hot environment
Modifying work schedules
Work/rest schedules
Acclimatizing workers
Cooling vests

Cold Stress

The most commonly used cold stress index is the wind chill

Wind Chill Temperature the ambient temperature that in calm
conditions would produce the same wind chill index as the actual
combination of air temperature and wind velocity.

Probably the most critical effects for industrial workers exposed to
outdoor conditions are:
Decreased tactile sensitivity
Manual dexterity due to vasodilation and decreased blood
flow to the hands

Manual performance may decrease as much as 50% as the hand
skin temperature drops from 65 to 45 degrees Fahrenheit.

Potential Solutions
Auxiliary heaters
Hand warmers
Gloves note, these may impair manual performance and
decrease grip strength
Fingerless gloves compromise


If a room has people, machinery, or activities in it, the air in the
room will deteriorate due to the release of odors, the release of heat,
the formation of water vapor, the production of carbon dioxide, and the
production of topic vapors. Ventilation must be provided to dilute these
contaminants, exhaust stale air, and supply fresh air.

Three approaches
- Delivered at the 8-12 feet level and displaces rising warm air
coming from the equipment, lights, and workers

- When impractical to ventilate the whole building in specific areas

- Specific spots, such as areas with localized heat sources, such
as ovens. A direct air stream will increase cooling in these


Vibration can cause detrimental effects on human performance.
Those with high amplitude and low frequency have especially
undesirable effects on body organs and tissues

Three Classifications
Whole or major portion of body surface is affected
When vibrations are transmitted to the body through a supporting
area (ex. Feet)
Only localized body areas are affected.

White Finger Syndrome often brought on by power tools, it results
from blood flow being occluded and nerves being affected.

Raynauds Syndrome cold induced occlusion of blood flow


Large doses can cause radiation sickness. Small doses over a
longer period of time may increase the chances of cancers or other
diseases. The overall risk of a fatal cancer from a radiation dose
equivalent of one rem is about 1 chance in 10000.

Chapter 14
Job safety analysis (JSA) is the systematic examination of a job
intended to identify potential hazards, assess the degree of risk, and
evaluate practical measures to control the risk.

A job safety analysis involves five steps:
1. Selecting the job to be analyzed.
2. Breaking the job down into a sequence of job tasks.
3. Identifying potential hazards.
4. Determining preventive measures to control these hazards.
5. Communicating the information to others.

Two commonly used techniques for identifying potential hazards are:
A) Kepner and Tregoe Method based on change analysis; B) Gibson
and Haddon approach based on unwanted energy flow and energy

A) Change Analysis ( Kepner and Tregoe)

Change analysis helps establish the significance of changes in
causing accidents and losses. As well, it helps determine
counterchanges to prevent these accidents and losses.What if analysis

Task Parameters are easy to find. Look at the task and find
parameters to be controlled in order for the task to be performed
normally. Such parameters can be:

A sensory signal: e.g., color, the shape of object, the emitted
sounds, an odor, the light level, the position of handle, the height
of a pedal.
A process specification: e.g., pressure, temperature,
concentration, floe rate.
A dynamic component: e.g., motion, sequence, pace, speed
change, friction.
A force or mass: e.g., electrical power, chemical energy, torque,
impulse, impact.
a geometric value and time: e.g., location,
A piece of equipment: e.g., protective devices, position of a part,
part in motion.
An environmental or external condition: e.g., weather, snow,
rain, nuisances from neighborhood

B) Unwanted energy flow and energy barrier approach (Gibson
and Haddon)

The energy-barrier approach was developed by J.J. Gibson in
1961 and structured by W.C. Haddon in1966.
In the energy-barrier approach, hazard is defined as uncontrolled
energy flow and the possible contact between the energy and a person
or equipment, resulting in:
injury to persons;
damage to equipment and property;
reduction in the ability of persons to perform work;
Harm to the environment.
The procedure of the energy barrier techniques is to look at each
task and:
identify energy sources producing a risk (Table 4);
describe the way the energy can come in contact with
employee(s) (i.e., the energy flow) (Table 5);
Find adequate barriers to eliminate or reduce the chances of this
contact (i.e., controlling the energy flow).

Chapter 15
Five steps in modifying employee behavior regarding safety

1) Providing orientation and training;
2) Promoting safety skills;
3) Creating a culture of safety
4) Developing safety awareness attitudes and
5) Modeling good safety practices (supervisor and upper


1. Safety Policy
2. Safety training department
3. Safety committee
4. Safety rules and regulations
5. System, guidelines and procedures
6. Safety training
7. Safety records
8. Comprehensive health control and services
9. Safety promotion
10. Community awareness and public safety

Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a technique for providing on-the-job
training for particular tasks. Teaching new and/or transferred
employees to do the job safely and efficiently can improve operations

Chapter 16
Fire is a process that emits light and heat. In order to explain and
understand fire development, experts have devised various fire
models. One of the earliest models is the fire triangle. To sustain most
fire, three elements must be available at the same time: elevated
temperature, oxygen and fuel sources by conduction, convection and

1. Oxygen removal. Removing or lowering oxygen level is difficult
because of fire needs about the same amount of oxygen for burning
that humans need for breathing.
2. Fuel removal. However, try to keep the quantity of stored
combustible materials at a minimum.
3. Heat source control. Eliminating and controlling heat source also
elementary steps fire prevention. The time to stop a fire is before it
starts-keep heat and ignition sources away from fuel.


The Bureau of Fire Protection and OSHS classified fires
according to the fuel burning.

Class A. Fires in ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, paper,
cloth, rubber, and any other plastics where the quenching and cooling
effects of water and solutions containing large percentage of water are
of prime importance.

Class B. Fires in flammable liquids, grease, oils, tars, oil-based paints,
lacquers, and similar materials, where mothering or exclusions of air
and interrupting the chemical chain reaction are most effective. This
class also includes flammable gases.

Class C. An electrically induced fire where the use of a nonconductive
extinguishing agent is of first importance; the safest procedure is
always to attempt to de-energize circuits and treat as a Class A or
Class B Fire

Class D. Fires that occur in combustible metals, such as magnesium,
lithium, and sodium; Special extinguishing agents and techniques are
needed for fires of this type.


1. Electrical Equipment.
2. Friction.
3. Foreign Substances.
4. Open Flames.
5. Smoking and Matches.
6. Spontaneous Ignition Deposits in Ducts and Flues.
7. Hot Surfaces.
8. Combustible Sparks.
9. Overheated Materials.
10. Static Electricity.


1. Water for ordinary combustibles.
2. Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) for flammable liquid fires.
3. Ordinary Dry Powder for Class B and C fires.
4. Carbon Dioxide for electrical fires.
5. Multi-Purpose Dry Chemical (Mono-ammonium Phosphate) for A
and C fires.

*To obtain proper distribution of water from your sprinkler head a
minimum of 18 in. (46 cm.) of clear space is required below sprinkler
deflectors. However, clearance of a 24 to 36 in. (60 to 90 cm.) is
recommended. If there are no sprinklers clearance of 3 ft. (0.9 m)
between piled material and the ceiling is required to permit used of
hose streams. Double this distance when stock is piled more than 15
ft. (45 m) high.