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KANNADA-ENGLISH

SCHOOL-DICTIOIARY

chiefly based on the labours of the

Rey. Dr. F. Kittel

BY THE

Rev. J. BUCHER.

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°

m

V ^ ^^ ^p O

150

MANGALORE

BASEL MISSION BOOK & TRACT DEPOSITORY

1899

vis

.0^

PRINTED AT THE BASEL MISSION PRESS, MANGALORE.

^

PREFACE.

The present work is designed to form a companion volume

to

the

well known and much appreciated English-Canarese

School-Dictionary, compiled by the Rev. F. Ziegler,

The publi-

cation of a Kannacla-English School-Dictionary has for a long

time been a deep-felt desideratum,

as the two smaller editions

hitherto extant have but insufficiently served their purpose. The

stupendous work of the Rev. Dr. Kittel, the eminent lexicographer

of the Kannada language, whose unremitting labours have set a permanent literary monument to the language, standing out in

bold features of historical, etymological and philological, critical researches for guidance and instruction to litterateurs sti-iving

after Kannada embellishment and scholarship, held out promising

inducements and marked facilities to undertake this work which

is chiefly based upon it.

Plan and arrang-ement :

To add to the usefulness of the work

and to facilitate its use, I deemed it fit to indicate the principles

that have been

adopted in arranging the matter and when

launching on new methods I have attempted rather to err on the

side of cautious adherence than on the side of hasty innovation.

  • I. Orthography : a.

Obsolete Letters.

These are ea* and C3<,

now universally represented by 5 and f, and have been put in

parantheses immediately after the words in which they occur to

give an insight into their different origin and meaning.

  • N. B. The double consonant 5^ has been brought to its proper

place and is invariably to be looked up under the letter ^.

  • h. Sonne.

The method of using bindu or sonne indiscrimi-

nately before classified (^(jarglya) and unclassified (cwargiya) letters sanctioned by former lexicographers, grammarians and

time-honoured practice, has uniformily been adopted, though at

iv;S09765

IV

PREFACE.

variance with the laws

of etymology.

These laws have not

seldom to give way to usage and well-established practice.

But,

though this convenient mode of representing by sonne the letters n, n and m, when followed by consonants of their own class, and

the nasals n, and n has been adhered to, the alphabetical order

of words has been maintained uninfringed.

Words in which

the Sonne occurs, appear now in their proper place in the alpha-

bet. This may at the beginning occasion a little embarrassment to those who are accustomed to look up this class of words at

the head of each

disappear.

letter,

but

all difficulty

will

with practice

c.

Orthography proper

is

yet

a neglected

field

of

study.'

The colloquial language, legitimately abounding with provincial

peculiarities, dialectical whimsicalities and vulgar inelegancies,

must ever differ from thfe written language.

The lingua litera

should possess a uniform system of spelling, which it has in some

respects not yet accepted, but approving of various spellings as

authors think fit.

The four short vowels a, e, i, ii, for instance

promiscuously interchange in words like: ^ocSo^, ^a^, ^o:5iS, ^

uj^,

^s:<o^o, etc

or ^f^^i ^^ ^, c'S "^j ^ta^i ^tc

-«?o, -^, -^,

etc. . .

.or esL^j, e)S;?^oo, ©si^o, ©ig,

etc. . .

or k)oa^,

.or ^XS, ^m s,

elA S, '<%-R S, etc.

As most of these forms occur in books, news-

papers and documents, they demand the same attention of being

embodied in the vocabulary which is a mere encumbrance to the

student. Hence a standard orthography is greatly desired.

II. CompoiiiKis.

This class of words is very numerous

in the Kannada language and

materially contributes to its

copiousness.

The largest number of compounds has been re-

ceived from the ductile, flexible and infinitely copious Samskrita

language, so peculiarly adapted to form numberless compounds.

All compounds, irrespective

of their

origin,

whether of pure

Kannada, of Samskrita, of Tadbhava or

of any

other tongue,

have been treated alike, and subordinated to leading words

hyphen denoting the division of the members of the compound. Many compounds and especially Kannada compounds, as ^^j^&.

PREFACE.

V

£3^^uo , dc20©, etc., bad in many instances to be introduced as

independent words wben tbe eupbonic cbanges effected in com-

bining the separate parts would involve too great

a

task

to

recognise tbem. Botb Samskrita noun-compounds, as of e5'^^, e?^^,

=5:^F,

S)?»,

etc.,

as well as adjectival and adverbial compounds,

as of ?sS, ^^, «?»"^, ?^-^5 etc., have been treated in this manner, provided the phonetic changes caused by the sandhi of the two

words remained unmodified.

Where a phonetic change or an

elision or a permutation of letters took place the

compound

was treated as a separate word.

III.

Derivatives: a. Unusual Derivatives.

It should be

borne in mind that there is, logically

speaking, a vast class of

derivatives formed by

adding to a primary root

etymological

terminations, inflectional affixes, etc.,

. .

.e. g. ^s added to ^^ = '^(S

^, ^jt^=.^js'^'^;

or ?jJ added to

^fj = ^^7i:i,

o«>=S'^?ij; or

f^^

added to ^oz:):i=-^osZ^^ e£)oa!o=e9os5^, £A3t5o= eroS^; or ^o added to

as^o=(35^o^j) S3S? , Zji)=Zj6^-, etc.

These being difficult to trace

to their original constituent parts have,

of

course, been

consi-

dered as underived and treated accordingly.

h. Proper derivatives

of abstract and personal nouns, where

no hazy uncertainty is felt, terminating in -^^, -^^, -ii, -tSo^,

-7^t3, -a^Bf, -sSjsot:^, -f^J^,

-cs'd, etc. have consistently been added

on to the primary word.

In incorporating these derivatives

the

same

method

has

been employed as with the compound.

Verbal Derivatives of unfrequent occurrence terminating in

-f^?jo, as ^J3?b?ij, TjoiM^Tio, ?3^?So?jo, etc. have been exhibited under

the primary words tfjsgr;, rioija?^, ;6^?^, etc., however with the

alteration of writing the whole word in full to avoid ambiguity

and confusion. Verbs of great importance and frequent usage,

as:

<TSiS?7jj,

^€?jo,

JjJ^pjo,

dependent words.

£3j3?9?jo, etc.,

have been introduced as in-

IV. Homonyms, of which the Kannacla language embos- oms a good number, have occasionally been split up under two

or three heads, when they obviously and intelligibly belong to

different roots bearma- the characteristics of distinct derivation.

VI

PREFACE.

?IomonymoLis roots involving the sense of a uoun, of a verb and even eventually of an adverb, as '^'oyj^, ^sg., ^y,??, ^jtri^o, 5o<^-rf, etc. have been treated under one head with their respective gram- matical signs.

V. Grammatical significations. For a School-Dictionary

it is a most important feature to indicate the parts of speech, the

determination of which cannot be loft to the discretion of the

pupil.

The abbreviated grammatical signs have been added

after the Kannada word.

The treatment

of

the* Samskrita

different verbal derivations that have not yet assumed a definite

part of speech in Kannada has been made subject to the same

method adopted by reliable Samskrita lexicographers. The

abbreviation for ''causative verb", with which the Kannada hmgu-

age can be marvellously enriched, has been expelled as fallen into

disuse and where necessary substituted by "y. t.'' The grammati- cal signs are only added to the leading word and not to com-

pounds or derivatives being in most cases self-evident.

VI. English equivalents.

Special attention

has been

paid to the rendering of the English equivalents.

Brevity and

conciseness have systematically been aimed at in order to give

a ready-made coin.

Considerable pains have also been taken to

contract and condense the equivalents into as fe\v groups as

practicable to facilitate comprehension. Another effort has been

made while arranging the several meanings in order to indicate their actual growth and development, beginning, if possible, with

the primitive meaning suggested by etymology. It has also been

found recommendable not to adduce too many English equiva-

lents to facilitate the choice of the most appropriate one.

VII. Origin of words.

The Kannada language is one

of the principle representatives of the Dravidian language-family

in South-India spoken by upwards of 10 millions.

It is however

to be remembered that the language, as in fact all languages,

being in

constant

transition and

permutation, does not only

comprise Dravidian elements but has absorbed various alien in-

gredients.

The most prominent and at the same time formative

PREFACE.

VII

and constructive factor in the language is the Dravidian which

forms the solid groundwork determining the declensional and

coujugational and other inflections and supplying

the more

common, homely and familiar words, as

sorJo, ^?^o,

^jb?z13, ^j3?aj;

Sj^,

^y

de3js?; t5o^,

^o?i: ^oed,

"^^-R,

etc.

Next we have the

Saihskrita element which has had a great influence upon the

language in enriching its vocabulary, in augmenting its synonyms and in ennobling its composition. The introduction of Saiiiskrita words dates back to the contact of the Dravidians with the Aryans and supplied the language with almost all its abstract, religious and scientific terms. The Dravidian words are for every day events and natural feelings, while the Samskrita arc elegant,

dignified and artificial, fitted for rhetoric, subtle disputation and

the profound expressions of philosophy.

Many have retained

their unaltered Samskrita form, whereas others have changed so

as to suit the Kannada tongue.

The latter

class

are called

Tadbhavas.

Next we have a good number of Hindustani and

Mahrati words, chiefly relating to feudalism and^ militia, whose introduction is due to the Moghul and Mahratta conquests of

Kannada districts. Some few Portuguese expressions have found

their way into the language too, as <^o-Rj^^, ^o,^??^o,

etc. from the

Portuguese period. Finally the English language has also com-

menced

to contribute

its mite mainly

relating to education,

jurisprudence and revenue. Some have already become home-

words and, as time advances and a smattering of mispronounced

English

diffuses into

the masses,

it is but natural that this

process of assimilation continues at even a more extensive rate.

To bring out this feature conspicuously it has been thought

desirable to mark with the initials of the

respective language

the words migrated from.

The carrying out of this principle

has sometimes met with considerable difficulty with regard to words, doubtless of Samskritic origin, but which had come into

Kannada through the medium of another Indian language, as

  • s. rf'5'T;sS)=h. J^?Jot) = ]j:, uiTjS:

s. ^o^ru = in. ^ocT5^(1 = k. ^-ioA;

s. ^3jru =

h. ^si|.=k. "^tiS-

In such

cases the greatest probability

has

VIII

PREFACE.

always

carried the decision,

as no comparative philological

studies could be made.

It has

been the compiler's

aim to

attain to utmost accuracy with pure Kannada and pure Sarh-

skrita words, whereas with Tadbhavas such an exactitude was

unattainable.

As ancient classical literature is extensively read in schools

and colleges a considerable number of obsolete and obolescent

words

principally occurring in Jaimini

Bharata and other

poetical works prescribed have been inserted and marked by the

letters a. k.

VIII.

Fusion of elements.

The foreign

words that

have come into the language do not stand by themselves as an

independent class

but

have

become Kannadasised subject to

Kannada laws and analogies. But, notwithstanding this meta- morphosis the borrowed words, taken as a class, have a peculiar

character which separates them even to the feeling of an un-

educated Kannada man from the Dravidiau stock, thus giving to

the language a somewhat heterogeneous aspect.

But a

still

more serious disadvantage is

the necessity of expressing new

ideas either with the help of Samskrita or English.

The expres-

siveness and suggestiveness

of these terms

are hidden from

those who are unacquainted with Samskrita and English, and thus the language suffers in its power of quickening and origi-

nating thought.

IX.

Conclusion. To secure the greatest possible accur-

acy and

perfection the manuscript copy was, before its print,

placed into the hands

of R. Ry. Bh. Shiva Rau, the experienced

and learned corrector of the Basel Mission Press, whose thorough

acquaintance with the great work of Dr. Kittel in having carried it through the press has enabled him to make some valuable

suggestions and not a few additions, for whose liberal services

the

author is under

great

obligation.

My thanks

are

also

due to the Kanarese Pandit B. Rama Krishnaya, Munshi of the

G. M. High

School

Mangalore,

who assisted

in

reading the

proof-sheets, and also to Mr. T. Mabeu, Assistant Teacher, G. M.

PREFACE.

IX

High School, for a list

of legal terms.

deserve also a vote of thanks. In conclusion the author desires

The printer and publisher

to

express his profound

admiration for the supreme Kannada scholarship of Dr. Kittel's

work.

Though the compiler is more sensible of the deficiencies and

shortcomings of this work than any other person can be, he does

not hesitate to confidently commend it to the public, for whom

it will jDrove both instructive and useful, and he will

be amply

rewarded for his night-labours bestowed upon it by its appreci-

ative and extensive use.

Hints

and suggestions

for

improvement and enhanced

efficiency will readily and thankfully be received.

Mangalore, January 1899.

J. Bucher.

List of Abbreviations.

= adjective. abl. = ablative. ace. = accusative.

a.

ad. = adverb.

a.

k. = ancient Kannada.

arilh. = arithmetic.

chr., Christ. = Christian.

cf. = confer, compare.

conj. = conjunction.

Cpd. = compound or Cpds. compounds.

dal. = dative. decl. = declension.

dem. = demonstrative. dtipl., dpi. =a couple of words used to

 

make the idea more impressive, as:

=5^*45?'5', 53j3;^*:^, etc.

e.

= English.

e.

g. = exempli gratia (for example).

esp. = especially. etc. = et caetera (and

so on).

f.

= words

of foreign

derivation, i.e.

Tamil, Telugu.

Malayalam, Portu-

guese, Latin, Greek, etc.

f.

= feminine.

fig. = figuratively.

 

fr. from.

fut. = future. gen. = genitive.

g., gram. = grammar.

  • h. = Hindustani. Persian, and Arabic.

lion, = honorific.

i.

e. = id est (that is).

imp. = imperative.

int. = interjection.

i7iter. = interrogative.

lit. = literally.

loc. = locative.

k.

= (pure) Kannada.

m.

= Mahratti words.

iV. = Xamc; proper name.

n.

= noun.

neg. = negative.

 

P.

p. = Past

participle

participles).

111. = plural.

 

pref. = prefix.

prep. = preposition. pres. = present.

pro. = pronoun.

 

(P. ps. = Past

V. = quod vide (which see).

q.

 

e. " a. <>ioJo3,

=

aid O ,

^

(V,'

z&jsz^ !3x::S,

Xra

s.

= (pure) Sariiskrita.

s.

=sub, under.

sing. = singular.

tb. = tadbhava.

 

V.

i. = verb intransitive.

V.

t. = verb transitive.

= equal (in meaning).

veil. reiteration, i. e. a couple of words,

the first of vfhich is rendered more

impressive and powerful by the second

one which is however meaningless by

itself, e.g. eja ?da . y^j^^^^o, etc.

rep. = repetition, i. e. the act of repeat-

ing the same word twice or thrice,

ZutJjs.io., oitf:3d:«o.

iJ id'

^os^. , etc.

t£' = and. -. = hyphen, indicating that the princi- pal word is to be prefixed in the case

of compounds and derivatives.

KANNADA-ENGLISH

S CHOOL-DICTIONAEY.

 

^

'

ro

 

©

^. The first letter of the alphabet.

2,

 

-qSrf. The sun.

-sSj^^id. The plantain.

a short vowel inherent in every con-

-SjsO, -3o^. The sun.

-Sj^d. Halo.

sonant.

3, a

termination

denoting

&o'^0^ s. n.

Cloth, dress.

2, fine

etymological functions in declensions

and conjugations, as a. 1st pers. pi.

imp.

cojsorijs, b.

gen. sing.

?^^^, etc.

4, a negative prefix to nouns derived

from Sanskrit, as eso^JS^rt. unworthy

(fr. oSja^n-).

Before a vowel es be-

comes «icS*; thus «s-e5o;^= w^o^ end-

less.

9o. A termination

used in declension

and conjugation in ancient Canarese.

2, cop. conj. both, and, also.

©c^,

e5o s.Ji. Apart, share, portion.

2, a fraction (arilh,).

3, a degree of

latitude or longitude, -z^^- An astro-

logical diagram.

eScB'S s. n. A part.

2, a kinsman, co-

heir,

SSoaDO^ s.

n.

[sub-division. A part of a portion;

a

©0^0(=5ioZ^ 2) s. 71.

A ray

of light.

2,

the

sun.

3, light, splendour.

4, a

point,

-tsso.

A

collection of rays.

cloth.

e5o?j s. n. The shoulder, shoulder-blade.

-'^jshi. A bull's hump.

©o?rf£) s. a. Strong, stout, lusty.

ess k.

int.

expressing admiration, con-

tempt or jest.

55^ s. n. Pain, trouble; sin.

©S'ti s. a. Bald-headed.

eS^U, ©S'U^y, ©^6rok. int. Alas! oh!

©"i^WS^U k. a. Frightful.

contrary.

2, adverse,

C9^&3O30?ci0 k. «. ». To become warped

(leather).

CS'tJ s. a. Handless, maimed. eS'S'sr^n s. a. Not to be done,

impro-

per.

ef^T^or s. a. Without work. n. Crime.

-^. Neuter or intransitive (verb, g.). tS'^iS)o'^ a. a. Stainless, spotless, pure.

eS^C,^ s. n. Purity, innocency.

o

'"'

'' e?^i

es#ibej^ iiJ^Tdsi)!^. '^b^i^b^ f< 'n. A gold

or silver smith.

e£>5'?33,

6

§. ©5;^.

6

^. e5^;da, ^ s. ad. By

(i

chance, suddenly, unexpectedly. 653'^?^^'^ k. n. Excessive tickling,

a.

Too much.

2, disrespectful.

e^s'^j s. n.

The letter 55.

©^^•rf, ep^^ri-i, ©s'^St?, es^TJo (tf=e5)

k. >!. Attachment, afi'ection, love.

55^^^. SP^^tJo (ci=e5)

k.

ii.

Necessity.

2, occasion; need, want.

3, desire.

e95^_;e'*'5 k. 7i. Anlhemis pyrethrum, used for coughs, asthma, etc.

e55T)'dr© s. a. Causeless.

©^O'rf^o h. a. Tain, useless.

?£^D'ZZC^ s. n. A term with final a. e£)^cdor s. «. An improper act.

©5i)e^ s. n. Inauspicious time. a. Un-

seasonable. -^iti. Fruit out of season.

-SJodr?. Untimely death.

©•S-ce:^?^ s. a. Very poor.

eS^'o^ei

s.

a.

honest.

Not crooked,

upright,

eS'S'oZJO s. n. Gold, silver.

e£)^,7j k. n.

Love, passion.

es^^^dsCA. = is^^On, q. V.

e5Sj?3D«? f.

n.

The workshop

goldsmith.

2, a goldsmith.

of

a

e9^,<^?jj, S9^0i'w'?jJ k. r. t.

The muscles

of

the stomach

to contract

from

hunger.

2, to fear.

3, to flinch.

©S'ai'rfj a. k.

V. i.

To

ooze,

down, as tears, etc.

flow,

run

©§•. k. n. Raw rice deprived of its husk; -rt:oJ . Rice-water; for cpds.

see

^^

^"^j&TjSid s. n. The ocean. of tortoises supposed to

2, the king uphold the

world; a big tortoise.

&^\^n s. a. Undone. What ought not

2,

criminal, n.

2, a

to be done.

crime.

e95'\si "S^^or s. a. Guiltless.

©^^ k. n. An elder sister.

-:Sonoijrfo.

Elder and younger sisters.

e9^,8l .

ess' 'rfJj

k. n.

An

affectionate

mode of addressing an elder sister.

©'5', 2d k. n. "Wonder, surprise.

2, envy.

a. Wonderful, curious.

©S%?ii a. k. V. t. To digest.

^3^0j, e9S'o,o a. k.

V. i.

To

2,"to seize.

3, fut.

of

'^rij,

become.

subdue.

it

will

e9^0ja?jJ a. k. r. i. To become small.

es^o^^rfo. = f^^^^

693^ pas< genoid

of 55^J

..

[come.

May it be-

eSSjTiis. n. Confusion, irregularity; sin.

e5^j3j"rf a. Gentle,

and friend.

n.

Krishna's uncle

es^jsje^ itb. of ts^vS ?W) n. A large, nut-

bearing tree. A die for gambling.

es^.

s. 71.

2, the

  • c axle of a wheel.

3, the eye.

4, an

e9^,S,

?5ujS, k. 71. A furrow between

two others of a main crop.

esS.ci^S'.Ei n. Deceit in words, etc.

organ of sense. 5, knowledge. 6, the

soul.

7, a lawsuit.

-;S^a?odJ. N. of

a festival.

-siJseS. A rosary.

©S'.rf k. n

  • c ^^. 4. 85^, i. ©Sv csS. a. Not crushed,

The close adhesion of the

woof and warp in the web of a loom.

whole.

71. Raw rice generally mixed

e9^,c3^o, e?^^^res3. tb. of e^slrae3. eSS^SO k. n. Wonder, surprise.

e5^,IJ {(h. of ^* ^

alphabet.

»

A letter

of the

with turmeric and used for religious

ceremonies. e£)^. cdo s. a. Imperishable, incxhausti- -sc^i). An inexhaustible vessel.

ble.

2, the 60th year of the Hindu cycle.

errs) a

ess', TJ s. n. A letter of the alphabet.

2,

eternal beatitude.

3, penance.

4,

the sky.

©§-,

s. n.

The eye. -djj?rt. Eye-disease.

-cfj5?5jj. Eyelash.

e95^> oorS s. ?i, A largo army consisting of elephants, chariots, horse and foot.

5953^ k. int. expressing

disgust.

abhorrence or

eSSDorf s. a. Undivided; entire, whole.

5f)iDorfre s. 11. Non-refutation.

2, time.

55a^Jq s. a. Inaccessible, unattainable.

SrAlJo 1. k. 11. Dandruff.

^ATJd 2. s. n.

The balsam tree which

yields Bdellium, Amyris agallocha.

-Aot^. A yellow fragrant wood.

55a£^ k. n.

Expansion, space, extent. 2,

width, breadth.

3, far distance,

a.

Broad. 49a e3^ k. n. Separation.

e9Ae3rjO (/"». Brtejo) k. v. t. 2, to separate, disunite.

To remove.

59330^;^ s. a. Unbroken. 2, continuous.

©ACJO k. V. i.

To separate from, quit,

3, unrefuted.

part, leave.

?i. = ene.>.

 

«55OT;g s. a. Not dug. n. A natural pond.

e9A£io

(— esri£>?iJ)

k.

y. <.

To spread

^5J^':i.o s. a.

Uneatable,

unfit

to

be

out; to abandon,

eaten.

e£)a)?:^jS. a. Not distressed, not wearied.

??£)£; s. a. Without a gap; entire, whole,

?D7\7J^ ^ji^TsTs-n. A washerman, -h^, esrl?^.^. A washerwoman.

esA^dse;, ?f)A?33e3A. = si^;^t), e<c. f^. i-.

all.

©a;6i, -aSSAOJ k. ?«. A town-gate; the

©A s. a.

Not moving.

n. A tree;

a

gate of a fort.

 

mountain.

^7(f) 2. {th. of

«f ^Aj)

11.

Common flax,

e9A£io k. r. t. To press firmly, compress,

Linum usitatissimum.

2, (tb.

of ^^n

squeeze down.

^ .)

a

tree

with

scarlet

flowers,

©A&iD^ s. n. Parvatt, the daughter of

Sesbana graiidiflora.

-oirs. Lin-seed

Himalaya.

oil.

-36j3. Lin-flower.

 

5£)Ai^0 k. n. Viciousness, meanness,

a.

©A^

s.

11.

N. of a rishi, son of Mitra

Wild, untamed, -ofj- Mischievoasness.

and Varuna by Urva^l.

2,

the regent

e5Ar5 {Ih.

of S3r(Faj)

n. A

wooden bolt

to fasten a native door.

©ArS^s. a. Uncounted. 2, innumerable.

©a:^, ©Aii k. n. The act of digging.

e9A®o s. M.

Necessity,

want, need. a.

Wanted, necessary. -^i)f\. Necessari-

ly, urgently, positively.

SSaoJ s. a. Free from disease, healthy, n. A medicine, esrsdo^sac!. A physician. SSXa m. a. Altogether, wholly; quite.

SSAyT^

s. u. The mountain supporter,

Vishnu.

557^33 k. n. A ladle of cocoanut shell.

59a2^?S) s.

11.

The mountain-splitter:

Indra.

2, a hatchet.

?£)a^ s. rt. Not going, n. A tree.

mountain.

2, a

of the star Canopus.

©A^;^, ©A^^, e£>A^ (^^ K) k. «. A

fort ditch, trench, moat.

?9A<yscirio k. Vi, <.

To cause to

to wave.

shake.

esrt«??5o

v. i.

To

swing;

swing,

©A^o 1. k. «.

A grain of boiled rice.

2, food. e9AS;*0 2. (°^ = O) k. tJ. <. & i. To dig, bur-

row.

2, to tear off.

n. A fort ditch,

moat. e9AsC^ b. ?!.

The front,

van.

ad.

In

front.

SSa^v s. 11. A hole, chasm, a. Deep, bot- tomless, unfathomable.

[meru.

e97v5^3:i s. 11. The high mountain Maha-

!

eA

S5 6

SfT.k. 1-. t. To dig, burrow.

2, to chew,

champ.

V. i. to tremble, shake, fear.

2, to be glad.

59?\r5 k. n. Water (a word only used by

educated Lingaits).

S£?\OJ(= e5rtcij2, q. v.)s.n. Fragrance. To cause to dig.

557.?i0 k. V. t.

esXot^o. = «5rtJSj,

q. V.

©AOOuIe? k. J!. Extensiveness, greatness. a. Great.

SS7\0"d0 s. a.

Not heavy, light.

«.

A

fragrant aloe wood, agaUochum.

«f)AJ20or,

©AO^)!^ ^' "•

Terror, am-

azement. &5A0Sr?j>i k. r. t. To terrify. To shake, move.

a5A0£)0 k. V. t.

To become loose.

e?A0;5. = e5r(?3, g. r.

v. i.

i59aO<§ (S?=tj0 (<6. of tfr.-6j) n. A bolt,

a bar for locking a door.

esXo^o

1. = esrs^o.

Sf?AO<S<0 2. (^J = aj) k. r. t.

To dig.

?f)^ 1. = ^fs k. I'. /. To dig.

See ss^.

557^ 2. k. rt.

shoot; cf.

A seedling;

a germ, bud,

^J32?^.

2, a